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Information packet on NIGHTNet! 10/94
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alt.support.asthma FAQ: Asthma -- General Information
Introduction:
Welcome to alt.support.asthma! This newsgroup provides a forum for
the discussion of asthma, its symptoms, causes, and forms of treatment.
Please note that postings to alt.support.asthma are intended to be
for discussion purposes only and are in no way to be construed as
medical advice. Asthma is a serious medical condition requiring
direct supervision by a physician.
Please be aware that the information in this FAQ is intended for
educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute
for consulting with a doctor. Many of the contributors are not
health care professionals; this FAQ is a collection of personal
experiences, suggestions, and practical information. Please remember
when reading this that every asthmatic responds differently; what is
true for some asthmatics may or may not be true for you. Although
every effort is made to keep this information accurate, this FAQ
should not be used as an authoritative reference.
Comments, additions, and corrections are requested; if you do not
wish your name to be included in the contributors list, please state
that explicitly when contributing. I will accept additions upon my
own judgement -- I'll warn you right now that I'm a confirmed skeptic
and am not a great believer in alternative medicine. All
unattributed portions are my own contributions. For more
information about asthma medications, there is also an Asthma
Medications FAQ that is posted as a companion to this one.
* = not added yet
+ = added since last version
& = updated/corrected since last version
Table of Contents:
General Information:
& 1.0 What is asthma?
+ 1.0.1 What is emphysema?
* 1.0.2 What is COPD?
+ 1.0.3 What is status asthmaticus?
+ 1.0.4 What is anaphylactic shock?
+ 1.1 How is asthma normally treated?
+ 1.1.1 How is an acute asthma attack treated?
* 1.1.2 What is a peak flow meter?
* 1.2 How is asthma diagnosed?
* 1.3 What are the common triggers of asthma?
1.4 What are some of the most common misconceptions about asthma?
Medications:
+ 2.0 What are the major classes of asthma medications?
2.1 What are the names of the various asthma medications?
2.1.1 Are salbutamol and albuterol the same drug?
+ 2.1.2 Are some asthma drugs banned in athletic competitions?
2.2 What kinds of inhalers are there?
& 2.2.1 Which kind of inhaler should I use?
& 2.2.2 What is a spacer?
& 2.2.3 What is "thrush mouth" and how can I avoid it?
& 2.2.4 Is Fisons still making the Intal Spinhaler?
+ 2.2.5 What's the difference between Spinhalers and Rotahalers?
+ 2.2.6 Should I use an inhaler or take pills?
* 2.2.7 How can I tell when my MDI is empty?
2.3 What kinds of tablets are there?
+ 2.3.1 Why do I need a blood test when taking theophylline?
+ 2.3.2 Why are combination pills not commonly prescribed?
+ 2.4 What is a nebulizer?
+ 2.5 What medications should I avoid if I have asthma?
Allergen Avoidance/Environmental Control:
+ 3.0 What does HEPA stand for?
Miscellaneous:
4.0 What resources are there for asthmatics?
1.0 What is asthma?
Asthma is defined as *reversible* obstruction (blockage) of the
airways inside the lungs. The 'reversible' part is important;
if the condition is NOT reversible, either with medication or
spontaneously, then the diagnosis is not that of asthma, but of
some other condition, usually chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease.
Quickly reviewing the structure of the lung: air reaches the
lung by passing through the windpipe (trachea), which divides
into two large tubes (bronchi), one for each lung. Each
bronchi further divides into many little tubes (bronchioles),
which eventually lead to tiny air sacs (alveoli), in which
oxygen from the air is transferred to the bloodstream, and
carbon dioxide from the bloodstream is transferred to the air.
Asthma involves only the airways (bronchi and bronchioles),
and not the air sacs.
Although everyone's airways have the potential for constricting
in response to allergens or irritants, the asthmatic patient's
airways are oversensitive, or hyperreactive. In response to
stimuli, the airways may become obstructed by one of the
following:
- constriction of the muscles surrounding the airway;
- inflammation and swelling of the airway; or
- increased mucus production which clogs the airway.
Contributed in part by:
Ruth Ginzberg rginzberg@eagle.wesleyan.edu
1.0.1 What is emphysema?
Emphysema is the disease in which the air sacs themselves, rather
than the airways, are either damaged or destroyed. This is an
irreversible condition, leading to poor exchange of oxygen and
carbon dioxide between the air in the lungs and the bloodstream.
1.0.2 What is COPD?
- to be added in a future version
1.0.3 What is status asthmaticus?
Status asthmaticus is defined as a severe asthma attack that
fails to respond to routine treatment, such as inhaled
bronchodilators, injected epinephrine (adrenalin), or
intravenous theophylline.
1.0.4 What is anaphylactic shock?
Anaphylactic shock is defined as a severe and potentially
life-threatening allergic reaction throughout the entire
body. It occurs when an allergen, instead of provoking a
localized reaction, enters the bloodstream and circulates
through the entire body, causing a systemic reaction.
(There may also be an intrinsic trigger, as some cases of
exercise-induced anaphylaxis have been reported.)
The symptoms of anaphylactic shock begin with a rapid
heartrate, flushing, swelling of the throat, nausea, coughing,
and chest tightness. Severe wheezing, cramping, and a rapid
drop in blood pressure follow, which may lead to cardiac
arrest. The treatment for anaphylaxis is intravenous
epinephrine (adrenalin).
1.1 How is asthma normally treated?
Treatment of asthma attempts to alleviate both the constriction
and inflammation of the airways. Drugs used for relieving the
constriction are called bronchodilators, because they dilate
(open up) the constricted bronchi. Drugs aimed at reducing
inflammation of the airways are called anti-inflammatories,
and come in both steroidal and nonsteroidal forms. If the
asthma is triggered by allergies, then reducing the patient's
exposure to the allergens or taking shots for desensitization
are other alternatives.
There are two main classes of bronchodilators, beta-agonists
which are usually taken in an inhaled form, and xanthines,
which are chemically related to caffeine. The major xanthine,
theophylline, is present in coffee and tea, and is taken
orally. Beta-agonists are chemically related to adrenalin.
The inflammation component is treated primarily with steroids,
which are a type of hormone. The steroids used in the treatment
of asthma are corticosteroids, which are not the same as the
anabolic steroids that have become notorious for their abuse by
muscle builders and athletes. Up until fairly recently, doctors
did not usually prescribe corticosteroids for asthma except as a
final resort, when all else was not working to achieve the
desired result. Now that has completely reversed. Steroid
inhalers are now among the first line of drugs that a
doctor will try in asthma management after an acute attack has
resolved. They work by reducing inflammation of the bronchi, and
making future acute attacks less likely. There are also two
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories available, cromolyn sodium and
nedocromil, which are a popular alternative to inhaled
corticosteroids.
*IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT OBTAINING RELIEF FROM AN ACUTE
EPISODE OF ASTHMA (an asthma "attack") IS NOT THE SAME THING AS
TREATING THE ASTHMA.* Years ago it was thought that "asthma"
consisted only of the acute "attacks" which were suffered
intermittently; when you weren't wheezing, you didn't have
asthma any more. This is no longer thought to be the case. New
asthma research emphasizes the role of the inflammation component
of asthma, pointing out that bronchodilation alone does not
reverse or treat the inflammation, although it does offer
dramatic relief from an acute "attack". New thinking on the
subject is that if the underlying inflammation is successfully
treated, then the person with asthma will be much less
susceptible to the airway constriction, wheezing, and increased
mucus secretion which accompany an acute "attack". People with
asthma have been found often to have ongoing inflammation which
does not subside between acute "attacks", even when they are not
wheezing. However, treatment of the inflammation cannot be done
on an emergency basis. Treatment of the inflammation component
is done after control is regained from an acute episode. Without
treating the underlying inflammation, the asthma itself is not
being addressed and the acute attacks will continue to recur.
For this reason, it is particularly important for parents of
asthmatic children NOT to use the emergency room as the *only*
place or occasion for treating their children's asthma (during
acute attacks). That is not actually treating the asthma; it is
just alleviating the most acute symptoms. The child needs to be
seen when it is NOT an emergency, for evaluation of the asthma &
development of a treatment plan.
Contributed in part by:
Ruth Ginzberg rginzberg@eagle.wesleyan.edu
1.1.1 How is an acute asthma attack treated?
Treatment of acute asthma (an asthma "attack") usually is
directed mainly toward alleviating the constriction of the
airway. Drugs used for this effect are called bronchodilators,
because they dilate (open up) the constricted bronchi. Adrenalin
is often used in emergency rooms for this purpose, for an acute
asthma "attack" that is seriously out of control. Theophylline
also relaxes the muscles surrounding the airways, and may be
given intravenously in the emergency room.
Contributed in part by:
Ruth Ginzberg rginzberg@eagle.wesleyan.edu
1.1.2 What is a peak flow meter?
- to be added in a future version
1.2 How is asthma diagnosed?
- to be added in a future version
1.3 What are the common triggers of asthma?
- to be added in a future version
1.4 What are some of the most common misconceptions about asthma?
People with asthma must not exercise because exercise might make
them ill. They must live sedentary lives.
Asthma is primarily a psychogenic illness caused by
repressed emotions.
All children outgrow their asthma eventually.
(FALSE, but many do.)
Childhood asthma turns into adult emphysema.
All asthma is caused by allergies.
Moving to another state or region will cure asthma.
Food allergies are a frequent cause of children's asthma.
(FALSE, though rarely they are)
Asthma in children is made worse by paying attention to it,
because it is just a way of trying to get attention in the first
Asthma in children is caused by so-called "smother-mothers".
Asthma is a drag, but it's not fatal.
(FALSE. Especially among African-American children and
young adults it is a growing cause of death for
reasons not fully understood.)
Smoking marijuana improves asthma.
Asthma inhalers are addictive.
Contributed by: Ruth Ginzberg rginzberg@eagle.wesleyan.edu
2.0 What are the major classes of asthma medications?
There are five major classes of asthma medications:
- steroidal anti-inflammatories,
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatories,
- anti-cholinergics,
- beta-agonists, and
- xanthines.
The first two categories of drug treat the underlying
inflammation of the lung, while the latter two categories are
bronchodilators. Once I understand what anti-cholinergics
do, I'll be sure to include a description for them, also.
2.1 What are the names of the various asthma medications?
For a complete listing of asthma medications, please see the
alt.support.asthma FAQ: Asthma Medications. It is posted
monthly as the companion to this general information FAQ.
2.1.1 Are salbutamol and albuterol the same drug?
Ventolin is the brand name of salbutamol, which is the WHO
(World Health Organization) recommended name for the medication.
Unfortunately, in the US this same drug is called albuterol,
leading to endless confusion. In fact, it's one of the few
drugs in which the brand name stays the same from country
to country, while the chemical name changes! Ventolin is made
in the U.S. by Allen & Hanburys, and Proventil is the same drug
manufactured by Schering. You can also get this drug in
a sustained-action tablet, called either Repetabs (by Schering,
again) or Volmax (Muro).
2.1.2 Are some asthma drugs banned in athletic competitions?
Many asthma drugs are BANNED and may result in disqualification
of an athlete from international and Olympic competition or
other qualifying events, for a 2 year period for the first
offense if urine drug analysis tests are positive. The USOC
follows protocol in the US for the International Olympic
Committee, so the banned substances are banned in both US and
international competition.
Banned substances unfortunately are not defined by whether they
are medically necessary but by whether they enhance performance
(and thus give an unfair advantage). A partial list of such
substances includes: ephedrine, bitolterol, metaproterenol,
orciprenaline, rimiterol, and pirbuterol. Albuterol,
terbutaline, beclomethasone, dexamethasone, and triamcinolone,
previously banned, are now allowed for use in Olympic competition
in inhaler/or nasal form only with written notification from the
physician in question on file with the United States Olympic
Committee prior to competition. Oral use of certain beta-2
agonists is banned. Cromolyn sodium is allowed.
** However, athletes should be aware that recommendations
regarding the use of asthma medications (i.e. allowed vs.
banned) in athletic competition may be revised.
Ultimately, it is the athlete's responsibility to check
with the USOC Drug Hotline, (800) 233-0393, and the
athlete's coaches and/or National Sport Governing Body
to get the most current recommendations.
Asthma medications do not cause false positives on drug tests,
at least for substances tested for in drug control with sports
testing. Most importantly, any athlete who is competing at the
level where drug testing is being performed can check with the
United States Olympic Committee Drug Hotline, (800) 233-0393,
24 hours, to confirm whether a particular drug is allowed or
banned. Such an athlete should also discuss with both their
coach and physician whether the drug is allowed or banned, and
if banned, when should the drug be stopped prior to competition
to get the medical benefits but avoid testing positive and
suspension from competition. The USOC Drug Control Program also
has a wide range of literature for athletes on what asthma
medications are banned, allowed, and allowed with prior
notification.
Contributed by: Lyn Frumkin, M.D., Ph.D. lrfrum@u.washington.edu
2.2 What kinds of inhalers are there?
aerosol inhalers:
MDI - metered-dose inhaler, consisting of an aerosol unit
and plastic mouthpiece
autohaler - MDI made by 3M which is activated by one's breath,
and doesn't need the breath-hand coordination that
a regular MDI does
respihaler - aerosol inhaler for Decadron. I have no idea how
this differs from the usual MDI
dry powder inhalers:
rotahaler - dry powder inhaler used with Ventolin Rotacaps (see
table above), i.e. albuterol sulfate in capsules.
Each capsule contains one dose; the inhaler opens
the capsule such that the powder may be inhaled
through the mouthpiece. Available in the U.S.,
Canada, and UK.
spinhaler - dry powder inhaler used with Intal capsules for
spinhaler. Each capsule contains one dose; the
inhaler opens the capsule such that the powder
may be inhaled through the mouthpiece. Available
in Canada, UK, and the U.S.
diskhaler - dry powder inhaler. The drug is kept in a series of
little pouches on a disk; the diskhaler punctures
the pouch and drug is inhaled through the mouthpiece.
Currently available in Canada and UK, not in U.S.
turbohaler - dry powder inhaler. The drug is in form of a pellet;
when body of inhaler is rotated, prescribed amount of
drug is ground off this pellet. The powder is then
inhaled through a fluted aperture on top. Available
in Australia.
2.2.1 Which kind of inhaler should I use?
Some asthmatics find the dry powder inhalers more effective than
their MDI (aerosol) counterparts. It is suspected that the
aerosol or propellent in the MDI may act as an irritant to some
asthmatics, as in the following article:
J.R.W. Wilkinson et al., Paradoxical bronchoconstriction in
asthmatic patients after salmeterol by metered dose inhaler,
British Medical Journal 305 (1992) 931. The first sentence
in the conclusion is: "Bronchoconstriction after both
salmeterol and placebo by metered dose inhaler but not after
salmeterol by diskhaler suggests that the irritant is not
the salmeterol itself." . . . "The similarity in characteristics
of bronchoconstriction after beclomethasone by metered dose
inhalers implicates one or both chlorofluorocarbons . . . as
the irritant. That salbutamol caused no bronchoconstriction was
attributed to its faster onset of action opposing any
bronchoconstrictor effects of the propellants."
** However, according to the 1994 Physicians' Desk Reference,
Intal Spinhaler capsules are "contraindicated in those
patients who have shown hypersensitivity to . . . lactose."
So asthmatics who are lactose-intolerant may not have this
form of cromolyn sodium as an option.
2.2.2 What is a spacer?
A spacer is a device that simplifies the inhalation of aerosol
metered-dose-inhalers (MDIs).
Most people find it difficult (at least initially) to time the
spraying of an MDI and the inhalation of the medicine, and, thus,
most of the medicine is deposited in their mouths or the backs
of their throats instead of their lungs. Besides being less
effective, this can lead to other side effects (e.g., for inhaled
steroids, an increased potential for thrush, an oral fungal
infection).
The spacer is basically a temporary holding chamber for the
medication. You spray the medicine into the chamber where it
temporarily remains suspended, and then you inhale deeply and
SLOWLY. The column of medication rapidly passes through the mouth
and goes into the lungs.
There are a few different types of spacers. The one I'm most
familiar with is the Aerochamber. It's a plastic tube with a
mouthpiece on one end and a place to insert the MDI on the other.
The mouthpiece has a delicate one-way valve built in so that you
can exhale without displacing the medication in the chamber and
then inhale.
Some spacers are clear, some have a little whistle built in that
tells you if you're inhaling too fast. I've read (and believe)
that the medication is more efficiently delivered using a spacer
than if it were merely inhaled directly from the MDI. Some
packages (AeroBID, I believe, and others) come with a spacer
built into its MDI housing.
There are special spacers for younger children. There's an
Aerochamber that has a mask built in; the child breathes normally
for a few seconds with the mask held over his/her mouth and nose.
This is typically used when a nebulizer is not available or not
required, and for medications that cannot be nebulized, such as
Beclovent or Vanceril.
There is also a device for children called InspirEase, which is
kind of like a plastic bellows or balloon with a plastic
mouthpiece. The child inflates it, the medicine is sprayed into
it, and the child inhales, holds his/her breath for the count of
5 (or whatever the doctor recommends), exhales into the device,
and then repeats. It's really helpful for younger children who
don't really know about breathing in and breathing out or how to
hold their breath or breathe evenly and slowly. It gives them
immediate physical feedback, and also has a whistle built in to
tell them when they're breathing too fast (although they seem to
like making it whistle, so it's positive reinforcement for
something that they shouldn't be doing). As the child grows, the
Inspirease becomes less effective, since it has a limited
capacity.
Although spacers are sometimes provided by some HMOs and covered
by some insurers, I don't believe that a prescription is required.
Contributed by: Mark Feblowitz mfeblowitz@GTE.com
2.2.3 What is "thrush mouth" and how can I avoid it?
Thrush mouth is the popular term for a yeast infection
(candida albicans) in the back of throat. The major symptom
of thrush is a white film located at the back of the throat
and tonsil area. It is usually cured by the use of an
antifungal mouthwash.
Thrush is a very common side effect of taking inhaled
corticosteroids. The way to avoid this complication is to
ensure that the back of the throat doesn't remain coated with
corticosteroid after use of the inhaler, either by using
a spacer or by rinsing the mouth very thoroughly afterwards.
Unfortunately, some people still get it even when they are very
thorough about rinsing.
2.2.4 Is Fisons still making the Intal Spinhaler?
Yes, Fisons is still manufacturing both the Intal Spinhaler
(a dry powder inhaler for cromolyn sodium) and the capsules
for it. Many pharmacists in the U.S. are under the impression
that it is unobtainable, probably due to the fact that the
Spinhaler was unavailable for a short time in the U.S. some
while back due to a change in formulation. During this time,
some wholesalers stopped buying the inhaler, and didn't
restock it once the Spinhaler was back in production. So
your pharmacist's regular wholesaler still may not be
carrying this product. For further information,
Fisons Corporation's number for Rx Customer Service is
Contributed in part by: Paula Ford pxf3@psuvm.psu.edu
2.2.5 What's the difference between Spinhalers and Rotahalers?
[Maintainer's note: the Rotahaler is a dry powder inhaler
for Ventolin (albuterol), manufactured by Allen & Hanburys,
while the Spinhaler is a dry powder inhaler for Intal
(cromolyn sodium), manufactured by Fisons Corporation. Both
inhalers are available in the U.S.]
The Rotahaler and the Spinhaler are very different animals.
The Rotahaler is a pussycat, the Spinhaler a ferocious lion.
The Rotahaler is a two-part mouthpiece that you snap apart,
put a capsule in, twist, and inhale. When you twist the device,
the capsule breaks open. When you inhale, the medicine lands
in your lungs.
The Spinhaler is a three-piece device: a mouthpiece, a tiny
fan, and a cap to cover the fan. You open it, put the capsule
in a space on the fan, close it, push down then up on the cap
(this breaks the capsule) and then tilt your head back, put
the mouthpiece in your mouth, and inhale. The fan throws the
medicine into the back of your throat. Then you gag.
I don't like the propellants in MDIs, so I was highly motivated
to get a Spinhaler. It took me a month to get my drugstore to
find it, and now I must admit I'm disappointed. I tried using
a capsule in the Rotahaler, since that device works so well, but
the medicine seems to be of the wrong consistency, and the capsule
is too small for the space it should go into.
Another difference: The Spinhaler comes in a little container
like a medicine bottle, but the lid doesn't stay on very well in
a purse. The Rotahaler comes in a little plastic case sort of
like a compact and stays shut (i.e. clean) in a purse, backpack,
or jeans pocket.
Contributed by: Paula Ford pxf3@psuvm.psu.edu
2.2.6 Should I use an inhaler or take pills? What's the difference?
Medications taken orally almost always have a much higher
systemic concentration (concentration in your entire body)
than inhaled medications. So if the side effects are due
to systemic concentrations, then an inhaled drug is less
likely to have these side effects, or may have them much
less severely.
The idea behind an inhaler is that the full dose is delivered to
the lungs, where it is immediately absorbed by the lung tissue,
and starts to take effect locally. Excess drug may be absorbed
by the bloodstream and delivered to the rest of your body, but
this amount tends to be minimal. So your lungs receive an
immediate, high concentration of the drug, and the rest of your
body receives very little.
If you take the drug orally in tablet or capsule form, then you
need a much higher dose. The reason is that for the same amount
of drug to reach the lungs through the bloodstream, you need the
same concentration of drug in the rest of your body. For example,
most people take one or two puffs of albuterol (Ventolin or
Proventil) every four to six hours, and each puff is 90 micrograms
of albuterol. The usual dosage of Ventolin in tablets is 2-4
milligrams three or four times a day, which is something like 200
times the amount inhaled.
However, one advantage that tablets have is that the medication
may be available in a time-release format. So for a short-acting
medication like albuterol, the inhaled version might need to be
taken every four to six hours, while a extended-release tablet
such as Volmax would need to be taken only every twelve hours.
2.2.7 How can I tell when my MDI is empty?
- to be added in a future version
2.3 What kinds of tablets are there?
SA - sustained action. SA and CR (below) have been used
interchangeably and almost mean the same thing,
except SA refers to the pharmacologic action while
CR refers to the drug release process. Any drug
release which is controlled in a zero-order fashion
(constant rate of release) is generally referred to
as Sustained or Controlled Release.
CR - controlled release. See SA.
DR - delayed release. This generally refers to enteric-
coated tablets which are designed to release the drug
in the intestine where the pH is in the alkaline range.
ER - extended release. Dosage forms which are designed to
release the drug over an extended period of time,
e.g. implants which release drug over a period of
one or two months or years.
TD - time delayed. This is slightly different from DR in
that the drug release is designed to occur after a
certain period of time, e.g. pellets coated to a
certain thickness or multi-layered tablets or tablets
within a capsule or double-compressed tablets.
Contributed by: Susan Graham sgraham@hpb.hwc.ca
2.3.1 Why do I need a blood test when taking theophylline?
Theophylline is a very effective drug but unfortunately its
therapeutic level is quite close to its toxic level. This
means that the dose that the patient needs to get the full
benefit of the drug is not very much lower than the dose
which causes side effects which range from unpleasant to
dangerous. This would not be such a problem if there weren't
such large variations in the rate at which people metabolize
theophylline. Apparently, if a group of people are given
the same dose of theophylline, the concentration of the
drug in their bloodstreams may vary by up to a factor of
seven. Therefore, the best way to monitor that the patient
is receiving the optimal amount of theophylline is to take
a blood level concentration.
2.3.2 Why are combination pills not commonly prescribed?
The combination drugs such as Tedral and Marax commonly
contain theophylline, ephedrine, and some form of sedative
such as phenobarbital. These combination pills are no longer
commonly prescribed because the amount of theophylline in
the pill cannot be varied with respect to the other drugs.
Since there is great variation in the rate at which an
individual metabolizes theophylline, it is now considered
better to take theophylline separately, for better adjustment
of theophylline levels. In fact, Tedral is no longer
manufactured by Parke-Davis.
Also, ephedrine is no longer considered the bronchodilator
of choice. From Drs. Haas, _The Essential Asthma Book_,
"ephedrine initiates the release of catecholamines -- including
adrenaline -- that are already stored in the body. This is
its biggest drawback. Its effects depend on the availability
of catecholamine in the body at the time it is given, and
these concentrations vary." Since much better bronchodilators
are now available, ephedrine is no longer commonly prescribed.
2.4 What is a nebulizer?
A nebulizer is a device that uses pressurized air to turn a
liquid medication into a fine mist for inhalation. If you've
ever received emergency treatment for asthma, they've probably
used a nebulizer on you.
The term nebulizer is often used to describe both the pump
that pressurizes the air, and the part that holds and
"nebulizes" the medication. There are hand-held nebulizer
units and ones with masks that you strap onto your face.
The pressurized air typically comes from a portable pump unit
that internally consists of a motor-driven air pump that
resembles the fancier types of aquarium pumps. It forces air
through a plastic tube into the plastic nebulizer unit. Inside,
the nebulizer unit acts much like a perfume atomizer, creating
a fine mist that is directed either through a tube that you
inhale through or a mask that directs the mist into your nose
and mouth.
Since the nebulizer takes a few minutes to deliver the medication,
you inhale it over a longer period of time than if you were using
an inhaler. This can really help, especially if your passages are
not fully open and you're taking a bronchodilator. As you breathe
the medication, your lungs can gradually accept more and more of
the medication. In addition to the medication, many people find
the accompanying mist (typically a sterile saline solution) to be
soothing.
For very young children, the nebulizer is the only practical
means of administering inhaled medications. Older children and
adults have the options of using inhalers and a variety of
spacers to make the timing a bit easier. The doctor overseeing
the treatment decides which is the most effective/appropriate
delivery mechanism.
At least in Massachusetts, the nebulizer pump unit, the
hand-held nebulizers, the medications, and the sterile saline
inhalation solution are all prescription items. Replacement
parts for the pumps are not available to the general public
(if there are sources, I'd like to hear about them).
The portable nebulizer pump units cost little ($100-$300)
relative to the cost of an emergency room visit, so some health
plans / insurers provide them to patients for times when an
asthma episode is "manageable but not dangerous." This seems to
be a trend in the management of pediatric asthma.
Our family has been able to successfully avoid a few trips to
the ER, and have even been able to head off some more severe
allergic asthma episodes with early intervention. After a few
rather gruesome visits to the Mass. General Hospital's waiting
room on a Saturday night, we welcome opportunity to treat our
children at home, when it's safe. We tend to go in to the doctor
or ER for the more severe episodes or those that don't respond
well enough to early intervention.
Contributed by: Mark Feblowitz mfeblowitz@GTE.com
2.5 What medications should I avoid if I have asthma?
Aspirin can trigger an asthma attack in approximately one in
five asthmatics. This is especially common in those patients
who also have nasal polyps. As acetominophen (Tylenol) doesn't
have this effect, it may be used as an alternative for anyone
who suspects that they might have aspirin sensitivity.
3.0 What does HEPA stand for?
Maintainer's contribution:
HEPA is an acronym that has been around for so long that people
no longer remember what it stands for. I personally have seen:
High Efficiency Particulate Arrestor, High Efficiency PArticle,
High Efficiency Particle Air, High Efficiency Particulate Air,
and High Efficiency Particulate Abatement. Either the first
or last seem to me to be the most likely. (At least there is
some consensus on what the `HE' stands for.) At any rate, it
is a standard for the filtration of particles in air.
From National Allergy Supply's product literature:
"Filtering efficiency on a HEPA air cleaner, by law, has to
be at least 99.97% on all particles down to 1/3 micron in
size (a hair is about 60 microns, or 180 times larger than
that!) The term "HEPA" may not be used by any manufacturer
unless these two requirements are met. In addition, HEPA
filters lose no efficiency and stay at 99.97% for years."
Andrew M. Gough's contribution:
HEPA filters are basically folded (to increase surface area)
high-density fiberglass sheets.
HEPA filters for home use usually have a capture efficiency
rating of 99.97% at 0.3 micron size. This means that 99.97%
of particles of 0.3 micron diameter, or larger, are captured
when passing through the filter. Below 0.3 micron, the capture
efficiency will drop quickly.
Other filter types (disposable foam/fiberglass, electronic,
electrostatic) typically have high capture efficiencies for
particles above 10 microns in diameter. They are absolutely
useless for particles below 1 micron in diameter, where they
have capture efficiencies of about 1%.
Why is this important you ask? Many common allergens are below
10 microns in size, with many below 1 micron. A "micron" is a
micrometer, or one millionth (10E-6) of a meter. For comparison,
a strand of human hair is typically 75 to 100 microns in diameter.
The sizes (diameter in microns) of allergens and other items of
interest are:
Pollens 8 - 80
Mold spores 5 - 15, with some down to 0.4*
Dust mites 0.8 - 1 micron
Dust mite feces 0.2 - 0.02
Animal dander 0.4 - 10
Tobacco smoke 0.02 - 1
Ragweed pollen 21
Red blood cell 8
Polio virus 0.025
Bacteria 0.2 - 40
Smallest visible 40 - 10 depending on individual
& conditions
* I recall reading once that the spore diameter for aspergillus
is 0.4 micron. The 5-15 range comes off a chart I have, but
I need to look out for further information, as I believe a lot
of mold spores are below 1 micron.
HEPA filters are the only type that are really effective in
eliminating allergens from the air, especially if you are allergic
to molds.
I am aware of two choices for HEPA filters for the home market:
freestanding and whole-house:
Freestanding units are short circular tubes which suck in air
from the sides and exhaust filter air at the base. An example
is the Honeywell Enviracare. You put it in a closed room and
run it all day, and at night if you can stand the noise (they
can be quite noisy). Freestanding units will go for $250-$350
and are available in retail stores or mail order. I used one
for my apartment, where I tried to cheat fate by trying to
filter all the apartment air by placing it near the air return.
It helped. HEPA filters need to be replaced every 2-3 years,
depending on conditions, and will cost $70-$90. You need to
change prefilters every 3 months, but they are cheap.
I am aware of one company that makes a whole-house unit, Pure
Air Systems, Inc. in Plainfield Indiana, phone (800) 869-8025.
They make a system that attaches to the air return of a furnace
in a bypass configuration. The unit has its own blower, as a
normal furnace blower wouldn't be able to pull air through a
HEPA filter (very dense, remember) and transport it through the
house. The unit operates whenever the furnace/AC does, but of
course you can leave your thermostat in the "fan on" position
and run it as long as you want. This will run you $1000-1200
installed.
From the personal experience with HEPA air, I recommend it. I
used to work in a semiconductor fabrication clean room, of class
10, which means that there were only 10 particles per cubic foot
that were 0.5 microns in diameter or larger. Whenever I would
walk into the cleanroom, my nose would instantly clear up and I
would feel much better.
Contributed by: Andrew M. Gough andrew_m_gough@ccm.ch.intel.com
4.0 What resources are there for asthmatics?
Please see the alt.support.asthma Reading/Resource List. It
is maintained by Lynn Short , and is
posted monthly to alt.support.asthma, alt.med.allergy,
sci.med, and misc.kids. I highly recommend it!
Contributors:
Mark Delany markd@bushwire.apana.org.au
Mark Feblowitz mfeblowitz@GTE.com
Paula Ford pxf3@psuvm.psu.edu
Lyn Frumkin, M.D., Ph.D. lrfrum@u.washington.edu
Ruth Ginzberg rginzberg@eagle.wesleyan.edu
Andrew M. Gough andrew_m_gough@ccm.ch.intel.com
Susan Graham sgraham@hpb.hwc.ca
References:
The Physicians' Desk Reference is published annually by:
Medical Economics Data Production Company
Montvale, NJ 07645-1742
It is a compendium of official, FDA-approved prescription
drug labeling. The FDA is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Drs. Francois Haas and Sheila Sperber Haas, _The
Essential Asthma Book_, (Ballentine Books, USA) 1987.
Dr. Francois Haas is the director of the Pulmonary Function
Laboratory at the Medical Center of the New York University
School of Medicine, and is on the faculty of the Dept. of
Physiology there.
Paul J. Hannaway, M.D. _The Asthma Self Help Book_,
2nd ed., (Prima Publishing, USA) 1992.
1-55958-434-3 paperback
The author is Assistant Clinical Professor of Tufts
University School of Medicine. The first edition of
this book won an American Medical Writers Association
Allan M. Weinstein, M.D., _Asthma - The Complete Guide
to Self-Management of Asthma and Allergies for Patients
and their Families_, (Fawcett Crest, NY, USA) 1987.
The author is Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine at
Georgetown University, and is a board-certified allergist
who practices in Washington, D.C.
Disclaimer: I am not a physician; I am only a reasonably
well-informed asthmatic. This information is for
educational purposes only, and should be used only as
a supplement to, not a substitute for, professional
medical advice.
Copyright 1994 by Patricia Wrean. Permission is given to freely
copy or distribute this FAQ provided that it is distributed in full
without modification, and that such distribution is not intended for
profit.
Patricia Wrean wrean@caltech.edu
[with a tip of our ABLEnews' hat to Patricia Wrean on Grand Rounds]
A Fidonet-backbone echo featuring disability/medical news and
information, ABLEnews is carried by more than 420 BBSs in
the US, Canada, Australia, Great Britain, Greece, New Zealand,
and Sweden. The echo, available from Fidonet and Planet
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ABLEnews text files--including our digests: Of Note and
Mednotes (suitable for bulletin and file use) are disseminated via
the ABLEfile Distribution Network, which is available from the
filebone and Planet Connect. AFDN files are available via
Internet from ftp.fidonet.org.
...For further information, contact CURE, 812 Stephen Street, Berkeley Springs, West
Virginia 25411 (304-258-LIFE/5433. [earl.appleby@deafworld.com
))))))) American Sportsman Network (((((((
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CAPLink, a computer oriented echo mail
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*** LIST OF SPECIALTY COFFEE/ESPRESSO DRINKS ***
It is not possible to present such a list as this without
explanation and a bit of perspective.
There is great variation from region to region (and sometimes
even from shop to shop) in the definition of specialty coffee drinks.
Please keep in mind that the following information is highly
subjective.
Barry Jarrett emphasizes:
"Getting a *precise* definition of espresso drinks is not
possible, just as getting precise definitions of cocktails
isn't possible.... Proportions vary and individual baristas modify.
[for example] Generally, a capp is 1/3,1/3,1/3... although this
becomes blurred when a 'latte' has foam on it. The line between
latte and capp is very vague, and the exact meaning of any of these
terms can vary from shop to shop. E.G.: our regular latte has a
double shot, little or no foam. In Seattle, that's a 'double latte'.
In Australia, a Seattle latte, one shot & no foam, is called
a 'flat white'. "
David Ross adds:
"These lists are pretty useless, since conventions differ by
different parts of the country, and by particular shop within
cities. (The same is true for other coffee conventions - for
example, in Seattle French Roast is considered darker than
Italian Roast, the opposite of the New York convention.)"
As one contributor to the coffee newsgroups perhaps best put it,
if you are fussy about such definitions, then it is better to
order the drink the way you really want it than to rely on the
definitions given below (e.g. order "a single shot of espresso
with equal milk, no foam").
The point here is that when you travel, don't expect the definitions
you are used to to be the same definitions everyone else uses --
again, order it the way you want it and you'll avoid both
confusion and disappointment.
In addition, any of the drinks listed below can have a variable amount
of flavoring syrup added to them. Such syrups are available
in a wide range of fruit, nut, and sweet flavors. Many brands of
syrups have Italian names, though several are manufactured in the US.
With the exception of caff mocha, such variations are not listed below.
Finally, the term 'caff' is Italian for coffee (what Americans
call espresso). The term 'latte' is Italian for milk.
Espresso ........... [ess-PRESS-o] A 1-2 ounce drink made in by forcing
(caff) hot water under pressure through finely ground
coffee beans. Typically, espresso beans are
darkly roasted but this is not a requirement.
(Caff) Americano .. Espresso diluted (after brewing) with an equal
portion of hot water. Not everyone agrees:
"Not necessarily. In many places an 'Americano'
may be a 'regular' coffee from a coffee maker."
Some definitions of Americano claim it is
espresso being diluted with 'regular' coffee.
But wait:
"...a shot of espresso in a regular cup of coffee?
This is called an 'Early Shirley' at my local..."
"we've had the espresso/coffee combo referred to
as a 'Hammerhead'."
Breve .............. Espresso with steamed "half & half" (or cream)
Cafe au Lait ....... Coffee and heated milk in latte proportions,
but using 'regular' coffee (a.k.a. "American
filter coffee") instead of espresso.
The 'regular' coffee should be brewed 'double
strength' to better reflect the heavier brew
ratio used by Europeans (in some places double
or triple the dose used by Americans). Still
another contributor writes "espresso with scalded
milk is a unique prep. Someone here recently
called this drink cafe au lait".
Cafecito ........... A Cuban coffee drink made from espresso
and sugar.
Caff Corretto ..... Espresso with a dash of an alcoholic beverage,
e.g. sambuca
Cappuccino ......... [cap-uh-CHEE-no] A shot of espresso with the remainder
being 50% steamed milk and 50% milk foam/froth. An
alternative description is 1/3 espresso,
1/3 steamed milk, 1/3 foamed milk. But again,
this depends very much on the maker. Many places
use more steamed milk and less froth. "Cappuccino
is essentially a latte topped with milk FOAM."
Another contributor states "The foam should
follow the milk to the cup naturally. [if] It is
added with a spoon then [it] is _no_good."
But just the opposite is true in other places.
"I just started working as a barista, here in Berkeley,
about a month ago. When I was shown how to make
Cappuccino's, I was told that a Cappuccino has no
steamed milk - only foam. The place I work is in a
Hotel near UCBerk, and a lot of my customers are
European. One Italian gentleman ordered a cappuccino
from me, and I hadn't let the foam sit long enough
and a *tiny* bit of milk seeped into the shot of
espresso. He asked for another cappuccino,
saying I hadn't made it right, so I asked him how
it was done. He made another one, and it was a jet
black shot of espresso with more than just a dollop
of foam on top."
Referring to the above description, Geoffrey Maugham
writes: "We have always referred to this kind of
cappuccino as a "dry" or "light" cappuccino. You can
tell the difference between a good 1/3-1/3-1/3
cappuccino and a latte by their weight.
Finally, some interesting history on the word
cappuccino, according to the American Heritage
Dictionary:
"The history of the word cappuccino exemplifies
how words can develop new senses because of
resemblances that the original coiners of the
terms might not have dreamed possible. The Capuchin
order of friars, established after 1525, played an
important role in bringing Catholicism back to
Reformation Europe. Its Italian name came from the
long, pointed cowl, or cappuccino, derived from
cappuccio, "hood" that was worn as part of the
order's habit. The French version of cappuccino
was capuchin (now capucin), from which came English
Capuchin. The name of this pious order was later
used as the name (first recorded in English in 1785)
for a type of monkey with a tuft of black, cowllike
hair. In Italian cappuccino went on to develop
another sense, "espresso coffee mixed or topped with
steamed milk or cream" so called because the color of
the coffee resembled the color of the habit of a
Capuchin friar. The first use of cappuccino in
English is recorded in 1948 in a work about
San Francisco."
Cold Brewed ........ Coffee brewed using cold or lukewarm water.
Usually brewed double or triple strength and
the diluted with water and heated. This
concentrated 'coffee mix' is created by
allowing grounds to steep for several hours.
Said to taste quite different than hot brewed
coffee. (Note: This is not considered to
be espresso.)
Espresso Con Panna [ess-PRESS-o cone PA-na] Espresso with a dollop
of whipped cream.
(Caff) Latte ...... [caf-AY LAH-tay] Espresso with steamed milk and
in some shops, a small cap of foam. It has less foam
than a cappuccino. Definitions blur easily here.
In Australia: " 'Latte' gets you a _glass_ with
a shot of espresso and lots of milk and
some foam - half way between a flat white and a cap.
Seems to have originated as the breakfast drink of
Sydney commuters. Has become infinitely fashionable
due to the need for brass glass holders, which
only the fashionable coffee houses have (the rest of
us wrap the glass in a napkin)"
Lattecino .......... Espresso with steamed milk and about a half
inch of milk foam on top. (NOTE: This is
commonly served as "latte" in some parts of the
country.) Some enthusiasts feel this name
is a pretentious invention by overly imaginative
coffee shops. On the other hand...
(Caff) Lungo ...... A 'long pull' espresso. It is an espresso
diluted by allowing a longer extraction
thereby resulting in a weaker drink.
Macchiato .......... [mock-e-AH-toe] Some say this is espresso with about
(caff m.) a half inch of milk foam (no steamed milk). But some
(espresso m.) strongly disagree. One enthusiast writes of
the above definition: "Surely not. Macchiato
(lit. "marked") is a dash of milk or cream
in espresso." Another writes "the chap who
serves me espresso, and who has been roasting
coffee and selling and leasing machines for
several years ....tells me that Macchiato is
made with half-and-half."
From Australia: " 'Macchiato' has two variations
here - long and short. 'Short' is an espresso (in
the mandatory micro cup) with just a dash of
milk. This is the default at most trad. Italian
mum & dad restaurants. 'Long' is a _glass_ with
two shots of espresso, and small amount of
milk. The peak of macchiato making is to pour the
milk in so slowly that it never makes it to the
bottom of the glass. The resulting layered drink
has been known to inspire fear in the novice drinker.
This the default at coffee houses. Both of these
_seemed_ to have started out in small glasses (about
175ml) but the fashionable have demanded ever larger
glasses - of about 375ml.
Starbucks defines Espresso Macchiato as "1 shot of
espresso in a demitasse [topped with] a small dollop
of foamed milk.
Finally, this somewhat similar variation: "The
coffeehouse I work at serves as Macchiato, a layered
cappuccino. 1/3 steamed milk, 1/3 espresso sitting
on that (not mixed), and finally 1/3 milk foam. When
served in glass, it is quite elegant, and
when drunk, the foam insulates the coffee for
temperatures sake, the espresso hits the palate
first, and finally, the slightly sweet steamed
milk washes the palate. a fine beverage, though
perhaps not the standard."
(Caff) Mocha ...... [caf-AY MO-kah] A term of no small controversy.
Depending upon where you are, ordering a 'mocha' might
get you a 'latte' or a cappuccino with chocolate syrup
or hot cocoa. On the other hand, it might just send
the barista thermonuclear -- especially if the
word 'mocha' is not on the menu.
Mocha was a port in Yemen -- a major coffee-growing
country located in southwest Asia at the southern tip
of the Arabian peninsula -- and "it has NOTHING to
do with chocolate!!!!!"
One contributor states "However, my dictionary lists
Mocha as 'a flavoring obtains from a combined
infusion of coffee and chocolate' usage as dating
from the early 19th century (circa 1815 it says)"
For the record, the American Heritage Dictionary
gives the following 5 definitions:
mocha n. 1. A rich, pungent Arabian coffee.
2. Coffee of high quality.
3. A flavoring made of coffee often mixed
with chocolate.
4. A soft, thin, suede-finished glove
leather usually made from sheepskin.
5. Color. A dark olive brown.
[After Mocha, a town of southwest Yemen.]
One reader comments "I still don't see why a
Chocolate Latte has a special name when a
Raspberry Latte doesn't."
Starbucks defines caff mocha as "enough good quality
chocolate syrup to cover the bottom of the cup,
1 shot of espresso [...] fill with steamed milk
[...] top with a dollop of whipped cream [...] and
lightly sprinkle with cocoa powder".
Finally, one reader sends us "When I was in
New Zealand a popular coffee was a 'mochachino'
which was made by adding hot chocolate to espresso,
it was quite foamy (as foamy as the hot chocolate). "
The term 'mochacino' is apparently also used some
places in the US.
The best advice here is to check the menu before
ordering or ask for a "cappuccino/latte with
chocolate syrup".
Moka/Mokka ......... The kind of coffee you get when you use a stove top
espresso maker. "It's not quite espresso, so it
doesn't really fall under that category." Don't
confuse this with 'mocha' (listed above).
(Caff) Ristretto .. A 'short pull' (stronger) espresso. "A ristretto is
an espresso made with less (half?) the water used
for a regular espresso.
"It is a 'ristretto' or restricted shot, where the
flow of water is turned off early giving a .75 to
1 oz shot instead of a 1.5 to 2 oz shot. VERY stout."
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I n t r o d u c i n g
A powerful echomail network information search and perusal engine
written in Visual BASIC for DOS by William Padilla
The ECHOmail DataBASE (EchoBase) is a highly flexible tool which can be used
to peruse echomail ConfList/NodeList information via a powerful cross-network
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EchoBase can answer any of the following example scenario questions, and will
present results based upon searches performed against either "all" or a
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echomail networks are supported: ILink, Intelec, U'ni-Net, and RIME.
1. "Which conferences have something to do with cars?"
2. "Which nodes are located in the 656 prefix of the 303 area code?"
3. "Which ILink nodes are located in cities starting with 'Glen'?"
4. "Which confs are hosted by someone (anyone) whose last name is 'Davis'?"
5. "Which nodes feature CD-ROMs?"
6. "Which nodes are run by a Sysop whose name contains the word 'John'?"
7. "Which conferences have a name which contains the string 'Admin'?"
8. "Which Intelec nodes are running Wildcat! software?"
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PULL-DOWN MENUING SYSTEM
(File Menu) (Networks) ConfList Menu
──────────┌───── ──────── (Restriction Options)
Networks -------> │ ILink Sort ┌────────────
Context Switch │ Intelec Restrict ---> │ by Conference Name...
Find... │ U'ni-Net Go To │ by Moderator's Name...
Exit │ RIME ────────│ by Moderator's BBS...
──────────└───── by Description...
by nothing (Show All)
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Restrict ---> │ by BBS Name...
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HOW/WHERE TO DOWNLOAD ECHOBASE
By its very nature, the data which EchoBase manipulates is in an almost-
constant state of flux. Each echomail network updates its conference list and
node list fairly frequently (usually monthly). Also, an EchoBase database
containing ALL data for ALL networks can get rather huge, and would invariably
waste space on the typical user's hard drive by including data for networks
which they have no interest in.
For this reason, I have created the Interactive ECHOBASE Facility. This
online menu-driven Panasia BBS option gives you, the EchoBase user, the power
to be SELECTIVE in what gets included in your own "personalized" EchoBase
database. The downside to this approach is that it requires that you call
Panasia BBS to download EchoBase. I consider this to be the wisest approach,
however, especially in light of the fact that, as mention earlier, the data
involved is updated so often that having EchoBase distributed across hundreds
of boards all over the country would invariably result in old and hopelessly
inaccurate copies of EchoBase sitting on BBS file areas for many years to
come. The Echobase-represented networks would surely frown on THAT! :-)
Instructions:
1. Call Panasia BBS at (818) 569-3740. Supported baud rates: 2400-28800.
2. Log on to the system. If you don't have an account there already, then
register as a new user. Don't worry; the registration process is quick.
3. Work your way to the "Full Command Menu", then type "ECHOBASE".
4. Select option 1 from the ECHOBASE menu to download the EchoBase program.
5. Select option 2 from the ECHOBASE menu. You will be presented with a
screen which allows you to toggle your network selections ON and OFF. This
menu allows YOU to choose which networks should be included in your
"personal customized" EchoBase database. Once you're satisfied with your
selections, select "P" to Proceed. The interactive ECHOBASE facility will
custom-prepare your database and transmit it to you.
6. Select option 3 to return to Panasia BBS. Use (G)oodbye to log off.
That's all there is to it! If, after using EchoBase, you have any comments or
suggestions, please pass them along to me. I hope you like and enjoy EchoBase!
William Padilla (EchoBase Author)

ELTamer v1.0 * The EchoList Browser *
Frustrated by that huge EList file? Let
ELTamer handle it _FOR_ you! Using
either ELIST???.SUM or FIDONET.NA as an
index, ELTamer will allow you to browse the
EList effortlessly, search for echos by one
of three criteria, AreaFix the echo
automatically, and many, many other things
too numerous to mention in a FILE_ID.DIZ.
No FidoNet sysop should be without it!
Shareware from Psycho Hut Software, $10 US

From netcom.com!netcomsv!decwrl!amd!amdahl!news.fujitsu.com!barrnet.net!agate!howland.reston.ans.net!cs.utexas.edu!uunet!news.delphi.com!usenet Sat Sep 3 14:28:32 1994
Xref: netcom.com alt.religion.scientology:15000
Path: netcom.com!netcomsv!decwrl!amd!amdahl!news.fujitsu.com!barrnet.net!agate!howland.reston.ans.net!cs.utexas.edu!uunet!news.delphi.com!usenet
From: Bob Penny
Newsgroups: alt.religion.scientology
Subject: FACTNet
Date: Wed, 24 Aug 94 23:45:28 -0500
Organization: Delphi (info@delphi.com email, 800-695-4005 voice)
Message-ID: <501RtPY.bobpenny@delphi.com>
NNTP-Posting-Host: bos1a.delphi.com
IMAGINE THE NEW SCIENTOLOGY WORLD ORDER...
*Imagine a time when no newspaper dares to publish anything
about Scientology without first having Scientology's approval.
*Imagine a time when all court and government records containing
disclosures about Scientology have been destroyed or sealed
from the public view.
*Imagine that everyone who knew firsthand about Scientology's
dangers and abuses has rationalized or emotionalized themselves
into inaction.
*Imagine that some who knew firsthand engaged in sporadic
and heroic but grossly under-effective action to counter Scientology.
Now they live in hiding.
*Imagine that the last effective organizations for collective
defense and support of Scientology critics, victims, and dissenters
have been destroyed.
*Imagine a time when Scientology's money, intelligence, and
terror tactics have so corrupted the court system that, even
if a victim could still find a lawyer, the victim is so discouraged
by intimidation of past victims that he won't even try the courts
any more.
*Imagine a time when Scientology has become so wealthy and
powerful (with a little help from the IRS) that it openly runs
candidates for political office and covertly sets and controls
our political agenda.
*Imagine democracy redefined according to the principles
of L. Ron Hubbard: only people who are "clear" are rational
enough to be allowed to vote and only citizens who are honest
producers have rights. Of course, it is Scientology that defines
the new meanings of honesty and productivity.
*Imagine all drugs not approved by Scientology being banned;
all psychiatric and psychological counseling against the law.
*Imagine all citizens forced to report anyone who has any
disagreements with the new Scientology order. E-meter security
checks are routinely ordered on anyone who shows any signs of
not being Gung Ho or "hip hip hooraying" to the full program.
*Imagine intelligence files, accumulating now in Scientology's
underground archives, used to identify all psychiatrists, pharmaceutical
company executives, bankers, media critics, lawyers, government
agents, judges, former members and their families, defectors,
SP's, "downstats" or other known anti-Scientologists. These
records could be used to send all the previously mentioned individuals
to concentration camps called "rehabilitation centers."
(Secret documents seized by the FBI show that L. Ron Hubbard
admired the Nazi's use of intelligence and intimidation tactics.)
After this final purging of Scientology-defined "degraded beings,"
Scientology will have gained control of every aspect of your
life, your country, and the world. Imagine your children and
their children having to live under the Scientology dominated
social, economic, and political order simply because you rationalized
or were afraid and did nothing, too little, or failed to organize,
work with, and support those organizations who were working
for the collective security of all of us.
Parts of the above scenario have already happened. Other parts
are just beginning to happen with the help of irresponsible
celebrities. It all becomes increasingly possible as every
day you read more about Scientology's growing wealth, influence,
and intimidation of its adversaries.
YOU HAVE SEEN IT HAPPENING.
YOU CAN DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT.
SEND YOUR TAX DEDUCTIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO FACTNET TODAY.
August 6, 1994
My name is Lawrence Wollersheim. At considerable risk to myself,
I am writing you as discuss my opinions about Scientology.
Some of you may be aware that in my successful 14 year battle
against Scientology, my legal team has defeated Scientology
in three separate lawsuits. What is happening with the most
important of these three cases is most amazing and worth a few
words before going on to the important points of this letter
Collection of the Wollersheim Judgment
I am now involved in the process of enforcing my collection
of what is now about a five million dollar judgment against
Scientology. After I had submitted numerous formal demands
for payment, Scientology attorneys told my attorney that Scientology
will not pay the current Wollersheim (U.S. Supreme Court approved)
judgment. They stated that the "Church" of Scientology of California
has no money and that if I try to enforce collection Scientology
will "declare World War III" against me.
By refusing to pay the Wollersheim judgment, Scientology, through
its attorneys, has once again arrogantly signaled that it considers
itself beyond any reform by any outside force, that it has complete
disdain for the U.S. justice system, and that it is a force
"above the law." This intimidation is designed to prevent new
victims from even trying to use the court system.
I assure you that I will collect my full judgment and all accumulating
interest. My new team will use this poorly though out move by
Scientology to build better, easier, and faster Scientology
victim pathways in the courts and to inflict the maximum penalties
allowable by law to force Scientology to pay. I believe my
upcoming seizure of Scientology assets will receive widespread
media coverage because I will be seizing key Scientology tangible
assets which were fraudulently conveyed, and putting a receiver
in control of Scientology. In their attempt to hide assets,
Scientology has set themselves up for something that has never
been done before: I will be setting the stage to pierce Scientology's
corporate shell sham and reveal their true activity and methods.
I have been told by top legal minds familiar with the opportunities
and remedies Scientology has now so vindictively and fortuitously
handed me, that the actions of enforcing my judgment will create
new remedies for other and future victims. Other possible effects
include another public relations catastrophe, possible new criminal
convictions for some of Scientology's top executives and law
firms, and the possible production of new evidence that will
be instrumental to remove Scientology's ill-gotten IRS non profit
status -- but as I mentioned earlier, my personal litigation
and collection ordeal is not the main subject of this letter.
You Really Can Do Something that Will Help Stop Scientology's Abuse
I wanted personally to tell you about a tolerable way for you
to become more empowered, co-creative, co-responsible, and realistically
effective in dealing with Scientology's ongoing abuses. I also
want to tell you about developments that may help you recover
any financial losses you have suffered while associated with
Scientology -- no matter how long ago. To do this I will first
have to tell you about the success of an organization called
FACTNet in forwarding the long overdue process of bringing Scientology
to justice.
FACTNet has almost overnight become the most successful nonprofit
support and defense organization for individuals and organizations
having problems with Scientology. FACTNet's electronic database
provides worldwide access to information which can help the
victim healing process and empower the actions of any person
or organization seeking ethical means to combat Scientology's
harmful activities.
Scientology and its affiliates and front groups are only a few
of the organizations about which FACTNet collects information.
The FACTNet BBS contains a file called "Scientology" which describes
the reasons for our attention to this particular group and other
documents which describe our broader purpose and FACTNet 's
seven organizational purposes.
FACTNet is not just a good idea or a promise of what we might
do someday. It exists. You can call it and see for yourself
(303 530-1942). You can use it. Individuals around the world
have already demonstrated an ability to work together to research
and solve the Scientology human rights abuse problem without
significant time, expense, information, or distance/travel restrictions.
On the FACTNet system, users can evaluate arguments and information
and contribute to the areas of their particular interest or
expertise in the unstressed privacy, security, and comfort of
their own home or office. They can even work on the system with
an alias if they choose to work in complete anonymity.
For the minimal cost of a phone call to FACTNet, even computer
beginners can access and contribute to a fast-growing body of
accumulated information that reflects the total knowledge and
successful experience of almost everyone who has had to deal
with Scientology over the last 40 years. Using FACTNet's 24
hour a day, seven day a week, phone lines network users are
able to leverage and multiply their individual social justice
efforts, ideas, and resources by linking up with other like
minded individuals. Just imagine, as FACTNet grows, being able
to search all articles ever written about Scientology or all
of Scientology's legal briefs, testimony, interrogatories, or
victim debriefing affidavits on your phone and computer with
automated text search software so you can effortlessly find
almost any person or any secret information you need to find
out about Scientology. Now imagine linking up with others who
can provide support and information to forward your particular
justice and/or recovery interests.
With this collected knowledge and experience easily accessible
and an empowered network of independent individuals using it,
Scientology will no longer be able divide and conquer and force
onerous legal expenses onto those just learning about Scientology's
tactics. Tens of millions of dollars in litigation and public
relations work will be at each victim's or justice advocate's
fingertips. Each victim or human rights advocate as an autonomous
user of a powerful network will be able to learn quickly and
inexpensively how easily Scientology has been repeatedly defeated
or contained in past cases.
FACTNet's unique use of the new technologies for social justice
is not an untested theory. The Wall Street Journal reported
in a March 30, 1994 article about how the use of advance computer
and telecommunication technology has become a powerful leveraging
force dramatically countering the vastly disproportionate financial
power and influence of the tobacco companies. Groups like SCARCNet
(Smoking Control Advocacy Resource Network) electronically link
users from all over the world for strategy sessions on the latest
news. They provide a rich array of library resources to educate,
alert, and assist government regulatory bodies and also to help
prevent the growth of smoking and to support the activities
of anti-smoking advocates.
FACTNet's Legal Success
FACTNet's staff and network associates are involved in more
consultation with regard to ongoing successful litigation against
Scientology than any other organization. This includes or has
included litigation in the USA, Canada, Australia, Brazil, England,
Scotland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Denmark.
FACTNet's staff and network associates have also been consulted
by government agencies in a number of countries.
One major law suit that involved Scientology resulted in a Lanham
Act award of defense costs against Scientology because a member
of the FACTNet team provided documents which Scientology refused
to produce in one case but produced in another. Another FACTNet
team member just helped win a SLAPP court case where Scientology
must pay all the defendants' legal costs ($125,000) because
this individual helped prove this was but another frivolous
Scientology suit meant only to harass and silence Scientology's
adversaries.
From November of 1993 to March of 1994 while still in its non-public
testing phase, FACTNet and network test users played critical
roles in helping to win four more separate major court victories
against Scientology. One of those cases, Scientology v. Uwe
Gertz, uncovered such damaging information about Scientology's
experimental actions on former members that Scientology immediately
quit the case and now is spending hundreds of thousands of dollars
trying to seal these court records from public and ex-member
inspection. In England, FACTNet network users were able successfully
to challenge the copyrights of Scientology's secret upper levels
in court, using many different arguments, one of which was they
cannot be kept secret because of harm they cause to the unsuspecting
public and the public's safety. So far, when FACTNet shows up
Scientology loses.
FACTNet's People Make FACTNet's Success
The FACTNet network includes the world's leading expert witnesses
and high level former members well versed on Scientology. (When
you log on to our system you will be able to get to know some
of them.) Among our librarians are former directors of Scientology's
own archives and the researchers responsible for many of the
available books, articles, and academic papers on the subject.
FACTNet's network has contact with many of the most recent defectors
from Scientology and is connected with special consultants who
help current Scientologists in their decision to leave Scientology
and recovery from possible Scientology-induced damage. Other
reasons the FACTNet network has been so successful is the key
staff of FACTNet combine integrity and long experience with
a developed awareness of the security and confidentiality needs
of any organization that has to face Scientology's incessant
harassment and infiltration.
FACTNet's key staff and network associates have considerable
positive reputations and are trusted by former victims of Scientology.
FACTNet's staff and network associates have proven reputations
for getting the job done and are not intimidated by Scientology.
They have been tempered and adversity tested by years of dealing
with Scientology and they have proven they only get stronger
and more resourceful when under attack.
Our staff and network associates have done a tremendous amount
of good with almost nothing against the cash and staff rich
GO/OSA Scientology legal machine. The winning track record of
the FACTNet network and its ability to use the meagerest of
resources wisely has already been proven beyond doubt.
Scientology's Reaction
Scientology's swift reactions to FACTNet's successes are also
a strong indication of FACTNet's effectiveness and further justice
potential. Scientology has already created several "dead agent"
disinformation packs on FACTNet and its key people. Scientology
has gone to enormous lengths to "convince" the St. Petersburg
(Florida) Times that it shouldn't even mention FACTNet's name
in an article that was written about the problems Scientology
is having with computer communication networks like Internet
and FACTNet.
While still in its pre-public testing phase, FACTNet has on
two occasions been threatened with lawsuits by Scientology,
and as soon as we got our IRS nonprofit status, Scientology
investigators began to pore over our public IRS application
records.
Scientology is very worried about FACTNet for two simple reasons.
First, FACTNet promotes worldwide distribution of information
through its electronic library services and secondly, FACTNet
promotes connecting people in open and uncensored electronic
dialog to discuss issues and opinions expressed in the library.
Scientology knows that open information and open dialog exposes,
disinfects, heals, and corrects. Scientology's highest executives
know with certainty that Scientology cannot exist in any system
of truly open information and dialog.
Hubbard created totalitarian information control and policies
for the suppression of "entheta" because he knew that Scientology
would fall apart if alternative opinions or criticism were allowed.
Hubbard knew if other explanations of what Scientology really
is and does were discussed openly and without fear of punishment,
it would create an exodus of members and a wave of lawsuits.
The history of past information leaks inside Scientology, and
the subsequent exoduses and lawsuits, proves this is true.
Scientology executives know Scientology has never faced a more
potent force to change it and bring it to justice than the electronic
library and communication transfer service that FACTNet provides.
Scientology executives see their worst nightmare growing every
day because they know every individual and organization that
Scientology has harmed over its 40 year history, and every organization
and individual they have ever declared "Suppressive," is linking
up information and resources in the present, becoming unintimidatable
as a group, and working together truly to bring the out-of-control
Scientology abuse machine to justice.
FACTNet Today
A new tool of unprecedented scope has been created finally to
bring Scientology to justice. The FACTNet concept of using high
technology to level the playing field against human rights abusers
is already remedying the disadvantage, isolation, and disenfranchisement
currently suffered by many of Scientology's former victims and
critics. Network users are discovering an even more healthy
and successful post-Scientology life. They are discovering
they are not alone. It is a healthy closure on Scientology to
work with others in the network to do the right thing, and to
make one's unique contribution to bringing Scientology to justice.
Scientology's ability to harm others in the future relies upon
having scared and burned every past victim or victim advocate
group so badly that they are too debilitated to seek justice,
or are firmly locked into rationalization and denial. The history
of the human rights movements shows that it is always the victims
who felt the pain first hand who lead and force the way to justice.
In 1987, Scientology's secret internal documents estimated its
world wide membership at 25,000. Even if we double that figure
in 1994 there are still 20 or more ex-Scientologists for every
member currently still involved. When you then include the family
and friends of ex-members who also have paid the price for Scientology's
abuses, an important perspective presents itself: if we ban
together in the present and act collectively the Scientology
bully will be brought to justice.
When all 40 years of Scientology's victims are ethically empowered
and cooperatively networked, many more of them will come to
understand how they were manipulated and become willing to share
all the information they have. This will lead to full healing,
real closure, many personal growth benefits, and finally the
end to an ongoing pattern of injustice and exploitation. With
Scientology's victims no longer cowed by Scientology- implanted
phobias or fear of harassment tactics, Scientology will continue
losing in the courts at a much increased rate.
When Scientology Will Really Change
Scientology will change only when the profit has been taken
out of its coercive psychological manipulation of the hopes
and needs of decent people and the children and young adults
who most frequently become its victims. Only an abundance of
court judgments, government investigations, legal censure, and
exposes in the media will force Scientology finally to change
its behavior for real.
It's as simple as that. When we collectively take the ill-gotten
profit out of Scientology's harmful activities through telling
our individual stories, ethical use of the justice system, cooperation
for our collective security, and use of the force of law to
compel Scientology to change, then it will change.
Our continued and greater success in bringing Scientology to
justice depends only on the courage of Scientology's victims,
their willingness to take advantage of the FACTNet opportunity,
network together, and to learn about and face what was done
to them rather than rationalize it. We all need to look beyond
our own convenient personal rationalizations about our Scientology
experience and consider our children, our grandchildren, our
families, and what it means to the general public safety if
a group like this continues to gain social, economic, and political
power. It is rationalizations, like those of the "good Germans"
when the Nazi form of facism rose to power, that allow the Scientology
human rights abuse machine to grow in power and to continue
to abuse the unknowing who follow behind you.
What's Next?
It will be our collective and coordinated strength that will
stop Scientology's abuses. Victims of Scientology and advocates
for bringing Scientology to justice need to network together
as never before. For our collective security, it is time to
demonstrate that Scientology is not "above the law" and that
Scientology cannot bully all of the people all of the time by
taking us on individually.
I believe we all have a unique window of opportunity in FACTNet.
You personally can make a powerful and immediate difference
to bring Scientology to justice. Today, using the leverage of
the FACTNet network, you can start to or further rebalance the
scales of justice and advance the healing of the loss and pain
that you have personally suffered at the hands of Scientology
-- and nothing has proven to be as effective to heal the wounds
of victims faster and better than bringing their oppressors
to justice.
I have no doubt that Scientology will use its tremendous cash
resources and intimidation machine to try to destroy FACTNet
during its final testing or undermine the expansion of FACTNet's
library services to the general public. If FACTNet doesn't get
immediate support at this critical juncture, there is a very
real possibility FACTNet might not make it. You and we are
all that stand against the destruction of this organization,
and our willingness realistically to co-create, protect, and
support our FACTNet opportunity for bringing Scientology to
justice. If this powerful opportunity is lost or ignored, I
don't want to imagine what Scientology's influence on our future
will be like.
What Is Needed?
The best way to help FACTNet right now is to give it your financial
support. In the next stage, when we are able to hire personnel
to coordinate the work, another way to bring Scientology to
justice will be to get active in the FACTNet network on a project
that fits your interest and support the network in any way you
can. (See list of attached projects.)
One of the projects that FACTNet is working on is an evaluation
of the best way to get all money back, per Scientology's "money
back guarantee" -- no matter how many years ago it was. If we
collectively force this issue into the open and force it to
be dealt with, I estimate Scientology has a 1/2 to 1 billion
dollar liability to reimburse burned past members. F.A.C.TNet
has collected and posted scores of reports and relevant materials
in this area
Your help is urgently needed now (not 6 weeks or six months
from now) to raise a minimum of $750,000 to get FACTNet out
of final testing phase and fully operational by December 30,
1994. FACTNet does not yet have the personnel or resources to
call or repeatedly contact you to convince you to help us. Stop
rationalizing, either in a lesser or greater degree. Do what
you know in your heart you should be doing or doing more of.
Please review the attached project list and get involved with
the rest of us (or increase your involvement) on some level
with a significant tax deductible contribution. Remember that
if you have a court case with Scientology, and you settle, then
you lost. Their objective is to seal evidence exhibits and
make them unavailable to future litigants. Their power is built
upon concealed information. They don't need or deserve your
I will be giving substantial donations to FACTNet when I collect
or as I sell off seized Scientology assets. If everyone gave
FACTNet only 10% of what they lost in Scientology, FACTNet would
have the resources immediately to go head-to-head with the Scientology
intimidation machine and enforce justice through the courts
world wide -- as well as do more to support victim recovery.
Everyone do something! At least get this to every ex-Scientologist
whom you know and can correspond with. You can tell other people
about the real Scientology but, if you do nothing else, please
at least type out your personal story about Scientology and
let others learn from your experience. Break the grip of intimidation,
silence, rationalization, and inactivity. Help FACTNet now.
Sincerely,
Lawrence Wollersheim
P.S. You can reach me by E-Mail in FACTNet's main conference
or by mailing letters to Lawrence Wollersheim, c/o FACTNet,
601 16 th. St., Golden, CO. 80403, or phone 1- 303-473-011 ex
5 for questions.
If you want to see more information on FACTNet, I invite you
to use your computer and modem and log on to FACTNet's test
system at 1-303-530-1942. There is more information on line
in the main conference bulletins and files sections. In other
sections you can look over media articles on Scientology, amazing
former member affidavits about their Scientology experience,
and articles and support resources for healing abuse or confusion
resulting from Scientology. Connect and join in dialog with
other interested parties or your old Scientology friends from
all over the world who have also left. Read the best of the
Internet conferences dialog on Scientology (over 42,000 people
have logged into these uncensored discussions), watch the latest
breaking news bulletins covering everything from reports on
the Michael Jackson marriage to a Scientologist to the growing
list of new legal actions from all over the world that Scientology
is losing.
Please, I need your help in getting these documents into the
hands of every person or organization that has been harmed by
Scientology or any of its affiliates in the last 40 years. Send
us your personal mailing list of all persons who should see
these materials -- or copy and mail them directly.
"When Did You Last Get Through The Morning Without A Good Rationalization?"
--from a Monty Python movie
The following are rationalizations I have heard repeatedly from
individuals or organizations who know firsthand of Scientology's
abuses yet do little or nothing effective to stop them.
I'm tired.
*I already gave too much of my life to dealing with Scientology.
I've endured lost and upset family relations, staff contracts,
loan repayments, lost years, lost education, etc. I just want
to put Scientology behind me and get on with my life."
*I'm burned out on Scientology. Let someone else bring Scientology
to justice. I'm just one tired victim or victim's family member
that wants a little joy back in my life."
*"I did my part to collectively bring the Scientology bully
to justice, I would have to deal with old buried issues and
finally deal with and heal them. I 'm not ready for that."
Scientology relies on silence and inactivity to keep abusing
new victims and families.
It's hopeless.
*"I can't (won't) do anything against their cash rich intelligence
agency (GO/OSA) litigation and harassment machine. They are
fanatics."
This one usually comes from former fanatically active GO, OSA
or staff members. In general, I have found the more fanatical
the individual was in committing crimes and outrageous activities
while in Scientology, the more embarrassed, cowardly, inactive,
and non-supportive these individuals are when they get out.
Their own denial prevents them from disciplining the organization
that manipulated them into fanaticism. They desperately deny
their co-responsibility to correct the damage of their own past
fanaticism. Some fear their criminal or other unethical acts
while in Scientology will be exposed in the present. In fact,
if they don't help correct the wrongdoing, their esteem will
continue to suffer and they may be exposed anyway as more is
exposed about Scientology's dirty past. The only logical thing
is to stand up and be at least as active in bringing Scientology
to justice as they were in serving it. The statute of limitations
has long since past for most, and no one is interested in prosecuting
former victims who are now bringing Scientology to justice.
*"Nobody who goes against them lives a successful life.
They just die, get cancer, or go insane."
..or some other false Scientology implanted phobia or PR
story that convinces you exactly what they want their victims
to believe.
No one can stand up to them. Go find a hole and hide somewhere
and try to recover but never, never think Scientology techniques
were the cause or aggravated your problems or that you can successfully
challenge Scientology.
I'm done.
*"I already did my piece. I'm done."
In hindsight, we can see how Germans could have prevented the
coming holocaust when the Nazi party was still small enough
to be contained. In the same way, ex-scientologists can see
better than most people what kind of world will be created if
Scientology's human rights abuse becomes accepted and "legitimate."
In fact, the more any individual knows about the actual nature
and activities of Scientology, the greater their responsibility
to be active to change Scientology.
This rationalization is often also used by media people and
lawyers who are very active for a little while they are profiting
from exposing Scientology. They profess they are working for
justice but only if they get paid for it. The Scientology abuse
problem is beyond just getting paid to do this work. Individuals
who have benefitted financially in any way from attempts to
bring Scientology to justice are under the strongest of moral
imperatives financially to support the ongoing process to bring
Scientology to justice.
*"I lost tens (hundreds) of thousands of dollars in Scientology.
I am done."
The individuals who were taken for the most money
generally contribute the least. They don't want to have to
think about how they were deceived, burned, or intimidated.
They refuse to recognize that not realistically supporting realistic
efforts and a network to bring Scientology to justice is only
allowing Scientology to do the same to some other family, business,
or young adult. In their minds, collectively supporting bringing
Scientology to justice erroneously equates to throwing good
money after bad.
Scientology's not so bad.
*"I got some good out of it"
..while ignoring and passing on the greater harms and other
related personal and financial losses the organization and
the technology will cause to those who come behind you.
*Scientology wasn't really so bad. I could have made better
decisions but I wasn't really hurt. This might be true, or
the person who uses this rationalization may be in fairly serious
personal danger. Denial results in people going on through
life considering their condition "normal" when in fact no awareness
(which comes after denial) or recovery has taken place.
*"The organization was bad but the tech has some good.
If I admit Scientology tech was dangerous and caused me some
damage I would get old my aches and pains back. It's got to
be all or nothing." Most people don't realize that Scientology
techniques are laced with covert hypnosis and covert trance
induction. The gains were at best the placebo effect and the
power of suggestion.
*"If I really admitted to myself that I was harmed or deceived,
I would feel like such a fool. How could I trust myself again
after I gave so much to Scientology and was so certain?"
It takes a courageous person to step beyond their pride and ego
and admit they have been completely taken and deceived, but
it is also the beginning of real healing.
What happened to me in Scientology was my fault.
*I am totally responsible for the harm and loss that happened
to me in Scientology." ...while Scientology has no responsibility.
*It happened to me because I had "overts." I was SP."
..or some other false Scientology blame-the-victim introversion.
I'm afraid
*"Scientology is a scary bunch of fanatics. They will never
leave you along until you stop opposing them."
We need to use our fears to confirm the seriousness of the Scientology
problem not be paralyzed into inaction by them. 50 million
people died in WW II because people were afraid to stand up
to the Nazi's when they were beginning to gain power.
*"As long as I don't think of Scientology I don't get flashbacks,
get angry, feel my losses or feel burned."
I made a deal with Scientology for my kids or for money.
*Some family members say as long as they don't make waves
for Scientology, Scientology lets the kids see them and write
them. Other former members have been paid cash for silence.
Such deals allow Scientology to control you by controlling your
kids or your fears. It's like car companies finding it cheaper
to pay off victims instead of making safe cars. Other victims
are left to start over from the beginning. (Through anonymous
donations to FACTNet, you can break this grip and help bring
justice to Scientology without jeopardizing your deal.)
I'm doing it myself.
*"I am going to work on my own and do what I can in secret.
I don't trust anyone and I might be compromised."
This rationalization plays right into what Scientology most
wants: isolated, easily handled, minimal and ineffective pockets
of resistance that are unable to change or really threaten it.
These individuals are often the "hit and run" specialists --
the ones who most often come in like sprinters and then quit.
These "do it aloners" are the ones who usually make secret deals
with Scientology that cash them out but seal critical information
needed by everyone behind them.
If you find yourself angry or still having flashbacks, get online
with FACTNet and find others who can understand and help. Two
books which may help you are:
Captive Hearts, Captive Minds -- Freedom and Recovery from Cults
and Abusive Relationships, by Madeline Landau Tobias and Janja
Lalich.
A Piece of Blue Sky -- Scientology, Dianetics and L. Ron Hubbard
Exposed, by Jon Atack.
TYPES OF TAX DEDUCTIBLE CONTRIBUTIONS
Founding Guarantor of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $1,000,000 or more
Founding Patron of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $500,000 to $1,000,000
Guarantor of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $250,000 to $500,000
Patron of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $100,000 to $250,000
Benefactor of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $100,000 to $250,000
Key Sponsor of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $25,000 to $100,000
Special Sponsor of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $5,000 to $25,000
Sponsor of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $5,000 to $25,000
Key Friend of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $1,000 to $5,000
Special Friend of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $500 to $1,000
Friend of F.A.C.T.Net Contribution of $25 to $500
1.I am enclosing my tax deductible contribution of $_________________________________
2.I am unable to send a contribution now but I will pledge
(min $50) $___________________ which I will send on _________________________________.
3.Yes I have information to donate to your electronic library.
I will send it on ____________________________________.
4.Yes I want to help with F.A.C.T.Net's fund raising.: I
know of individuals or organizations who would likely contribute
to your cause. I am including this information now, or please
call me at ________________________________________.
5.Yes, I want to contribute, but I still have questions.
(If you have questions please feel free to call 1-303-473-0111
and push the 5 key at the voice mail prompt.)
YOUR GENEROUS CONTRIBUTION HELPS PROTECT OUR FREEDOMS AND
RIGHTS FROM THE GROWING USE OF COERCIVE MIND CONTROL.
F.A.C.T.Net will accept anonymous contributions. If confidentiality
is requested, we will keep donor's identities confidential within
the full extent of IRS regulations and the law.
THANK YOU IN ADVANCE FOR YOUR CONTRIBUTION AND HELP.
CHECK YOUR DESIRED SCIENTOLOGY PROJECT CONTRIBUTION.
Project 1.Funding F.A.CT.NET's $750,000 public activation
budget.
F.A.C.T.NET will be able to go fully on-line to the public on
December 31, 1994 with the equipment, staff, full Intemet connection,
and ex-member and member public outreach capable of servicing
8-10,000 global computer information request calls a month.
Project 2.Funding a $150,000 estimated budget for continued
monitoring, investigation, and verification of Scientology's
alleged victim casualty rates.
This investigation is critical to later professional scientific
studies to independently summarize and analyze Scientology's
actual results and casualties.
Project 3.Funding an estimated $150,000 special assistance
project for the children and families most harmed by Scientology.
This would include educational child custody information, rehabilitative
educational materials for children raised in Scientology, and
other educational activities that expose the public and government
regulatory bodies to this human rights abuse of children.
Project 4.Funding an estimated $50,000 Scientology victim
emergency fund.
This would provide emergency shelter, food, medical care, and
emergency counseling services for Scientology victims left
without resources after leaving or being thrown out of Scientology.
Project 5.Funding an estimated $100,000 budget for investigation
of the circumstances of the recent award by IRS of a 501(c)(3)
non profit status to Scientology.
If current allegations being investigated prove true, this information
will be used to compel the IRS to re- investigate Scientology's
non profit status award as well as its own decisional activities
in this matter.
Project 6.Funding for an initial estimated $7,000,000 global
legal assistance fund for all past individual or organizational
victims of Scientology.
This would be used to assist current key court cases that desperately
needing financial assistance. It would also be used for creating
a expert legal team to evaluate new civil, criminal, and governmental
actions and, if applicable, file new legal actions such as a
civil RICO (racketeering) lawsuit, an "all past victims" class
action or refund suits or other new legal actions to counter
Scientology's continuing abuses.
Project 7.Funding the estimated $250,000 European project
to set up F.A.C.T.Net computer operations in Denmark, England,
and the old Soviet Union.
Project 8.Funding the estimated $100,000 to computerize 250,000
more pages of Scientology legal and investigatory materials
donated to F.A.C.T.Net.
Project 9.You suggest a personal project that fits within
F.A.C.T.Net's goals and purposes.
Until F.A.C.T.NET Inc. has attained it's $750,000 public activation
budget, if you choose projects 2-9 50% of what you contribute will go
toward public activation and the remainder directly into the project
of your choice. Once we have reached our $750,000 public activation
goal, 75% of your contributions will go directly to the project
you select and the rest will go for maintaining F.A.C.T.Net's
operations. (Detailed budget for project #1 available on request.)

FLYNET is the world's fastest growing
aviation oriented network. This file
contains MAKEREQ.EXE, used to make
application. Send your application to
Ed Grossheim (MA Host/Net Coord) after
compiling the included nodelist.Come join
FLYNET and fly with us.
FAMILYNET INTERNATIONAL
FAMILYNET is an association of NETMAIL compatible nodes. Members of
FAMILYNET have no rights per se, every BENEFIT available to FAMILYNET
Nodes is conditional, and revokable at any time with no advanced
notice, and without cause by any level of management in FAMILYNET.
Membership in FAMILYNET is a privilege, revokable at any time without
cause by the management of FAMILYNET.
Having said the above - let me add: FAMILYNET is a means to
alternatives. We were founded to offer sysops a choice. If you have
problems with one manager, you are able to contact any other manager
that will have you. This gives the managers a free hand, and allows
people to peacefully coexist. All levels of FAMILYNET managers should
subscribe to the theory - if one node is having problems, what can I
do to help solve the problem for EVERYONE.
Requirements for Membership
1) Netmail Compatible mailer - All members must have a "mailer" that
is capable of communicating with other mailers in FAMILYNET.
2) G Rated System - All systems must be "G" rated. No profanity,
obscenity on member systems. Each member should be a 'FAMILY'
type/rated system.
3) No illegal activities - credit card numbers, phreaking (illegal
long distance) codes, passwords, pirating of software, are some of
the illegal activities that are expressly forbidden. This list is
not by any means intended to be all inclusive.
4) No threats are permitted to any other node in FAMILYNET, or
outside FAMILYNET. Threats include damage to software/systems, law
suits, personal harm, etc. Local/National Managers will make the
determination as to what constitutes a "threat."
Applying for Membership
1) Obtain a current copy of the FMLYLIST (this is the list of nodes
in FAMILYNET).
2) Members should only have ONE node number in FamilyNet (with the
exception of Special Interest Nets (SIGNETS). If you are a member
of a SIGNET you should NOT join a TBN (topology based Network), or
a geographical net. Your SIGNET membership entitles you to all the
benefits of membership in FamilyNet. If you are a Manager (at any
level) you should use ONLY your manager's node number for all
3) Send a message to the manager that would handle your geographical
area, or area of interest (Special Interest Nets), or a TBN
(topology based Network) manager that is willing to feed you.
(Note: TBN is based soley on feeds, Special Interest and
Geographic Nets are not. In a TBN, the manager assigning a node
number will be your feed). If there is a local FAMILYNET net, send
a message to the host node for the Local Net you wish to join. If
there is no local Net, send your message to the Regional Manager
that handles your Region. If there is a zone instead of a Region,
send a message to the Zone Manager. Nodes can choose to have
membership in geographical Nets, and/or Special Interest Nets. If
you are a member of a TBN you may NOT also be a member of a
geographical Net as well.
The message should contain:
Name of Your System.
Name of System Operator (Your name).
Location of System (ie Los Angelas, Ca).
Phone number of System (where other nodes can
deliver) mail - pvt or unlisted nodes are not
permitted).
Baud rate of your system
Name and version of mailer (or proper flags if known).
Allowable flags are listed at bottom of FMLYLIST.
Hours that system is available for mail.
Type of Modem system is running (For flags).
Note: Points can be issued a regular node number in the network as
long as their 'boss node' phone number is listed under their
listing.
If you are having problems with a manager, contact the next manager
up the line and request a node number from him/her. If you have at
least three nodes, you can request another network, even if a network
is existing in the same geographical area. Note: Members may only be
members of ONE geographical network if two exist in the same area.
Positions
* Node - One system (may be a BBS or Point)
* Point - A system connected to FAMILYNET that is not public/has no
users other than the operator.
* Local FAMILYNET (Net) - A group of nodes in a local
(geographical) area, a group of nodes with a topoplogy of
echomail feeds (TBN), or areas of special interests (SIGNETS),
Managed by a FAMILYNET Manager (Host).
* Regional Manager - Has a REGION in the FMLYLIST. A Region is
comprised of a group of NETS. Regions should have at least 50
separate nodes at the minimum.
* Zone Manager - Has a group of REGIONS in the FMLYLIST. Can be
SIGNET, Geographical, or TBN.
* International Director - Gives direction to the entire network.
Day to day operation rests with the Managers. The
director will set policy and have the final say in resolving
disputes. Disputes should be settled at the lowest level in the
heirarchy. Managers are empowered to resolve any disputes at
their level.
* Moderator - Runs an echomail conference. A moderator of an
echomail conference has complete control of that conference.
All FAMILYNET nodes acknowledge the rights of the moderator to
take whatever measures necessary to control the integrety of
their conference. This includes dictating the guidelines for
participating in a conference, and the power to order feeds be
cut for a given conference (a conference will include both
echomail and groupmail for the purpose of this document).
* Echomail Coordinator - This position is responsible for
making sure that echomail flows smoothly. This person will also
be responsible for creating and maintaining an echomail list
for all FAMILYNET Echoes/Groups. The echomail Coordinator will
have the final say in where feeds may be made - by permission
of the moderators, in the case of disputes/problems. Free flow
of echomail dictates that any node can go anywhere to get any
feed they like (exception is gated echomail).
Required Conferences
The following conferences are required for all FAMILYNET nodes. You
are NOT required to get them, but are responsiblible for the content
in them. If an announcement is made in these conferences that puts
you in policy violation, for example, the fact you are not tied into
the conference does not constitute a valid defense for not conforming
to the policy! As such it is STRONGLY suggested all nodes tie into
these conferences where applicable.
NETWORK_MGRS - All FAMILYNET managers and coordinators should be
tied into this echo/conference. This is where policy will be made
and discussed. This is also where all problems are discussed. By
default, the moderator of this conference will be the
International director. Only managers and coordinators may tie
into this conference. This conference is restricted.
NETWORK_SYSOP - This is the FAMILYNET sysop's echo. This is where
announcements are made, and topics of discussion of interest to
all sysops will take place. All FAMILYNET systems SHOULD have a
tie in to this conference. Announcements made in this conference
will be binding on all nodes. This conference should not need a
moderator. Only topics of interest to ALL sysops in FamilyNet
should be discussed here. Users may NOT have access to this
conference.
ECHOES - This is the place where echoes are searched for, commented
on, new echoes are announced, and notice of terminations are made.
Any Echo news should be made in the conference. By default, the
FamilyNet Echomail Coordinator is the moderator of this
conference. This conference is open to users and sysops.
BACKBONE - This is the business conference for the FamilyNet Backbone
nodes. All backbone nodes should be tied into this conference. Any
node may tie into this conference. Access should be limted to
sysops.
FNLScan v1.12 - Fidonet NodeList Scan door
Scans up to 15 Fidonet (and compatible)
nodelists for a variety of criteria defined
by the user, such as BBS name, sysop name,
city, area code and arbitrary text. This
allows the user to find other Fido systems
quickly and easily for netmail addressing,
etc. Supports most BBS software, IRQs 2-15,
FOSSIL drivers and Digiboard multiport cards.
Now fully multi-language compatible and more!
FOL2TXT 1.0 QMail reader utility. Converts
any folder to a text file. Allows you to
view your folders at any time, even at the
DOS prompt or while entering a message.
Automatic setup, -free- for all users and
evaluators of QMail readers.
Archive-name: databases/free-databases
Last-modified: 1994/11/18
Version: 1.12
Catalog of Free Database Systems
This document attemts to catalog databases that are
available without payment and with source.
The latest version of the document can be ftp'ed: get
pub/free-databases from ftp.idiom.com.
I will post this document about once a month to comp.databases,
comp.databases.object, comp.answers, and news.answers. I will
also post it to other groups somewhat randomly.
Please send additions, corrections, and donations to
David Muir Sharnoff
I would like user testimonials. I want to know which databases
are usable and which are trustable! Is there any database on
this list that I could store payroll records on?
Thanks,
Idiom Consulting, Berkeley, CA
Copyright (C) 1993,1994 David Muir Sharnoff, All rights reserved.
Prototype entry:
name: The name of the package
version: The current version number of the package
direct inquiries to "contact."
interface from: (interface packages only) front end
protocol/program/language
interface to: (interface packages only) back end
protocol/program/server/etc.
interfaces: The external interfaces that are supported by
the package. Common interfaces are: SQL, ESQL,
dbm, X, etc.
access methods: A list of the database access methods that are
supported
multiuser: Can more than one person access the package at
the same time.
transactions: Does the package support transactions?
distributed: Does the package support distributed databases?
query language: What query languages does the package support
if any? SQL, QUEL, etc.
index size: (full text packages only) the size of the index as a
percentage
of the size of the text to be indexed.
limits: Any known, annoying limits
robustness: Can this package be used on mission-critical data? Is the
package bug free? Does it crash? If it supports multi-user
transactions, does it make guarentees and keep them?
description: A description of the package.
references: Pointers to other documentation (not including that which
is included in the package)
status: current developement status (supported, actively developed,
announcements: Where to get announcements
discussion: Where to send, or how to join discussions about the
package
bugs: Where to send bug reports
requires: Special requirements for installing or running
ports: What does the package run on?
restrictions: Special copyright or other restrictions on the software
author: The primary author, if known. If not known,
contact: The current contact point. If not specified,
use "author."
how to get: Instructions for obtaining the package
updated: When the package was last updated (yyyy/mm/dd)
Selected changes:
new listings:
Typhoon - a relation database inspired by db_VISTA
Qddb - a "quick and dirty database"
cbase - ISAM access methods
ciORA - C stdio-like interface to Oracle
persist++ - a set of C++ serialize routes for persistence
Hierarchical Data System - acceess large multi-dim arrays
Common Data Format - exchange large multi-dim arrays
cisamperl - perl interface to Informix C-ISAM 3.1 library
AddressManager - gui flatfile rolodex
grok - a gui flatfile
AdaSAGE - Ada libraries that include SQL parsing and recovery
updates:
mSQL 0.2 is out
Berkeley DB 1.85 is out
rdb 2.5k is out
pfl 0.2 is out
EDB 1.19 is out
Oratcl 2.2 is out
Sybtcl 2.2 is out
--------------------------- relational databases ----------------------
name: DiamondBase
version: 0.2
interfaces: C++ library
access methods: b+ tree
multiuser: Alpha in this version
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: C++ methods
limits: limits are set at compile time. The default max records
robustness: The database engine is quite stable. The multi-user
extensions
are a recent addition and are still considered to be an alpha
version. The single user version is separate however and
unaffected.
description: DiamondBase is written entirely in C++, and uses a schema
compiler to generate C++ class defintions for the objects, as
well as some comparison code which is also linked in to the
final executable. Facilities are now available to access
generic relations without providing comparison code. It was
written originally as a replacement for MetalBase which was too
slow. DiamondBase is very fast.
announcements: send mail to Darren Platt to be put on their list
questions: send mail to Darren Platt
bugs: send mail to Darren Platt
requires: C++
ports: many Unix platforms and OS/2 under cfront or gcc or
Borland's compiler.
restrictions: Free usage for non-commerical applications -- negotiate
anything else.
author: Kevin Lentin, Andrew Davison, Darren Platt
contact: Darren Platt
how to get: ftp pub/export/? from pippin.cs.monash.edu.au
updated: 1993/11/06
name: Qddb
version: 1.41
interfaces: query language, Tcl/Tk
access methods: ?
multiuser: yes
transactions: ?
distributed: no
query language: supports regular expressions; words, numbers, and
and ranges of words, numbers, and dates.
limits: ?
robustness: This is BETA software, but we have been happily using the
underlying stuff for years.
description: QDDB stands for 'Quick and Dirty DataBase'.
Qddb is a database suite that allows you to create relations,
add tuples, modify tuples, delete tuples, and search for tuples
in a fast and very flexible way. Qddb 1.40 can use Tcl as its
configuration language, so you can build custom interfaces to
your Qddb databases with it. We provide a reasonably nice
generic interface so you can be up and running quickly.
status: actively developed
discussion: send "Subject: subscribe" with your address in the body to
qddb-users-request@ms.uky.edu
bugs: qddb-bugs@ms.uky.edu and qddb-users@ms.uky.edu
requires: Tcl 7.3, Tk 3.6p1
ports: Ultrix, OSF/1, BSD/386, Linux, SunOS, Solaris.
restrictions: ?
author: Eric H. Herrin II ?
how to get: ftp pub/unix/qddb-* from ftp.ms.uky.edu
updated: 1994/10/27
name: Typhoon
version: 1.0
interfaces: C API
access methods: B-trees
multiuser: Yes, but no locking mechanism at this point (will come
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: A single file cannot exceed 4GB.
robustness: The package is quite stable as it is shut down properly.
is currently used in a system that handles billing
information (and some other applications).
description: Typhoon is a relational database management system. It
originally inspired by Raima's db_VISTA (today Raima Data
Manager) but is relational rather than network based. Typhoon
lacks some of db_VISTA's features, but also contains a number
of nice features not found in db_VISTA.
All relations are defined in a so called Data Definition
Language (ddl) file. You define the database relations like
you would write a C structure with chars, ints, strings,
multidimensional arrays, nested union and structures, etc. Then
you define primary, alternate and foreign keys for each
relation. The Data Definition Language Processor (ddlp)
compiles the database defintion into a binary file which
constitutes the database description. The database relations
are accessed via C subroutines which manipulate individual
records within a table.
- Multiple open database
- Multi-field keys
- Nested structures in records
- Controlled unions
- Referential integrity
- Variable length fields
- Null keys (optional keys in db_VISTA, but easier to use)
- Dynamic opening and closing of database files
status: actively developed
ports: SCO UNIX, Solaris, Tandem NonStop UNIX, AIX, Linux and OS/2.
author: Thomas B. Pedersen
how to get: comp.sources.misc volume 44;
ftp pub/Linux/Incoming/typhoon-1.0.tar.gz from sunsite.unc.edu
updated: 1994/09/16
name: University INGRES
version: 8.9
interfaces: QUEL, EQUEL
access methods: heap, hash, isam, ordered
multiuser: yes
transactions: yes, but no multistatement transactions. Each statement
is ACID
distributed: no
query language: QUEL
limits: ?
robustness: Very mature technology
description: This is the database program that was the basis for
INGRES
Corporation. Obviously, it does not have all the bells
and whistles of the current commercial product. However,
it is small and fast and it works.
So called ordered relations are slow and not locked.
references: "The INGRES Papers" Stonebraker ed. Addison Wesley
ports: SunOS, Linux
author: The Ingres project at UC Berkeley.
contact:
how to get: ftp pub/ingres/* from s2k-ftp.CS.Berkeley.EDU
updated: 1993/05/20
name: MetalBase
version: 5.0
interfaces: custome C library
access methods: AVL-trees
multiuser: yes, but in theory race conditions still exist
transactions: yes
distributed: no
query language: "Report", and "View Relation" a curses based viewer
limits: ?
robustness: data corruption is possible when MetalBase is not shut
down correctly
description: MetalBase is a small relational database. It has all the
pieces that a relational database should C interface, curses
interface, report writer, etc. It does not have design which
takes advantage of shared memory or the better access methods.
None of the interfaces are standard, but all of them are easy
discussion: mbase-request@internode.com.au
requires: curses
ports: Linux, MS-DOS, Amiga, NeXT, Coherent, Macintosh MPW, SGI,
restrictions: donations are suggested
author: Richid Jernigan / PO Box 827 / Norris TN 37828
how to get: ftp systems/unix/linux/sources/usr.bin/mbase.tar.z
from ftp.uu.net
updated: 1992/10/01
name: mSQL (Mini SQL)
version: 0.2
interfaces: ? and ESL, TCL/Tk, Perl, Python
access methods: ?
multiuser: ?
transactions: ?
distributed: no
query language: SQL and ESL
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: Mini SQL or mSQL is a light weight database engine that
supports a subset of the ANSI SQL specification (no joins, no
views). It is a single proces engine and doesn't use vast
amounts of system resources as other engines do. It supports
client server operations over TCP/IP networks and provides
quite reasonable performance. As an example, on a clunky old
25mhz 386 running Linux (one of the supported platforms) a
sustained rate of 67 inserts per second was achieved during the
insertion of 100,000 table entries.
ESL is a C styled scripting language. It includes host
independant binary format for compiled scripts; associative
arrays (both transitory and persistent); and bindings to the
CMU-SNMP library.
discussion: msql-list-request@bond.edu.au
ports: Linux, SunOS 4.1, Solaris 2.3, Ultrix 4.3. Uses autoconf.
restrictions: ?
author: David Hughes
how to get: ftp pub/Bond_Uni/Minerva/msql/ from Bond.edu.au
updated: 1994/09/08
name: Postgres
version: 4.2 beta
interfaces: libpq (C interface), pgbrowse (tk-based browser)
access methods: Heap plus secondary indexes: B-tree, R-tree, Hash.
multiuser: yes
transactions: yes
distributed: no
query language: Postquel (incompatable, extended variant of QUEL)
limits: ?
robustness: The authors say: "It is not up to commercial levels of
reliability. I would not want _my_ payroll records in it :-)"
description: Postgres is a database research project under Prof.
Michael
Stonebraker at U. C. Berkeley. To facilitate research
efforts, a software test-bed was created; this is the
"Postgres" DBMS software. The Postgres DBMS is extended
relational or object oriented, depending on the buzzword du
jour. Postgres is relational. It is highly extensible. It
has object oriented features like inheritance. it has query
language procedures, rules, updatable views, and more.
references: There are may papers available, both through ftp and as
hard-copy technical reports. Cruse the ftp site for papers
or mail Michelle Mattera
discussion: send "Subject: ADD" to postgres-
request@postgres.berkeley.edu
linux: send "X-Mn-Admin: join postgres"
to linux-activists-request@niksula.hut.fi
bugs:
ports: full support: Alpha OSF/1 1.3+, Mips Ultrix .2+,
Sparc SunOS 4.1.1+, Power AIX 3.2.3+, HP-PA HP-UX 9.0+
comming soon: Sparc Solaris 2.3, i386 Linux
previous versions: i386 SVR4, i386 386BSD, i386 Linux,
i386 NextStep 3.1, NeXT NextStep 3.0,
Sparc Solaris 2.1+, HP-PA HP-UX 8.07
contact: developers:
admin: Michelle Mattera
how to get: ftp pub/postgres/postgres-v4r2* from s2k-
ftp.CS.Berkeley.EDU.
pgbrowse: ftp pub/pgbrowse/* from crseo.ucsb.edu.
updated: 1994/04/02
name: REQUIEM
version: ?
interfaces: RQL, ERQL (extension)
access methods: B-tree indexes can be created on attributes of base
relations.
multiuser: yes (multiuser extension)
transactions: yes (multiuser extension)
distributed: no
query language: RQL
robustness: [seems to maintained by zero to few people --ed]
description: REQUIEM (RElational Query and Update Interactive systEM)
an extensible, relational DBMS developed in C with a query
language based on the relational algebra called RQL (Relational
Query Language).
There appears to be three versions of REQUIEM: the base
version and two extensions. One extension adds multiuser
capability. The other adds an embeddable version of the
query langauge.
references: "An Extensible DBMS for Small-Medium Scale Systems",
Papazoglou, M.P., IEEE Micro, April 1989.
Relational Database Management - A Systems Programming
Approach, Papazoglou, M.P. and Valder, W., Prentice Hall
International, UK, 1989.
"The Development of a Program Interface for the RDBMS Requiem"
Power, R.A., 1991 Honours Thesis (dvi file available with
source code for the embedded version).
ports: Sparc/SunOS; base version only: MS-DOS, Macintosh
contact: (embedded version only)
Robert Power
how to get: ftp pub/requiem/REQUIEM.tar.Z (multiuser version) or
pub/requiem/Requiem.tar.Z (embeddable version)
from dcssoft.anu.edu.au
The base version can be constructed from the multiuser version.
updated: 1992/10/06
name: shql
version: 1.3 Beta
interfaces: SQL, shell
multiuser: no
transactions: no ?
distributed: no
limits: no NULLs in the data, spaces and backslashes may be added
the data contains punctuation, GROUP BY is not implemented.
robustness: it is a shell script.
description: Shql is a program that reads SQL commands interactively
executes those commands by creating and manipulating Unix
files. The program is patterned after Ingres' interactive sql
terminal monitor program.
requires: bourne shell with functions, awk, grep, cut, sort, uniq,
wc, and sed
author: Bruce Momjian
how to get: comp.sources.misc volumes 34, 41 and 42.
Also ftp pub/net-sources/shql-patch-1.3-beta from ftp.idiom.com
updated: 1994/08/06
--------------------------- object oriented ---------------------------
name: Arjuna Distributed Programming System
version: 2.0
interfaces: C++
access methods: ?
multiuser: yes
transactions: yes, nested
distributed: yes, includes replicated objects
query language: ?
limits: ?
robustness: "all reported bugs fixed"
description: Arjuna is a programming system for reliable distributed
computing. Arjuna supports nested atomic actions for
controlling operations on objects (instances of C++ classes),
which can potentially be persistent. The software available
includes a C++ stub generator which hides much of the details
of client-server based programming, plus a system programmer's
manual containing details of how to install Arjuna and use it
to build fault-tolerant distributed applications.
discussion: send "join arjuna YOUR-NAME-HERE" to
mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk
ports: UNIX: Suns, HPs, etc.
restrictions: A commercial extension exists.
contact: arjuna@newcastle.ac.uk
how to get: ftp ? from arjuna.ncl.ac.uk
updated: 1993/05/15
name: EXODUS Project software
version: GNU E 2.3.3, Storage Manager (SM) 3.1
interfaces: GNU E, (C++ for direct access to the Storage Manager)
access methods: B+tree and linear-hashing based indexes
multiuser: yes, client-server
transactions: yes, but not nested.
distributed: yes, applications can access multiple servers in a single
transaction. Distributed commits are performed across servers
and clients have access to an interface allowing participation
in distributed commits managed by an external agent.
query language: GNU E -- a persistent programming language based on
robustness: High (at least for academic software).
The SM release includes a facility for regression
testing most features, including crash recovery.
description: The EXODUS Storage Manager (SM) is a client-server object
storage system which provides "storage objects" for storing
data, versions of objects, "files" for grouping related storage
objects, and indexes for supporting efficient object access. A
storage object is an uninterpreted container of bytes which can
range in size from a few bytes to hundreds of megabytes. The
Storage Manager provides routines to read, overwrite, and
efficiently grow and shrink objects. In addition, the Storage
Manager provides transactions, lock-based concurrency control,
and log-based recovery.
GNU E is a persistent, object oriented programming language
developed as part of the Exodus project. GNU E extends C++
with the notion of persistent data, program level data objects
that can be transparently used across multiple executions of a
program, or multiple programs, without explicit input and
output operations.
references: A bibliography of EXODUS related papers can be obtained
the ftp site described below. Some of the papers are available
from the ftp server as technical reports, and are marked as
such in the bibliography.
status: No longer being developed. However, the authors are working
on a new system, SHORE, and will support current Exodus
users well enough to keep them going until SHORE is useable.
GNU E 2.5.8 is in beta and can be ftped.
discussion: Send "information exodus_all" to listproc@cs.wisc.edu to
find out how to join the exodus_all mailing list.
bugs: exodusbugs@cs.wisc.edu
requires: g++ 2.3.3 (exactly 2.3.3. GNU E 2.5.8 is in beta)
ports: MIPS/Ultrix, SPARC/SunOS, HP 7xx/HP-UX, Linux
restrictions: none, but see copyright notice located in all source
author: The EXODUS Database Toolkit project at the
University of Wisconsin
contact: exodus@cs.wisc.edu
how to get: ftp exodus/* from ftp.cs.wisc.edu
updated: 1993/03/29
name: LINCKS (Linkoping Intelligent Communication of Knowledge
System)
version: 2.2.1
interfaces: C library, emacs-like editor/X11
access methods: ?
multiuser: yes
transactions: no
distributed: no, but maybe later
query language: hypertext-ish X user interface
robustness: The underlaying store handler (NODE) has been used since
and is quite stable. The system have betweem 20 to 500 users.
description: LINCKS is an object-centred multi-user database system
developed for complex information system applications where
editing and browsing of information in the database is of
paramount importance. The focus is on sharing of small
information chunks which combine to make up complex information
objects used by different users for different purposes. The
information chunks are semi-structured in that they contain one
part which is well-structured to facilitate addition of A.I.
processing within the system, and one part which is
unstructured and suitable for management by the user.
Features: shared composite objects, database history,
atlernative views, change collision notification (when more
than one person makes changes to the same composite object)
references: ftp://ftp.ida.liu.se/pub/lincks/articles/cscw.ps.gz
announcements: lincks@ida.liu.se
discussion: lincks-users-request@ida.liu.se
bugs: lincks-bugs@ida.liu.se
requires: Unix, X11R5
ports: Sun4/SunOS 4.1.[123], Sun4/SunOS 5.2, Sun3, Decstation, Alpha,
RS/6000, Sequent Symmetry, Linux, HP-UX, SGI, SCO, SVR4.2, Sony
restrictions: GNU General Public License
author: Lin Padgham, Ralph Ronnquist; University of Linkoping, Sweden
contact: lincks@ida.liu.se
how to get: ftp pub/lincks/lincks-2.2.tar.gz from ftp.ida.liu.se
usa: ftp pub/database/lincks/lincks-2.2.tar.gz from ftp.uu.net
usa: ftp pub/net/infosys/lincks/lincks-2.2.tar.gz
from gatekeeper.dec.com
updated: 1994/06/05
name: OBST
version: 3-4
interfaces: C++, tcl, schema compiler, graphical object browser
access methods: extendable hashtable
multiuser: yes, but writing locks entire tables
transactions: yes
distributed: not yet
query language: C++, tcl, graphical object browser
limits: 4 GB per container, 2^32 containers
robustness: OBST is quite stable since the start of '93. Releases were
made to enhance the coding quality rather than to add new
features. There are somewhere between 50 and 500 users.
description: The persistent object management system OBST was
developed by
Forschungszentrum Informatik (FZI) as a contribution to the
STONE project (supported by grant no. ITS8902A7 from the BMFT,
i.e. the German Ministry for Research).
OBST was originally designed to serve as the common persistent
object store for the tools of an software engineering
environment.
An essential feature of STONE is that the object oriented
paradigm is pursued consequently as a key concept. OBST is the
common persistent object store for all tools within the STONE
environment.
OBST provides a rich OO model including multiple inheritance,
generics, overloading, and privacy. The schema definition
language is syntactically similar to C++. It comes with a
library of pre-defined classes like Set, and
List. New methods can be incrementally loaded at
runtime.
announcements: send 'add obst-announce' to obst-
listserv@fzi.de
discussion: send 'add obst-forum' to obst-
listserv@fzi.de
bugs: send OBST version, configuration options, C++ version, machine,
OS, and a description of your problem to .
requires: A C++ compiler (G++ 2.3.3-2.5.8 or AT&T 2.1/3.01)
ports: UNIX: SPARC/SunOS 4.1, Solaris 2, Linux, HP-UX, ...
contact: obst@fzi.de
how to get: ftp pub/OBST/OBST3-4 from ftp.fzi.de
usa: ftp pub/database/obst/? from ftp.uu.net
uk: ftp computing/databases/OBST/? from src.doc.ic.ac.uk
updated: 1994/06/29
name: pfl
version: 0.2
interfaces: Built-in persistent functional programming language
access methods: no
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: functional programming
limits: Index size is limited by the amount of main memory available.
Selectors are a bit flaky when they contain more than about
10,000 tuples. Since the current implementation of the
language is interpreted it is very slow.
robustness: alpha release
description: pfl is a persistent programming language and database
environment. The language is functional.
references: "An Overview of PFL", 3rd International Workshop on
Database
Programming Languages, 1991.
"A functional programming approach to deductive databases",
17th International Conference on Very Large Databases, 1991
bugs: SunOS: author, Linux: Tim Holmes
requires: GNU C++
ports: Linux, SunOS
restrictions: GNU General Public License; educational use ?
author: Carol Small
contact: Tim Holmes
how to get ftp pub/Linux/ALPHA/pfl-0.2.tgz from sunsite.unc.edu
updated: 1994/09/21
name: The Texas Persistent Store
version: 0.1
interfaces: C++ library
access methods: ?
multiuser: not yet
transactions: not yet
distributed: not yet
query language: ?
limits: ?
robustness: beta software
description: Texas is a simple, portable, high-performance persistent
for C++ using "pointer swizzling at page fault time" to
translate persistent addresses to hardware-supported virtual
addresses. Texas is built on top of a normal virtual memory,
and relies on the underlying virtual memory system for
caching. Texas is easy to use, and is implemented as a UNIX
library. It is small and can be linked into applications. It
requires no special operating system privileges, and
persistence is orthogonal to type---objects may be allocated on
either a conventional transient heap, or on the persistent
heap, as desired. Texas supports simple checkpointing of heap
references: ftp pub/garbage/*.ps from cs.utexas.edu
announcements: send mail to oops@cs.utexas.edu
discussion: ?
requires: ?
ports: SunOS, Ultrix, Sun CC, GNU C++
restrictions: ?
author: ?
contact: oops@cs.utexas.edu
how to get: ftp pub/garbage/texas/? from cs.utexas.edu
updated: ?
name: Triton Object-Oriented Database System
version: 1.1
interfaces: E, an Ada language binding.
access methods: uses Exodus
robustness: The support provided for Triton is limited. As resources
permit, reported bugs will be fixed. Triton is reasonably
robust and has been in daily use in Arcadia for several years
primarily supporting APPL/A and Amadeus.
description: Triton is an object-oriented database management system
designed to support the Arcadia software engineering
environment. It can be used as a general purpose DBMS, although
it has specialized features to support the software process
capabilities in Arcadia in the form of the APPL/A language.
Triton provides for multi-language access and sharing of data,
dynamic creation of classes (with methods) and objects, special
support for relations, and special support for triggers. Triton
uses a client-server architecture with data and methods held in
the server.
Triton is written in E, which is a persistent C++.
What Triton adds to Exodus is another interface and a lot
of higher-level functionality. This includes an Object Manager
shell (catalog, trigger manager, and application objects);
multi-language access and sharing; dynamic definition of
schema and classes; schema catalog; and triggers before and/or
after method invocations.
references: http://www.ics.uci.edu/Arcadia
requires: Exodus/E, DLD-3.2.3, Q 2.2, Arpc401.3a
restrictions: GNU General Public License [I presume --ed]
author: University of Colorado Arcadia Project.
contact: Dennis Heimbigner
how to get: ftp pub/cs/distribs/arcadia/? from ftp.cs.colorado.edu
www: http://www.cs.colorado.edu/homes/arcadia/public_html/triton.html
updated: ?
name: William's Object Oriented Database (Wood)
version: 0.6
interfaces: MCL 2.0
access methods: custom
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none. Has BTrees for indexing.
limits: Will slow down when the database size exceeds
256 megabytes. Otherwise, database size limited
by disk size (up to Macintosh limit, which is,
I believe, 4 gigabytes). Object size limited
to 24 megabytes. If you think of a Wood database
as a random access FASL file, you'll have the
right idea.
robustness: Until it has a real logging/recovery mechanism,
I wouldn't advise using it for mission critical
data. Caches pages in memory, so if you crash,
you will lose. Has a function to flush the
cache to disk, so you can do explicit checkpoints
to make it more robust.
description: Wood is a simple persistent store for MCL 2.0.
This is still alpha software. It is incomplete: though you can
save/restore all Lisp objects to/from a file, there is no
transaction/recovery manager and no garbage collector for the
persistent heap. I will not be able to provide much support,
but you get source code.
discussion: info-wood-request@cambridge.apple.com
bugs: bug-wood@cambridge.apple.com
ports: Macintosh CommonLisp 2.0
author: Bill St. Clair
how to get: ftp pub/mcl2/contrib/wood* from cambridge.apple.com
updated: 1993/03/07
--------------------------- deductive databases -----------------------
name: Aditi Deductive Database System
version: beta release
interfaces: motif, command line, NU-Prolog
access methods: Base relations contain variable sized records. Base
relations
can be indexed with B-trees or multi-level signature files
(superimposed code words) allowing multi-attribute indexing and
querying, or they can be stored as unindexed flat files.
multiuser: yes
transactions: next release
distributed: ?
query language: prolog, graphical (Motif)
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: Aditi is a multi-user deductive database system. It
supports
base relations defined by facts (relations in the sense of
relational databases) and derived relations defined by rules
that specify how to compute new information from old
information. The old information can be from derived relations
as well as base relations; the rules of derived relations may
be recursive. Both base relations and the rules defining
derived relations are stored on disk and are accessed as
required during query evaluation.
ports: SPARC/SunOS, MIPS/IRIX
author: The development of the Aditi system started in 1988 by
Professor Kotagiri Ramamohanarao, and many people have been
involved in its development, in particular Jayen Vaghani, Tim
Leask, Peter Stuckey, John Shepherd, Zoltan Somogyi, James
Harland and David Kemp. The support of Kim Marriott, David
Keegel, and Warwick Harvey is also acknowledged.
contact: aditi@cs.mu.oz.au
how to get: send email to aditi@cs.mu.oz.au
updated: 1992/12/17
name: ConceptBase
version: V3.3
interfaces: Prolog, C, C++
access methods: TELL and ASK
multiuser: yes
transactions: primitive (no concurrency)
distributed: no (but can be extended to do so)
query language: CBQL ("query classes")
limits: system is rather slow for objects bases larger than
10000 objects
robustness: used by 100+ institutes, thereby quite robust
description: ConceptBase is a deductive object base manager, i.e., it
combines object-oriented principles with logical deduction.
references: see WorldWideWeb entry:

bugs: CB@picasso.informatik.rwth-aachen.de
ports: SunOS 4.1.3, Solaris 2.3 (both on SunSPARC)
restrictions: ConceptBase is distributed by "contact", only. It is not
public domain. The source agreeement prohibits commercial
and military use.
author: ConceptBase Team
contact:
ConceptBase Team, c/o Manfred Jeusfeld, RWTH Aachen,
Informatik V,
Ahornstr. 55, 52056 Aachen, Germany
how to get: ftp /pub/CB from ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de
updated: 1994/06/08
name: CORAL
version: 0.1 (Version 1.0 expected shortly)
interfaces: Exodus storage mangager, C++
access methods: Hash-based and B+ tree indices
multiuser: When used with Exodus
transactions: When used with Exodus
distributed: ?
query language: Prolog-like with SQL-style extensions; C++ interface
limits: No type checking; only atomic values in persistent relations
robustness: Research software; used for teaching and in research
projects,
but some bugs remain
description: The CORAL deductive database/logic programming system was
developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The CORAL
declarative language is based on Horn-clause rules with
extensions like SQL's group-by and aggregation operators, and
uses a Prolog-like syntax. Many evaluation techniques are
supported, including bottom-up fixpoint evaluation and top-down
backtracking. Disk-resident data is supported via an interface
to the Exodus storage manager; however, CORAL can run without
Exodus if disk-resident relations are not required.
A good interface to C++ is provided. Relations defined using
the declarative language can be manipulated from C++ code,
and relations defined using C++ code can be used in declarative
rules. C++ code defining relations can be incrementally loaded.
requires: AT&T C++ 2.0 or later
ports: Decstations, Sun 4, Sparc, HP Snakes
author: The CORAL group consists of R. Ramakrishnan, P. Seshadri,
D. Srivastava and S. Sudarshan. The following people made
important contributions: T. Arora, P. Bothner, V. Karra
and W.G. Roth. Several other people were also involved:
J. Albert, T. Ball, L. Chan, M. Das, S. Goyal, R. Netzer
and S. Sterner.
contact: Raghu Ramakrishnan
how to get: ftp from ftp.cs.wisc.edu
updated: 1993/02/12
name: MOOD5 (Material's Object-Oriented Database)
version: 1.0
interfaces: Virtually none.
access methods: ?
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: Query-by-example object retrieval + some
limits: The database is memory resident when in use and cannot
exceed 16MB.
robustness: Operation is fairly stable but by no means for
mission-critical data. Mostly useful for experimentation.
description: MOOD5 is an object-oriented database system written in
Prolog.
Unlike other general purpose OODBS, the system is meant to be
used by non-programmer end-users with its unified user
interface named the Object-Editor, or OE, in short. Therefore,
the program may better be described as an OODB application. It
is developed for the purpose of exprimenting the power of OODB
in dealing with complex material data. As a result, it contains
may novel features which are considered to be necessary to
support material database practice such as the reasoning for
data retrieval, the support of literal expressions for physical
quantities, and so on. Interest from engineers/scientists who
are to deal with a bulk of experimental data (not only from
materials) and programmers in association with them are very
much appreciated.
announcements: comp.databases.object, sci.materials
discussion: author
bugs: author
ports: IBM/NEC-PC/MS-DOS
author: Noboru Ono
how to get: ftp pub/mood from mood.mech.tohoku.ac.jp
usa: ftp pub/database/mood from ftp.uu.net
uk: ftp pub/computing/databases/mood from src.doc.ic.ac.uk
updated: 1994/05/17
--------------------------- special purpose ---------------------------
name: GRAS (GRAph-oriented database System)
version: 5.90/9 [[6.0 alpha]]
interfaces: Navigational programming interfaces for C and Modula-2
access methods: tries fro database pages, static hashing within pages
multiuser: Very restricted single writer/multiple reader access
[[6.0: shared read/write access with locks on a per-session,
transaction, or operation basis]]
transactions: yes; based on backwards logs. Checkpoints allow roll-
back (and
roll-forward) to a previous state.
distributed: no. [[6.0: Multiclient/multiserver architecture]]
query language: PROGRES (PROgrammed Graph Rewriting Systems; a
language
released
separately)
limits: 2**16 nodes per database and 2**16 databases per multi-
database
robustness: Has been successfully used as the underlying database for
a number of research prototypes and one commercial product.
Guarantees recovery from (almost) all application/system crashes
description: GRAS is a database system which has been designed
according
to the requirements resulting from software engineering
applications. Software development environments are composed
of tools which operate on complex, highly structured data.
In order to model such data in a natural way, we have selected
attributed graphs as GRAS' underlying data model.
The current version has programming interfaces for Modula-2 and
C and supports:
- persistent attributed, directed node- and edge-labeled
graphs (including long attributes and indexes)
- temporary/volatile generic sets, binary relations, and lists,
- graph modification triggers causing further modifications
- primitives for version control comprising the capability
for efficiently storing graphs as forward/backward deltas
- primitives for declaring graph schemes and for incremental
evaluation of derived attributes (constraints).
In additon, there are tools for compressing and displaying
graphs. The GRAS system may be considered to be the core of a
graph oriented DBMS environment. The environment is based on a
VHLL called PROGRESS. This environment supports: a
syntax-directed editor for graph schemes, rewrite rules and
sequences of rules; an incremental consistency checker; an
incremental compiler&interpreter for PROGRESS; an enhanced
graph browser
references: Kiesel, Schuerr, Westfechtel: GRAS, A Graph-Oriented
Database
System for (Software) Engineering Applications. Proc. CASE 93,
Lee, Reid, Jarzabek (eds.): Proc. CASE '93, 6th Int. Conf. on
Computer-Aided Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society
Press (1993), pp 272-286. Available by ftp as TR AIB 92-44.
Schuerr: PROGRES: A VHL-Language Based on Graph Grammars,
in Proc. 4th Int. Workshop on Graph-Grammars and Their
Application to Computer Science, LNCS 532, Springer-
Verlag 1991, pp 641-659. Available by ftp asTR AIB 90-16.
announcements: a list is forming; send mail to the contact (below)
bugs: use the included "send-pr" program to send bug reports
requires: Modula-2, C
ports: Sun-4, porting requires Modula-2
restrictions: GNU General Public License
author: Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik III, RWTH Aachen, Ahornstr. 55
D-52074 Aachen, Germany.
contact: (v5.x & PROGRES) Dr. Andy Sch"urr aachen.de>
(v6.x) Norbert Kiesel
how to get: (v5.x) ftp pub/unix/GRAS from ftp.informatik.rwth-
aachen.de
(PROGRES sun4) ftp pub/unix/PROGRES from ftp.informatik.rwth-
aachen.de
(PROGRES source) send mail to contact
(references) ftp pub/reports/* from ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de
(v6.x) contact Norbert Kiesel
updated: 1993/11/01
--------------------------- flat files --------------------------------
name: AddressManager
version: 0.1
interfaces: Tcl/Tk
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: A graphical rolodex
requires: wish
author: Chunping Ding
how to get: ftp pub/addressManager.tar.gz from banff.cssip.edu.au
usa: ftp pub/tcl/code/addressManager.* from harbor.ecn.purdue.edu
updated: 1994/05/12
name: EDB, the Emacs database
version: 1.19
interfaces: Emacs, Emacs Lisp
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: Emacs Lisp
limits: same as for Emacs -- typically 8 or 32 MB
robustness: fairly high -- currently being used for mission-critical
description: EDB provides simple database access in a "user-friendly"
environment for flat files. Extensions for linking records and
relational-like operations exist, and further extensions are
easy to make.
EDB is documented by a 110-page manual, complete with indices
discussion: edb-list-request@theory.lcs.mit.edu
bugs: mernst@theory.lcs.mit.edu or edb-list@theory.lcs.mit.edu
requires: GNU Emacs 18, GNU Emacs 19, or Lucid Emacs
ports: any computer that runs Emacs -- that is, almost any computer
restrictions: GNU Public License
author: Michael Ernst
how to get: ftp pub/emacs/edb/edb-*.tar.gz from theory.lcs.mit.edu
updated: 1994/11/15
name: grok (Graphical Resource Organizer Kit)
version: ?
interfaces: query language, GUI, GUI builder
access methods: ?
multiuser: ?
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: custom
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: Grok is a simple database manager and UI builder that can
phone lists; store phone call logs; store todo lists; and
manage any other database after simple GUI-driven
customization.
More precisely, grok is a program for displaying and editing
strings arranged in a grid of rows and columns. Each row is
presented as a "card" consisting of multiple columns, or
"fields", that allow data entry. The presentation of the data
is programmable; a user interface builder that allows the user
to arrange fields on a card graphically is part of grok. Grok
also supports a simple language that allows sophisticated
queries and data retrieval.
ports: IRIX, HP-UX, AIX.
restrictions: ?
author: Thomas Driemeyer
how to get: author is looking for ftp site
updated: 1994/10/31
name: Jinx
version: 2.1
interfaces: perl, shell
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: no limits
robustness: No bugs have ever been reported
description: Very easy to use, curses based flat file handler.
In Perl, so no limits. Allows Join, Project, Sort etc.
Representation in 2 readable unix files. A documented
Perl library makes it easy to add applications.
references: Online help and a 17 page tutorial.
requires: Perl, cterm (distributed with jinx)
ports: any unix system with ordinary perl and curses
restrictions: Copyleft
author: Henk Penning, Utrecht University
contact: Henk Penning
how to get: ftp pub/PERL/jinx.shar.Z and pub/PERL/cterm.shar.Z
from ftp.cs.ruu.nl
updated: 1991/11/01
name: rdb
version: 2.5k
interfaces: perl, shell, UNIX tools
access methods: binary search, linear scan
multiuser: restricted single writer/multiple reader access
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: no limits
robustness: Is being used on many research projects; no known bugs.
description: RDB is a fast, portable, Relational DataBase Management
System
that works with relational data in ascii files.
RDB is a set of Perl modules working as filters, like "row",
"column" & "join" ; a very nifty table formatting script is in
"ptbl", which can do long field folding into multiple lines per
row. Also includes a general report generation capability.
references: Included documentation; Each module has online help.
announcements: comp.lang.perl; also author email list of current
discussion: author
ports: any unix system (or other OS with redirection of I/O).
author: Walt Hobbs
how to get: ftp pub/RDB-hobbs/RDB-2.5j.tar.Z from rand.org
updated: 1994/06/20
----------------- dbm and other and raw access methods ----------------
name: The Berkeley DB code
version: 1.85
interfaces: ndbm, hsearch
access methods: hash, b+tree, recno
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: can handle large items
robustness: The db routines are used in some production code so they
are likely to work reasonably well.
description: The Berkeley DB Code is a unification of several previous
interfaces. It also forms the basis of a unified interface
to new access methods (b+tree, recno).
references: "A New Hashing Package for UNIX", Margo Seltzer, Ozan
Proceedings of the Winter USENIX Conference, Dallas, TX, 1991.
Also available by ftp'ing pub/oz/hash.ps.Z from nexus.yorku.ca.
"Document Processing in a Relational Database System, Michael
Stonebraker," Heidi Stettner, Joseph Kalash, Antonin Guttman,
Nadene Lynn, Memorandum No. UCB/ERL M82/32, May 1982.
"LIBTP: Portable, Modular Transactions for UNIX," Margo
Seltzer, Michael Olson, Proceedings 1992 Winter Usenix
Conference, San Francisco, CA, January 1992.
reported bugs: does not align data in memory [fixed? --ed]
ports: SunOS 4.1.2, Ultrix 4.2A, BSD 4.4, and most other Unix
author: Margo Seltzer, Keith Bostic, Ozan Yigit
contact: Keith Bostic
how to get: ftp ucb/4bsd/db.tar.gz from ftp.cs.berkeley.edu
updated: 1994/09/01
name: Btree Library
version: first public release
interfaces: raw C library
access methods: b-tree
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: values are limited to 4 bytes (long enough for a pointer!)
robustness: ?
description: Ths is a library that maintains a simple balanced btree
Nothing more is provided than routines to insert, set, find
(specific, next, and previous), and delete keys. Each key,
however, has a spare long value that can be used to contain an
offset to a data file. A library to handle fixed-length records
based on these pointers should be trivial. (Can you say
'dBASEIII'?) Another failing of this library is its total
inability to cope with having several programs modifying
indices at the same time. (it *CAN*, but I won't vouch for the
result) The good solutions to that particular problem are OS
dependent, unfortunately, and I am not a database guru anyhow.
ports: Unix
author: Marcus J. Ranum
how to get: get btree and bt-rio from comp.sources.misc volume 3
updated: 1988/06/02
name: B+tree Library
version: first public release
interfaces: raw C library, dbm-like library
access methods: b+tree
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: This is the source code for a variable-length key
variable page
size b+tree library. Also included is source for a variety of
test programs, a semi-useable record manager, and a
dbm-lookalike library built on top of the record manager and
b+tree. (dbm(3) will blow it away performance-wise, of
course).
ports: Pyramid, Sun, BSD4.3, Ultrix. Does not work on Xenix
author: Marcus J. Ranum
how to get: get b+tree_mgr from comp.sources.misc volume 10
updated: 1988/06/02
name: cbase
version: 102
interfaces: C
access methods: ISAM
multiuser: no
transactions: ?
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: A database library (ISAM like).
ports: MS-DOS
restrictions: ?
contact: ?
how to get: ftp pub3c/SimTel/msdos/c/cbase102.zip from ftp.ibp.fr
updated: ?
name: dbc3
version: 1.0
interfaces: raw C library
access methods: ?
multiuser: no
transactions: ?
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: Dbclib provides a basic C interface to the database files
used by dBase III. It provides funtions to both read and
write them. The author is German and so all the comments are
in German. It's very small (95k). [I'm not sure I have
the name correct --ed]
ports: Unix, MS-DOS
author: D.Schanz
how to get: uucp (host gold, login nuucp, no password, phone 08106-
/home/public/unxhigh/unix1/dbclib.tgz; or
ftp pub/pc/dos/programming/c/dbclib.tar.gz from ftp.uni-kl.de
updated: 1988/09/13
name: dbz
version: "20 Feb 1993 Performance Release of C News"
interfaces: dbm-like, command-line access
access methods: hash
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: lines are limited to 1024 bytes unless the -l option is used
robustness: very robust within its domain
description: A dbm-like library maintained for use with C-news.
ports: everything that runs C-news (lots)
author: Jon Zeeff , David Butler, Mark
Moraes, Henry Spencer. Hashing function by Peter Honeyman.
contact: Henry Spencer
how to get: included in the C-news distribution as ./dbz
updated: 1992/02/11
name: gdbm
version: 1.7.3
interfaces: dbm, ndbm, gdbm
access methods: hash
multiuser: no, but does lock the entire file
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: can handle large items
robustness: [should be good --ed]
description: An ndbm work-alike from the Free Software Foundation
bugs: gnu.utils.bug
author: Philip A. Nelson
how to get: ftp gdbm-*.tar.gz from any gnu archive
updated: 1994/05/18
name: HDS (Hierarchical Data System)
version: ?
interfaces: Fortran, C?
access methods: ?
multiuser: ?
transactions: ?
distributed: no
query language: ?
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: [This is probably just a library, but it may be a full
database --ed]
A library for storing large multi-dimensional arrays where
efficiency of access is a requirement.
It is presently used in astronomy, for storing (in particular)
images, spectra and time series.
references: http://star-www.rl.ac.uk/
ports: Alpha OSF/1, Sparc SunOS, Sparc Solaris
restrictions: ?
contact: ? mdl@star.rl.ac.uk ?
how to get: ftp pub/doc/star-docs/sun92.tex from starlink-ftp.rl.ac.uk
updated: ?
name: IDBM (ISAM Database Manager)
version: 0.2.0
interfaces: C library, curses query facility
access methods: ISAM
multiuser: no
transactions: no ?
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: ?
robustness: beta release
description: IDBM is a fairly complete ISAM database system. It
includes
a database library, a schema compiler, a database consistaency
checker, import and export routines, and curses programs to
modify the database schema and the data in the database.
references: ?
announcements: ?
discussion: ?
requires: ?
ports: Xenix, SysV, HP-UX, AIX, Amiga, SunOS, BSD, and Ultrix
restrictions: May not be used for commercial purposes.
author: John F Haugh II
contact: ?
how to get: ftp pub/idbm/idbm-0.2.x/* from ftp.nevada.edu
updated: 1992/03/31
name: sdbm
version: ?
interfaces: ndbm
access methods: hash
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: ?
robustness: [I know of no problems --ed]
description: ndbm work-alike hashed database library based
on Per-Aake Larson's Dynamic Hashing algorithms.
author: Ozan S. Yigit
how to get: included in the X11R5 distribution as contrib/util/sdbm
updated: 1990/03/01
name: tdbm
version: 1.2
interfaces: dbm-like
access methods: hashing
multiuser: In theory, but the required threads package is not
currently
distributed.
transactions: yes
distributed: yes
query language: none
limits: Some minor ones.
robustness: Probably pretty reliable, but no hard data available.
description: Tdbm is a transaction processing database with a dbm-like
interface. It provides nested atomic transactions, volatile
and persistent databases, and support for very large objects
and distributed operation.
references: A paper appearing in the Summer '92 USENIX proceedings
describes the design and implementation of tdbm and examines
its performance.
discussion: Contact the author.
bugs: Contact the author.
author: Barry Brachman
requires: Nothing special.
ports: Sparc, MIPS, AIX. Thought to be quite portable.
restrictions: Copyrighted with liberal use policy.
how to get: ftp pub/local/src/tdbm-1.2.tar.gz from ftp.cs.ubc.ca
updated: 1994/07/06
name: Wb
version: 1a2
interfaces: scheme library
access method: b-tree
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: keys and data must be less that 256 bytes. Total database
must be < blocksize*2^32.
robustness: unknown. New release by a good programmer.
description: WB is a disk based, sorted associative array C library.
associative arrays consist of variable length (less that 256
bytes) keys and values. WB comes with an interface to the
Scheme implementation SCM.
author: Aubrey Jaffer
requires: SCM and SLIB (also available from altdorf.ai.mit.edu)
how to get: ftp archive/scm/wb1a2.tar.z from altdorf.ai.mit.edu
updated: 1993/11/05
name: YACL (Yet Another Class Library)
version: ?
interfaces: C++ library
access methods: variable-length record management, b-trees.
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: YACL is a general-purpose C++ class library. It happens
to include some disk access methods.
ports: MS Windows, Linux
restrictions: Commercial use prohibited.
author: M. A. Sridhar
how to get: ftp pub/sridhar/yacl.zip from ftp.cs.scarolina.edu
updated: 1994/05/25
--------------------------- full text ---------------------------------
name: glimpse
version: 1.0
interfaces: command line
access methods: ?
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: logical conjunctions in command line searches
index size: 2-4%
limits: does not work well with source text larger than 500MB
robustness: ?
description: Glimpse is a text pre-scanning and query tool. It builds
a database of which files a word is used in. When you want
to search for a word, it knows ahead of time where it needs
to look. This allows it to give very quick results without
storing a large inverted index.
references: U. Manber and S. Wu, "GLIMPSE: A Tool to Search Through
Entire
File Systems," Usenix Winter 1994 Technical Conference, San
Francisco (January 1994), pp. 23-32. Also, Technical Report
#TR 93-34, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Arizona,
October 1993 (a postscript file is available by anonymous ftp
at cs.arizona.edu:reports/1993/TR93-34.ps).
S. Wu and U. Manber, "Fast Text Searching Allowing Errors,"
Communications of the ACM 35 (October 1992), pp. 83-91.
discussion: glimpse-request@cs.arizona.edu
ports: portable, binaries provided for sun, mips, linux and alpha
author: Udi Manber, Sun Wu, and Burra Gopal, Department of Computer
Science, University of Arizona.
contact: glimpse@cs.arizona.edu
how to get: ftp glimpse/* from cs.arizona.edu
updated: 1994/04/27
name: Liam Quin's text retrieval package (lq-text)
version: 1.13
interfaces: command line, curses
access methods: hash (dbm) plus clustered linked list
multiuser: read only
distributed: no, can be used over nfs if the systems are similar
query language: very limited command line
limits: 30-bit max document size, 31-bit distinct words in
vocabulary,
up to 2^24 documents (possibly more but I don't have enough
disk to test anything like that!)
index size: >30%, <100% of input text
robustness: The README says that there are bugs.
description: lq-text is a text retrieval package.
That means you can tell it about lots of files, and later you
can ask it questions about them. The questions have to be:
"which files contain this word?" or "which files contain this
phrase?", but this information turns out to be rather useful.
Lqtext has been designed to be reasonably fast. It uses an
inverted index, which is simply a kind of database. This tends
to be smaller than the size of the data, but more than half as
large. You still need to keep the original data.
Lqtext uses dbm (berkeley db or sdbm) to store its indexes.
discussion: lq-text-beta-request@sq.com
bugs: lq-text-beta@sq.com
ports: most version of unix (except SCO)
restrictions: permission required for commercial use.
author: Liam R. E. Quin
how to get: ftp pub/lq-text*.tar.Z from relay.cs.toronto.edu
updated: 1993/12/10
name: mg
version: 1.0
interfaces: command line interpreter, X (tcl)
access methods: ?
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: boolean and ranked queries using cosine similarity
measure
index size: 5-15% of text being indexed, depending on document size
richness of vocabulary. Text is also stored compressed,
requires around 25-30% of original size. Complete retrieval
system requires 30-45% of original text size.
limits: Will probably fail when used with > 4Gb
robustness: It is a research prototype, and as such there are no
guarantees. Don't rely on it as a primary archive tool; but it
is very useful as an adjunct to other storage mechanisms for
e.g. maintaining a personal mail retrieval system. And, of
course, for research purposes.
description: mg compresses and indexes documents and images (indexed
user-supplied textual description). All components are stored
compressed: text by a word-based method that reduces the space
requiremnent to around 25% of input; images by one of three
different methods (FELICS, Textual Image Compression, two-level
image compression); and index using index compression methods.
The package also includes a mechanism for fast and economical
creation of the index in thge first place. It requires about 8
hours (Sun SPARC 10 Model 512) to compress and index 2 Gb of
text (the TREC collection); final retrieval system requires
about 700 Mb to operate. Multi-term Boolean and ranked queries
are answered within seconds.
references: "Managing gigabytes: compressing and indexing documents
images", Witten, Moffat, and Bell, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994,
"Compression and fast indexing for multi-gigabyte text
databases", Moffat and Zobel, Australian Computer Journal,
26(1):1-9, February 1994.
status: actively-develped research prototype. Support of public use
is not a priority.
ports: SunOS, Solaris, SGI, Ultrix, NeXT.
restrictions: GNU General Public License
author: Tim Bell , Stuart Inglis
, Alistair Moffat
, Neil Sharman ,
Tim Shimmin , Ian Witten
, Justin Zobel , and
others.
contact: Alistair Moffat
how to get: ftp pub/mg from munnari.oz.au
updated: 1994/03
name: qt (Query Text)
version: 0.1
interfaces: unix command line
access methods: ?
multiuser: no
distributed: no
query language: unix command line
index size: ?
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: Qt creates, maintains, and queries a full text database.
database file system is organized as an inverted index. The
program is written as a single script, in Bourne Shell, and
permits simple natural language queries.
[qt appears to be easier to use than lq-text and wais --ed]
bugs: author
ports: Unix, SysV.4, AIX, OSF/1, etc.
author: John Conover
how to get: comp.sources.unix volume 27
updated: 1993/10/18
name: SMART
version: 11.0
interfaces: terminal, X (slightly oder version), and several
under development including Z39.50
access methods: inverted file search or sequential search
multiuser: yes, but last writer wins when there are update conflicts
distributed: In-house version, to be made public in fall
query language: Natural language
index size: approx 40% of original text.
limits: Can only handle roughly 4 Gbytes of text in
non-distributed version.
robustness: Research tool; parts have been well-tested but others not.
description: SMART is an implementation of the vector-space model of
information retrieval proposed by Salton back in the 60's. The
primary purpose of SMART is to provide a framework in which to
conduct information retrieval research. Standard versions of
indexing, retrieval, and evaluation are provided.
The system is designed to be used for small to medium scale
collections, and offers reasonable speed and support for these
actual applications.
SMART analyses the collection of information and builds
indexes. It can then be used to build natural-language based
information retrieval software. It uses feedback from the
user to tighten its search.
references: Z39.50 URL:
restrictions: Research use only.
discussion: smart-people-request@cs.cornell.edu
ports: Unix (works under Linux, does not work under Ultrix, ?)
contact:
how to get: ftp pub/smart/* from ftp.cs.cornell.edu
updated: 1992/07/21
name: WAIS (Wide Area Information Server)
version: 8 b5.1
interfaces: the wais protocol (Z39.50)
access methods: inverted string index
multiuser: read only
distributed: client/server
query language: natural language, boolean, Relevance Feedback
index size: roughtly = data size
limits: "none"
robustness: fairly high
description: There are three main components: WAISINDEX, WAISSERVER,
WAISSEARCH.
WAISINDEX creates an inverted file index. WAISINDEX includes
filters for a number of common file formats.
WAISSERVER listens for Z39.50 packets and tries to answer
WAISSEARCH is the user agent that talks to WAISSERVERs. There
are several front ends: shell, X, and emacs.
announcements: wais-interest-request@think.com
discussion: wais-discussion-request@think.com
ports: vax, sun-3, sun-4, NeXT, sysV
restriction: commercial version exists, contact info@wais.com
author: Harry Morris , Brewster Kahle
, Jonny Goldman
how to get: ftp pub/freeware/unix-src/* from wais.com
updated: 1992/11/16
--------------------------- interfaces --------------------------------
name: AdaSAGE
version: ?
interfaces: SQL, embedded SQL.
transactions: yes
distributed: ?
query language: SQL
robustness: ?
description: AdaSAGE is not a DBMS.
AdaSAGE is an application development tool that provides
facilities for creating an application specific relational data
base. There are two aspects of SQL dialog to consider. First is
listening to SQL and responding by executing the requested
command. Second is issuing SQL to get a foreign system to
execute some process on your behalf. In the first case AdaSAGE
provides both an embedded SQL technology and an interactive SQL
system adapted to comply with ANSI-SQL DML Level 1. In the
second case AdaSAGE does not provide any capabilities for
creating SQL commands, but since AdaSAGE is a set of Ada
packages there is no reason that a package could not be
developed to do so.
The capability to record all transactions and roll forward from
previous dates gives an audit trail and recover capability.
These features are often provided within data base management
systems, and are provided with AdaSAGE as a logging option, but
seldom if ever are they used in final applications because of
the excessive time and data storage requirements.
references: ?
announcements: ?
discussion: ?
requires: Ada
ports: MS-DOS, UNIX
restrictions: Use restricted to US DoD, DoE and educational
institutions.
contact: ?
how to get: ftp pub/sage/* from navair1.inel.gov
updated: ?
name: CB++
version: 0.1
interface from: C/C++
interface to: SunOS/Oracle (DOS+Windows/Oracle,Gupta, OS/2 Sybase)
description: CB++ provides a plain C/C++ interface (not embedded) for
database server access. It was written in 1989 as a basis for
storing C++ objects in a relational database. It is very
simple to use and makes applications portable among different
SQL databases. The library itself is relatively easy to port
as the database vendor specific code is separated into a single
C++ class which makes up only a limited part of the library.
The author supports the current SunOS/Oracle version and
server ports to other UNIX databases (DOS-, Windows-, OS/2-stuff
is provided as it is and no longer supported)
requires: C++
ports: Oracle 6 for SunOS 4.1.3,
Gupta SQL Server for DOS/MS-Windows, OS/2 SQL Server
author: Bernhard Strassl
how to get: ftp R5contrib/CB++.0.1.tar.Z from ftp.x.org
updated: 1993/10/05
name: ciORA
version: alpha
interface from: C
interface to: Oracle
query language: ?
robustness: ?
description: ciORA is a set of C interface routines to Oracle that are
modeled after the standard I/O portion of the C library. ciORA
presents a familiar interface to an experienced C programmer by
avoiding the awkward embedding of SQL statements using
precompilers and the tedium of using low-level OCI calls.
ciORA eliminates the need for precompilers by supplying an
interface library providing equivalent functions. It also
provides a higher level of abstraction to the functions in the
Oracle Call Interface (OCI). ciORA manages (and hides) the
tedious details necessary when writing programs using OCI by
replacing the cumbersome Oracle constructs such as logon data
areas, cursor data areas, and external datatypes, the Oracle
array interface, bind variables, select-list-items, and the
like with constructs familiar to a C programmer using the
standard I/O portion of the C library. ciORA also provides a
consistent interface to Oracle errors similar to the convention
used in C's errno.
requires: Oracle
ports: IRIX 5.2, Oracle 7.0.15.4.0
restrictions: GNU General Public License
author: Zane Dodson
how to get: email author
updated: 1994/09/10
name: cisamperl
version: 0.9
interface from: perl
interface to: Informix C-ISAM 3.1 library
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: cisamperl/rocisperl is a package, which implements an
interface
to the INFORMIX C-ISAM library for perl. It is coded as an usub
(see perl documentation) and needs to be compiled with perl and
the C-ISAM library to form 2 separate executables called
cisamperl and rocisperl respectively. cisamperl is a fully
functioning (unless I forgot something) perl executable with
calls for C-ISAM file access added. rocisperl is the same,
with all calls that create/modify/delete C-ISAM files or
records disabled.
requires: C-ISAM 3.1, perl4
author: Mathias Koerber
how to get: ftp pub/perl/db/perl4/cisamperl/cisamperl-* from
ftp.demon.co.uk
updated: 1994/10/29
name: ctreeperl
version: ?
interface from: perl
interface to: FairCom Ctree
description: A perl interface for FairCom Ctree file indexing.
requires: Ctree
author: John Conover
how to get: ftp pub/perl/db/ctreeperl from ftp.demon.co.uk
updated: 1994/04/07
name: dbf (xbase manipulation package)
version: ?
interface from: command line
interface to: xbase files
access methods: ?
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: none
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: DBF is a set of tools and library routines to manipulate
files. The tools allow xbase files to be created and
manipulated from the command line.
author: Brad Eacker
how to get: comp.sources.misc volume 43
updated: 1994/06/27
name: DSQL
version: 3.0
interface from: Unix, Macintosh, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, and Macintosh
Hypercard
interface to: Unix/Informix, VMS/Oracle
description: DSQL is a simple client/server protocol to support remote
access of SQL databases. DSQL was designed in response to a
perceived need at Genentech to provide graphical front-ends on
Macintosh computers to Informix relational databases running on
Unix servers. DSQL version 3 is distributed with 2 server
implementations and four client library implementations. The
API for the client libraries has been standardized, and the
client code is divided into portable and architecture-specific
portions.
requires: ?
ports: Mac, PC, Unix
author: The Genentech Scientific Computing Technology Development
group. Original authors: David Mischel, Terry Oberzeir,
Scooter Morris , Kathryn Woods.
Current team: Jim Fitzgerald, David Mischel, Scooter Morris,
Terry Oberzier, and Dan Lamb (VMS/Oracle).
contact: ?
how to get: ftp pub/dsql.3.tar.Z from cgl.ucsf.edu
updated: 1993/06/25
name: Ingperl
version: 2.0
interface from: perl
interface to: Ingres
descritpion: Ingperl is a set of user subroutines to enable Perl
programs to
access Ingres databases. Ingperl used to be called Sqlperl.
requires: Perl 3.027 or higher, ?
discussion: perldb-interest-REQUEST@vix.com
author: Ted Lemon
how to get: ftp pub/perl/db/sqlperl/? from ftp.demon.co.uk
updated: 1994/04/11
name: Isqlperl
version: 1.1
interface from: perl
interface to: Informix
limits: Maximum concurrently open cursors configured at build time.
descritpion: Isqlperl is a set of user subroutines to enable Perl
programs to
access Informix databases.
requires: Perl 4.035 or higher, Informix ESQL/C (Online, SE, or Turbo)
discussion: perldb-interest-REQUEST@vix.com
restrictions: GNU Public License
author: Bill Hails
how to get: ftp pub/perl/db/isqlperl/isqlperl-1.1.shar.Z
from ftp.demon.co.uk
updated: 1993/10/02
name: Isqltcl ?
version: ?
interface from: tcl
interface to: Informix
description: Isqltcl is an extension to Tool Command Language (Tcl)
provides access to an Informix database server. Isqltcl adds
additional Tcl commands that login to an Informix Server, pass
SQL code, read results, etc.
requires: ?
discussion: comp.lang.tcl
author: Srinivas Kumar
how to get: ftp tcl/extensions/isqltcl.tar.Z from
harbor.ecn.purdue.edu
updated: 1993/09/15
name: Interperl
version: ?
interface from: perl
interface to: Interbase
descritpion: Interperl is a set of user subroutines to enable Perl
programs
to access Interbase databases.
requires: Perl 3.027 or higher, ?
discussion: perldb-interest-REQUEST@vix.com
author: Buzz Moschetti
how to get: ftp pub/perl/db/interperl/? from ftp.demon.co.uk
updated: ?
name: Onyx
version: 2.30
interface from: Onyx 4gl, (emacs and smalltalk planned)
interface to: Ingres89, Informix, GAWK, Shql, Yard, SqlPostgres (OBST
planned)
The informix port is slow and no longer being extended
because the author feels their support is inadiquate.
interfaces: Onyx uses a OO-Parser to access different engines
The transaction manager can be accessed by any aplication
which is able to use pipes or TCP/sockets.
multiuser: Depends on the used engine.
transactions: Yes, but no rollback, all transactions are atomic as
a block, replication of transactions is planned for
one of the next releases.
distributed: Yes its possible to connect to any mentioned database
anywhere in the net. Replication is planned.
query language: SQL + Onyx 4gl (based on Model-View-Controller idea)
limits: Current version uses memory to store selected data.
robustness: Onyx is experimental, but useable for clients. The author
supporting himself by writing applications written in Onyx 4GL.
description: Onyx is a 4gl based on the idea of model view controller.
4gl connects to a transaction manager based on a OO-Parser
generator via a socket. While the design goal of the protocol
was to keep it as simple as posible, its a good starting point
of writing vendor independent database applications.
status: experimental; actively developed and supported.
announcements: comp.os.linux.announce
bugs: Michael Koehne
requires: BSD like system, GNU C++, a database engine (minimum GNU-
ports: Tested on Linux and SunOs.
restrictions: GNU Public Licence
author: Michael Kraehe
how to get: ftp incoming/onyx/? from ftp.germany.eu.net (every
versions)
ftp pub/comp/i386/Linux/Local.EUnet/Applications/Database
from ftp.germany.eu.net (stable versions)
updated: 1994/08/08
name: Oraperl
version: ?
interface from: perl
interface to: Oracle
descritpion: Oraperl is a set of user subroutines to enable Perl
programs to
access Oracle databases.
requires: Perl 3.027 or higher, Oracle Pro*C
discussion: perldb-interest-REQUEST@vix.com
author: Kevin Stock
how to get: ftp pub/perl/db/oraperl/? from ftp.demon.co.uk
updated: ?
name: Oratcl
version: 2.2
interface from: TCL
interface to: Oracle
description: Oratcl is an extension to Tool Command Language (Tcl)
provides access to a Oracle Database server. Oratcl adds
additional Tcl commands that login to an Oracle Server, pass
SQL code, read results, etc. Oratcl was inspired by similar
tools written for Perl (sybperl, oraperl) but was written from
scratch instead of borrowing on the work of either Perl
extension.
requires: Tcl 6.7, Tk 3.2, Oracle OCI libraries 1.5,
Oracle SQL Server Version 6 or Version 7
discussion: comp.lang.tcl
author: Tom Poindexter
how to get: ftp tcl/extensions/oratcl-2.2.tar.gz from
ftp.aud.alcatel.com
updated: 1994/11/04
name: pgperl
version: ?
interface from: perl
interface to: Postgres
descritpion: pgperl is a set of user subroutines to enable Perl
programs to
access Postgres databases.
requires: Perl 3.027 or higher, ?
discussion: perldb-interest-REQUEST@vix.com
author: Igor Metz
how to get: ftp pub/perl/db/pgperl/? from ftp.demon.co.uk
updated: ?
name: SIOD (Scheme In One Defun/Day)
version: 3.0
interface from: C, C++, Scheme
interface to: Oracle, Digital RDB, flat ascii, flat binary.
access methods: flat files contain symbolic expression such as hash
tables.
multiuser: yes with commercial DB, no with flat files.
transactions: yes with commercial DB, no with flat files.
distributed: yes with commercial DB, no with flat files.
query language: SQL, any SCHEME program.
limits: None.
robustness: ?
description: This is a scheme interpreter with built-in procedures
the Oracle Call Interface (OCI) and DIGITAL RDB SQL Services.
You can use it merely as a flexible database loader/unloader
with fast binary flat-file data save/restore. Or you can
use it to apply the classic "Symbolic Manipulation" or
"Artificial Intelligence" techniques on your data sets.
The main-program can be oriented towards batch, character-cell
terminal, or Window/GUI.
references: "Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs" MIT
announcements: comp.lang.scheme, comp.databases.rdb,
comp.databases.oracle
bugs: Contact the author.
requires: C compiler, your favorite commercial DB.
ports: VMS, WINDOWS NT, UNIX, OS/2, MACINTOSH.
author: George Carrette
how to get: ftp pub/gjc/siod* from ftp.std.com.
updated: 1994/05/01
name: Sybperl
version: 1.011
interface from: perl
interface to: Sybase
descritpion: Sybperl is a set of user subroutines to enable Perl
programs to
access Sybase databases.
requires: Perl 3.027 or higher, ?
discussion: perldb-interest-REQUEST@vix.com
author: Michael Peppler
how to get: ftp pub/perl/db/sybperl/sybperl-1.009.* from
ftp.demon.co.uk
updated: 1994/05/15
name: Sybtcl
version: 2.2
interface from: TCL
interface to: Sybase
description: Sybtcl is an extension to Tool Command Language (Tcl)
provides access to a Sybase Database server. Sybtcl adds
additional Tcl commands that login to a SQL Server, pass SQL
code, read results, etc. Sybtcl was inspired by similar tools
written for Perl (sybperl, oraperl) but was written from
scratch instead of borrowing on the work of either Perl
extension.
requires: Sybase Open Client (DB-Library), Sybase SQL Server
discussion: comp.lang.tcl
author: Tom Poindexter
how to get: ftp tcl/extensions/sybtcl-2.2.tar.gz from
ftp.aud.alcatel.com
updated: 1994/11/04
name: tclgdbm
version: 1.0
interface from: TCL
interface to: gdbm
description: none provided
discussion: comp.lang.tcl
author: Tuan Doan
how to get: ftp pub/tcl/extensions/tclgdbm1.0* from
harbor.ecn.purdue.edu
updated: 1994/02/08
name: tcl+gdbm
version: 0.1
interface from: TCL
interface to: gdbm
description: none provided
discussion: comp.lang.tcl
author: Christian Lindig
how to get: ftp pub/local/sw/tcl+gdbm-0.1.tar.gz from ftp.ips.cs.tu-
updated: 1994/05/04
name: Uniperl
version: ?
interface from: perl
interface to: Unify 5.0
descritpion: Uniperl is a set of user subroutines to enable Perl
programs to
access Unify databases.
requires: Perl 3.027 or higher, ?
discussion: perldb-interest-REQUEST@vix.com
author: Rick Wargo
how to get: ftp pub/perl/db/uniperl/? from ftp.demon.co.uk
updated: ?
name: Willow
version: 2.2
interface from: user
interface to: WWW/Mosaic, Z39.50, ZDist (formerly free-WAIS) from
description: Willow (Washington Information Looker-upper Layered Over
Windows) is a general purpose information retrieval tool. It
provides a single, easy-to-use graphical user interface (X
Windows / Motif) to any number of text-based bibliographic
databases.
references: http://www.cac.washington.edu/willow/home.html
ports: DEC/Ultrix, Solaris, SunOS, RS6000/AIX.
contact: willow@cac.washington.edu
how to get: ftp willow/* from ftp.cac.washington.edu
updated: 1994/06/30
name: "A Guide to the SQL standard"
what: BNF SQL grammer
version: ?
description: A BNF grammer for SQL is included in the book.
how to get: buy the book: "A Guide to the SQL standard" by Hugh Darwen
and C.J. Date.
updated: ?
name: CDF (Common Data Format)
what: data exchange library
version: ?
interfaces: ?
access methods: ?
distributed: ?
query language: ?
limits: ?
robustness: ?
description: A library and toolkit for multi-dimensional data sets.
basic component of CDF is a software programming interface that
is a device independent view of the CDF data model
requires: ?
restrictions: ?
contact: ?
how to get: ftp cdf.dir/* from nssdca.gsfc.nasa.gov.
The CDF library to provide applications access to remote CDF
datasets, can be obtained from its author:
Hillel Steinberg .
updated: ?
name: examples from: "Information Retrieval, Data Structures
& Algorithms," William B. Frakes, Ricardo Baeza-Yates,
Editors, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey 07632, 1992, ISBN 0-13-463837-9.
what: example database code
version: ?
descriptions: example code from the book "Information Retrieval, Data
Structures & Algorithms"
how to get: ftp pub/reuse/ircode.tar.Z from ftp.vt.edu
author: [resumably William B. Frakes, Ricardo Baeza-Yates]
updated: ?
name: _lex & yacc_ by Levine, Mason & Brown published by O'Reilly
what: SQL yacc grammer
version: ?
parts: grammar
description: In _lex & yacc_, by Levine, Mason & Brown an SQL parser
is included as an example grammar
author: Levine, Mason & Brown
how to get: buy the book, or ftp published/oreilly/nutshell/lexyacc/?
from ftp.uu.net.
updated: ?
name: MultiCal
what: database date manipulation library
version: 1.0
interfaces: ?
access methods: ?
multiuser: no
transactions: no
distributed: no
query language: enhanced SQL2
limits: ?
description: MultiCal is both a novel approach to supporting multiple
calendars and internationalization of time constants and a
query processor prototype that demonstrates this approach.
MultiCal consists of about 48K source lines of C code; the
query processor prototype consists of about 63K source lines of
code. The documentation consists of fifteen documents,
comprising some 300 pages of material.
MultiCal consists of an approach to providing limited
extensibility for support of multiple calendars and languages
for temporal support within a database management system
(DBMS). We have augmented the Structured Query Language (SQL),
specifically, SQL2, with time values, i.e., temporal
constants. Our approach is notable in that we allow many
different calendars to be used in the database management
system, and we incorporate only calendar-independent constructs
into the language. We introduce three new temporal data types.
New language features are defined for temporal built-in
functions, special time values, arithmetic expressions
involving time, temporal predicates, and aggregate functions
over time. Ten languages are supported.
To illustrate how an existing DBMS could be augmented to
support multiple calendars, we provide a prototype DBMS that
supports the proposed extensions. This prototype consists of
query analysis and execution components. It eschews traditional
functionality such as concurrency control and disk access
methods, as these aspects are not relevant to timestamp
management.
ports: Sun4
contact: or Rick Snodgrass

how to get: ftp tsql/multical/* from ftp.cs.arizona.edu
updated: 1993/10/30
name: persist++
what: C++ object marshal/demarshal library
version: 0.2
interfaces: C++
access methods: none
robustness: ?
description: Persist++ is a set of serialize/materialize/marshal
routines
that make it easy to store C++ objects to files or to send them
across the network.
author: Herman Moons
how to get: ftp pub/impulse/persist++_0.2.tar.Z from
ftp.cs.kuleuven.ac.be
updated: 1994/08/16
name: SQL parser ?
what: SQL yacc grammer ?
version: ?
description: ?
author: Bruce Ring <73172.735@compuserve.com>
how to get: wait for it to be posted to a comp.sources group
updated: 1994/11/04

Are you a true GEEK?
Geek 2.0 is a text file explaining how you too
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HyperMail! boasts a MakeWild-like config
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Released 10-05-94. For WildCat! v4.x.
An InterProgramming Product - 1:301/3
HomeNET Info Pak - A mail network with that
Down-Home flavor and friendly atmosphere.
It fills the gap between general chit-chat
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Use your own automated comm program to get
the mail. 36 interesting conference areas.
All BBS software types. (formerly MegNet).
ILink International NetMail Network Member
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The Intelec Network Information File Dec 94!
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INEWS WEEKLY FOR WEEK OF 11/21/94 - a
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Another Internet Pearl (tm) by SoloTech
Software. Look for other Internet Pearls to
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search for the data that interests you. Load
up to 4 resources, each with its own Hot Key.
See "iperls.doc".
Archive-name: junk-mail
Last-Modified: 11/17/93
Last Modification: new address for DMA, added St. Paul neighborhood
How to Get Less Junk Mail
Are you getting unsolicited mail that's more trouble than it's worth?
are some things you can do that will give you more control of what
comes into
your home. I don't know of anything you can do that will stop the
influx
immediately, short of moving and not telling anyone (including
creditors,
employer, insurers, old friends, and especially the Post Office). If
willing to start slow and spend some time on it, you can slowly cut
down the
amount of junk mail you get.
Contents
Introduction
Some simple actions that may help a lot
Handling companies that sell lists
How to track the spread of your name
Asking to be removed from a list
Actions that won't help
Questions and Answers
Q1. How do I contact the big companies that sell lists?
Q2. Who else can I get to help me stop the junk mail?
Q3. How do I stop the loose unaddressed flyers I get twice a week?
Dealing with specific types of organizations
mail-order catalogues
Memberships in organizations
phone book listing
warranties/product registration cards
800/900 number services
contests (You may already be a winner!)
credit cards
Change of Address notices
The first thing to realize is that there are several different sources
junk mail, and there are different things you have to do for each of
There are some broad-band tools you can use to stop a lot of junk mail
once, but these miss some important categories. For the rest, until
figure out why you got a particular piece of mail, you can't take the
action
that will prevent its recurrence. It's important to realize that some
companies maintain their own lists, while other companies buy the
lists they
mail to. In the first case, you have to talk to the company that is
sending
the mail, and in the second, you have to talk to whoever they bought
name from.
Some simple actions that may help a lot
One approach attempts to stop all the unsolicited mail at once. The
part of this approach is that it's not much work, the drawback is that
may stop receiving some mail that you wanted, but were only getting as
side-effect of something else. There are several different
organizations you
can contact, including the Direct Marketing Association, an
organization of
direct mailers. [see Q1.] and a few companies that charge a fee for
individually contacting companies that are sending you mail. [See
Among the companies that have their own lists are local merchants who
like to
send out periodic reminders, and the national firms that send out
weekly piles of advertising to all postal patrons, The two big
companies in
this latter business are ADVO ("Mailbox Values") and Harte Hanks
("Potpourri"). [See Q3 for how to deal with these two.] You won't be
to tell which pieces are coming from mailers who have you directly on
lists until you've reduced your junk mail to a level that makes it
worthwhile
to individually call the sources of the mail you get.
Companies that sell lists
Dealing with re-sold lists is a long process. You have to find out
selling your name, and ask them to stop. There are two possible
approaches
to tracking down the companies that are selling your name. You can
either
ask the companies that are sending you the mail, or you can track the
spread
of your name and address.
If you're not getting much junk mail, you can easily call the
companies that
sent you something and ask where they got your name. As long as
polite, the people in the direct mail department are quite willing to
you this. Often they will tell you the names of the two or three
places from
whom they bought lists in the last month, and you can figure out which
knows about you. Other times if you read them the codes on the
mailing
label, they can tell you exactly who it was.
You can also head off the problem entirely by always telling
organizations
which you deal with through the mail that you don't want them selling
name. You can do this with a note when you order something or send
dues, or you can send them a separate note or call their national
office on
the phone.
How to track the spread of your name
If you're getting a fair amount of junk mail, it's probably easier to
by adding markers to the address used by correspondents you want to
continue
to receive mail from. A simple trick you can use is to modify your
name in
some way that you keep track of. When you receive something
unsolicited in
the mail, you check your list and see where they got your address.
I use different middle initials with different organizations, but you
also change how you spell your first or last name, or add an apartment
number
to your address (or add a superfluous letter to your already-numbered
apartment). If you are dealing with a professional organization, you
add a title, or a department name.
Asking to be removed from a list
Once you've identified a particular company and want them to remove
you from
their list, (either the one they mail to directly, or the one they
there are a few common steps to take. Start by calling customer
service and
tell them you want to stop getting mail. Then follow up by keeping
track of
mail you get from them, or mail addressed to the name you only use
with them.
When you call again in a few weeks or a month (depending on how long
said it would take), you want to be able to tell them what in
particular you
received, and when, so they can figure out which list they missed the
time. In all cases, be polite, don't refer to "junk mail" unless the
wants to know why you care, and be persistent. If the person you are
talking
to doesn't know what to do, ask to speak to their supervisor, and be
willing
to patiently explain your predicament again.
Tactics that won't help
I assume that your objective is to receive less mail. You might also
interested in encouraging mailers to send junk mail less often. The
following are tactics that won't succeed at either of these goals, but
you're vindictive) might make you feel better.
Using Business Reply Envelopes to complain will usually not get the
attention
of the mailing company. If you attach them to a brick or overfill the
envelope, the post office will discard them. If you send them back
empty, or
with a complaint about the catalogue you didn't want, they'll be
discarded by
the people who open the envelopes. The mail is usually opened by
people who
only get paid for actual orders they pass on to the company, so they
often bother to relay complaints or count the number of replies that
contain orders.
Your use of the BRE will cost them money, but they'll never notice it,
this won't cause them to change the way they do business. (Unless the
number
of people sending empty BRE's becomes a substantial fraction of the
number
sending orders. This might lower the effectiveness enough that they'd
doing mail order. Not likely.)
If you want the company to pay attention, get in touch with their
customer
service people. Most of the time, the company never even saw your
name, so
they can't do much to keep you from getting future ads. They buy
lists from
other companies, and those other companies are the ones you need to
touch with. They might be interested if you were offended by their
otherwise they'll just point out that many people order merchandise
from them
in response to the mailing. If you want to stop getting the mail,
find out
who they buy names from, and get those people to stop selling your
Q1. How do I contact the big companies that sell lists?
A1. The best place to start is the Direct Marketing Association.
member organizations are some of the direct mailers who send the
stuff. Call
their Mail Preference Service at their unlisted number (212)768-7277
and ask
to be added to their Suppression File. Tell them you'll wait while
they type
in your address (so they don't lose the piece of paper with your
address.)
Call again in a week and ask if your name is listed. Their mailing
address
(11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10163-3861, or PO Box 9008,
Farmingdale NY
11735-9099) also provides effective service.
Other big list resellers include:
R. L. Polk & Company
List Compilation and Development
6400 Monroe Boulevard
Taylor, MI 48180-1814
Donnelley Marketing Inc.
Data Base operations
1235 N Avenue
Nevada, IA 50201-1419;
Metromail Corp.
List Maintenance
Lincoln, NE 68521;
Database America
Compilation Department
100 Paragon Drive
Montvale, NJ 07645-0419
Dunn & Bradstreet
Customer Service
899 Eaton Avenue
Bethlehem, PA 18025
Q2. Who else can help me stop getting junk mail?
A2. Stop Junk Mail Association
3020 Bridgeway #150
Sausalito, CA 94965
St. Paul Neighborhood Energy Consortium
475 North Cleveland Avenue #100
St. Paul, MN 55104-5051
(ask for their "junk mail reduction kit." It contains
pre-addressed postcards to direct marketers, "take me off
your list" postcards, and stickers saying "do not rent,
sell, trade or give away my name". $9 w/stamps, $6 w/o)
[There are more, send me addresses of any you know. I haven't dealt
with any
of them, so buyer beware!]
Q3. How do I stop the loose unaddressed flyers I get twice a week?
A3. There are two different companies: ADVO ("Mailbox Values") and
Hanks ("Potpourri") that send these out in different areas around the
advertising is sent as a "supplement" to an address card which has the
postage-paid notice on it.
These bundles are sent to every address in the affected areas, and it
two separate actions to stop it. First you have to get ADVO or Hart
Hanks to
stop printing the address card, and only then can you get your mail
carrier
to stop delivering the advertising.
Both ADVO and Harte Hanks have local offices scattered around the
country,
and the best way to get off their list is to talk to the local office.
cards usually have the local phone number on them, or at least an
address
(call directory assistance.) Ask for the circulation department, and
back in a week to check that they really did remove your address. Be
prepared to wait 8 weeks for the mail to stop. They'll occasionally
"accidentally" send out another card, but it's easier to stop them the
second
Your postal carrier "knows" that everyone on the route is supposed to
one, so she'll keep delivering them even if it looks like the address
card is
lost. It's against the law for them to deliver unaddressed mail, so
it only
takes a phone call to the supervisor at the local post office to
convince the
carrier to stop. There will occasionally be a mistake after that
there's a substitute or new carrier) but it doesn't take very many
calls to
convince the supervisor you really mean it.
There's no need to threaten lawsuits or anything, just tell them you
received
unaddressed mail. With ADVO and Potpourri, you may have to point out
you found out how to get off the lists before they understand, but the
postal
supervisors do know what the law says.
Dealing with specific types of organizations
Here's a list of some of the kinds of organizations that direct
marketers buy
names from and what you can do about each.
Mail-Order Catalogues
Use a distinct address with each catalogue you order from. Your name
occasionally be sold to someone you don't want to hear from, and you
have to
know where they got your name to make it stop. When you find that a
catalogue resells your name to places you don't like, ask them to add
name to their suppression list. Most don't have any trouble with this
request.
One thing to be careful about: many will "correct" your name and
address from
your checks, so you have to continually make sure that they're using
name/address you chose for them. I have my checks printed without
name or
address so I can choose what each organization sees. You're always
supposed
to write down the account number anyway.
Memberships In Organizations
(charitable, political, religious, professional, etc.)
Just like mail-order catalogues; use a distinct address for each.
Many will
sell your name without warning.
Phone Book Listing
Many organizations build their address lists from telephone
directories. In
addition, these lists can be cross-matched with others and
occasionally
they'll make inferences based on your listing. (sex from first name,
ethnicity from last name, profession from title, etc.) You can get an
unlisted number, but there are directories that include those
listings, they
just cost more. A cheaper way to have an unlisted number is to pick a
name for the directory. Any phone calls or mail for that name you can
sure are junk.
Warranties/Product Registration Cards
You are seldom required to send in registration cards in order to be
covered
by a warranty. Most of these cards are send to the National
Demographics and
Lifestyles Company which compiles direct mail lists of people based on
life-style, family income, and buying habits that people describe on
cards. Write to them at:
National Demographics and Lifestyles Company
List Order Department
Denver, CO 80202
800/900 Number Services
800 and 900 number services can easily find out your name and address
you call (they use reverse directories indexed by your phone number.)
of them compile and sell lists of people who are interested in their
product
or watch their TV show. Make your 800-number phone calls during a
break at
work. Don't call 900-number services unless you don't mind your name
appearing on lists of people who use the particular service.
Contests (You May Already Be A Winner!)
There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch! There are some real
contests that
give out real money, but not many, and the odds are never very good.
things advertised as contests these days are just fishing expeditions
names to add to mailing lists. Others are serious fraud. Never give
credit card numbers over the phone unless you're positive the company
calling is reputable.
Credit Cards
Some credit card companies sell lists of customers to direct mailers.
know a lot about your lifestyle: what you buy, where you travel, and
how much
you spend. Banks don't seem to use the same information from your
checks, so
if you're looking for a little more privacy...
Birth Certificates, Marriage Licenses, Property Records
You can't do much about these except use a variant spelling and track
each use of the name. Most of the list compilers are willing to drop
name if you ask.
Credit Bureaus
Two of the major credit bureaus still sell lists based on their
databases.
You can contact them at:
Trans Union
555 W. Adams St.
8th Floor
Chicago, IL 60661
Target Marketing Services Division
Mail Preference Service
901 N. International Parkway
Richardson TX 75081
Change of Address notices
The post office sells the names and addresses from its Change of
Address
cards. They even encourage bulk mailers to use the data so there will
fewer miss-addressed letters. If you're having trouble dealing with
the junk
and want to stop getting it, contact all your correspondents
individually and
don't fill out the Post office's form.
Chris Hibbert protecting privacy in the computer age
hibbert@netcom.com like trying to change a tire on a moving
Internet FAQ (ans to freq asked questns)
re: that funspot in the sun
LHL, un lecteur hors-ligne franais
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and... Ho no! more more more!
...Attention Sysops...Fun network! .....
LostNet is looking for sysops to carry
this net devoted only to having fun.
Check it out! What have you got to lose?
Now we have our own Nodelist for Fido-Based
systems. No lengthy application procedures.
Virtually no rules or red tape. First come,
first served. Quick and easy approval if
you run a 24Hr/day BBS and can handle .QWK
or FIDO based E-Mail.
═[LakeNet]═════════════╗
LakeNet Information Package for
November 1994!
Join this friendly QWK network based
in the Great Lakes Region with nodes
in France, U.S.A & Canada with quick
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════════[Showcom Online]══╝

LYNX USERS GUIDE VERSION 2.3
Lynx is a fully-featured World Wide Web (WWW) client for users running
cursor-addressable, character-cell display devices (e.g., vt100
terminals, vt100 emulators running on PCs or Macs, or any other
"curses-oriented" display). It will display hypertext markup language
(HTML) hypertext documents containing links to files residing on the
local system, as well as files residing on remote systems running
Gopher, HTTP, FTP, WAIS, and NNTP servers. Current versions of Lynx
run on UNIX and VMS. A DOS version is in development.
Lynx can be used to access information on the World Wide Web, or to
build information systems intended primarily for local access. For
example, Lynx has been used to build several Campus Wide Information
Systems (CWIS). In addition, Lynx can be used to build systems
isolated within a single LAN.
Select a topic
* Viewing local files with Lynx
* Lynx online help
* Leaving Lynx
* Starting Lynx with a Remote File
* Starting Lynx with the the WWW_HOME environment variable.
* Navigating hypertext documents with Lynx
* Printing, Mailing, and Saving files to disk.
* Lynx searching commands
* Lynx options menu
* Comments and mailto: links
* USENET News posting
* Lynx and HTML Forms
* Viewing the HTML document source and editing documents
* Reloading files and refreshing the display
* Lynx bookmarks
* Other useful commands
* The Lynx command
* Lynx development history
* Additional Information
Viewing local files with Lynx
Lynx can be started by entering the Lynx command along with the name
of a file to display. For example these commands could all be used to
display an arbitrary ASCII text file.
lynx myfile
lynx /home/my-dir/myfile
lynx dua5:[my-directory]myfile
When executed, Lynx will clear the screen and display as much of the
specified file as will fit on the screen. Pressing a down-arrow will
bring up the next screen, and pressing an up-arrow will bring up the
previous screen. If no file is specified at startup, a default file
will be displayed. (The default is configured by the system
administrator when the command is installed.)
Lynx will also display files written in the HyperText Markup Language
(HTML), if the file's name ends with the characters ".html". HTML is a
file format that allows users to create a file that contains (among
other things) hypertext links to other files. Several files linked
together may be described as a hypertext document.
For example, these commands could be used to display files containing
HTML hypertext:
lynx myfile.html
lynx /home/my-dir/myfile.html
lynx dua5:[me]myfile.html
When Lynx displays an HTML file, it shows links as "bold face" text,
except for one link, which is shown as "highlighted" text. Whether
"boldface" or "highlighted" text shows up as reverse video, boldface
type, or a color change, etc. depends on the display device being used
(and the way in which that device has been configured). Lynx has no
control over the exact presentation of links.
The one link displayed as "highlighted" text is the currently
"selected" link. Lynx will display the file associated with the
selected link when a right-arrow or a Return key is pressed. To select
a particular link, press the up-arrow or down-arrow keys until the
desired link becomes "highlighted," and then press the right-arrow or
Return key to view the linked information. Information included in the
HTML file tells Lynx where to find the linked file and what kind of
server will provide it (i.e. HTTP, Gopher, etc.).
When a binary file is encountered Lynx will ask the user if he/she
wishes to download the file or cancel. If the user selects 'D' for
download, Lynx will transfer the file into a temporary location and
present the user with a list of options. The only default option is
"save file to disk", which is disabled if Lynx is running in anonymous
mode. Any number of additional download methods may be defined in the
lynx.cfg file by the system administrator. Programs like kermit,
zmodem and FTP are some possible options. ToC
Lynx online help
Online help is available while viewing any document. Press the '?' or
'H' key to see a list of help topics. See the section titled
'Navigating hypertext documents with Lynx' for information on
navigating through the help files. ToC
Leaving Lynx
To exit Lynx use the 'q' command. You will be asked whether you really
want to quit. Answering 'y' will exit and 'n' will return you to the
current document. Use 'Q' or CTRL-D to quit without verification. ToC
Starting Lynx with a Remote File
If you wish to view a remote file (that is, a file residing on some
computer system other than the one upon which you are running Lynx)
without first viewing a local file, you must identify that file by
using a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). URL's take the general form:
PROTOCOL :// HOST / PATH / FILENAME
PROTOCOL
identifies the communications protocol used by the server that
will provide the file. As mentioned earlier, Lynx (and any WWW
client) can interact with a variety of servers, each with its
own protocol.
is the Internet address of the computer system on which the
server is running, and
PATH and FILENAME
identify the directory path and file of interest.
Here are some sample URL's.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
http://www.cc.ukans.edu/lynx_help/lynx_help_main.html
Gopher
gopher://gopher.micro.umn.edu/11/
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
ftp://ftp2.cc.ukans.edu/pub/lynx/README
WAIS (Wide Area Information Service protocol)
wais://cnidr.org/directory-of-servers
A URL may be specified to Lynx on the command line, as in:
lynx http://kufacts.cc.ukans.edu/cwis/start_kufacts.html
Starting Lynx with the the WWW_HOME environment variable.
You may also specify a starting file for Lynx using the WWW_HOME
environment variable,
export WWW_HOME=http://info.cern.ch/default.html
setenv WWW_HOME http://info.cern.ch/default.html
define "WWW_HOME" "http://info.cern.ch/default.html"
Navigating hypertext documents with Lynx
The process of moving within a hypertext web, selecting and displaying
links is known as "navigation." With Lynx almost all navigation can be
accomplished with the arrow keys and the numeric keypad.
| TOP | /|\ | Page |
arrow keys | of | | | UP |
| SELECT | | | | |
| BACK | SELECT | DISPLAY | | END | | | Page |
|<-- prev | next | | sel. -->| | of | | | DOWN |
| doc. | link \|/| link | | text 1| \|/ 2| 3|
There are also a few other keyboard commands to aid in navigation.
Some of these commands depend on the fact that Lynx keeps a list of
each file you visit called the "history list". The "backspace" or
"delete" key will show you the whole history list. Any of the
documents shown in the list may be revisited by selecting them from
the history screen. The 'm' key command will take you back to the
starting document.
The 'i' key presents an index of documents. The default index is
usually a document pointing to servers around the world, but the index
can be changed by the system administrator or on the command line
using the -index switch, and therefore depends on how the Lynx program
you are using was configured.
If you choose a link to a server with active access authorization Lynx
will automatically prompt for a username and a password. If you give
the correct information, you will then be served the requested
information. Lynx will automatically send your username and password
to the same server if it is needed again. ToC
Printing, Mailing, and Saving files to disk.
Documents may be printed using the 'p' command. After pressing the 'p'
key a menu of Print Options will be displayed. The menu will vary
according to several factors. First, some sites set up special
accounts to let users run Lynx to access local information systems.
Typically these accounts require no passwords and do not require users
to identify themselves. As a result such accounts are called
"anonymous" accounts, and their users are considered "anonymous"
users. In most configurations, all Lynx users (including anonymous
users) are able to mail files to themselves and print the entire file
to the screen.
Additional print options are available for users who are using Lynx
from their own accounts (that is, so-called "non-anonymous users"). In
particular, the "Save to a local file" option allows you to save the
document into a file on your disk space. Any number of additional
print options may also be available as configured by your system
administrator. ToC
Lynx searching commands
Two commands activate searching in Lynx: "/" and "s". While viewing a
normal document use the "/" command to find a word or phrase within
the current document. The search type will depend on the search option
setting in the options menu (see below). The search options are case
sensitive and case insensitive. Some documents are designated "index
documents". These documents can be searched to retrieve additional
information from an index server. The "s" key allows searching of
index documents. ToC
Lynx options menu
The Lynx Options Menu may be accessed by pressing the 'o' key. The
current Lynx Options Menu contains the following configurable options.
Options Menu
E)ditor : emacs
D)ISPLAY variable : aixtest.cc.ukans.edu:0.0
B)ookmark file : home_page
F)TP sort criteria : By Filename
P)ersonal mail address : montulli@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
S)earching type : CASE INSENSITIVE
C)haracter set : ISO Latin 1
V)I keys : OFF
e(M)acs keys : OFF
K)eypad as arrows
or Numbered links : Numbers act as arrows
U)ser mode : Advanced
L)ocal execution links : Always off
An option can be changed by entering the capital letter of the option
you want to change (i.e. 'E' for Editor). For fields where text must
be entered, simply enter the text by typing on the keyboard. The
Backspace and Delete keys can be used to correct mistakes, and CTRL-U
can be used to erase the whole line. When you are done entering a
change press the Return key to get back to the Command? prompt.
For fields where you must choose from a list of choices, press any key
to toggle the choices and press the Return key to finish the change.
When you are done changing options use the 'r' command to return to
Lynx or the '>' command to save the options to a .lynxrc file and
return to Lynx.
The following table describes the options available on the Options
Editor
The editor to be invoked when editing browsable files, and
sending mail or comments. The full pathname of the editor
command should be specified when possible.
DISPLAY variable
This option is only available on UNIX systems and is only
relevant to X Window users. The DISPLAY variable is picked up
automatically from the environment if it has been previously
Bookmark file
This is the filename and location of your personal bookmark
file. The bookmark file allows frequently travelled links to be
stored in a personal easy to access file. Using the 'a' command
(see below) you may save any link into your bookmark file. If
the path specified does not begin with a slash then the path
will reference your home directory.
FTP sort criteria
This option allows you to specify how files will be sorted
within FTP listings. The current options include "By Filename",
"By Size", "By Type", and "By Date".
Personal mail address
This mail address will be used to help you send files to
yourself and will be included as the From: address in any mail
or comments that you send. It will also be sent as the From:
field in all HTTP get requests.
Searching type
Searching type has two possible values: CASE INSENSITIVE
(default) and CASE SENSITIVE. The searching type effects
inter-document searches only, and determines whether searches
for words within documents will be done in a case-sensitive or
case-insensitive manner.
VI keys
If set to ON then the lowercase h,j,k, and l keys will be
mapped to left, down, up, and right arrow, respectively.
Emacs keys
If set to ON then the CTRL-P, CTRL-N, CTRL-F, and CTRL-B keys
will be mapped to up, down, right, and left arro arrow arroww,
respectively.
Keypad as arrows or numbered links
This option gives the choice between navigating with the arrow
keys or having every link numbered so that the links may be
selected by numbers as well as using the arrow keys.
User Mode
There are three possible choices: Novice, Intermediate, and
Advanced.
Novice
In Novice mode two lines of help are displayed at the
bottom of the screen.
Intermediate
Intermediate mode turns off the help lines.
Advanced
Advanced mode displays the URL of the currently selected
link at the bottom of the screen.
Local execution scripts or links
Local execution can be activated by the system administrator.
If it has not been activated you will not see this option in
the options menu. When a local execution script is encountered
Lynx checks the users options to see whether the script can be
executed. Users have the following options:
Always off
Local execution scripts will never be executed
For Local files only
Local execution scripts will only be executed if the
script to be executed resides on the local machine, and
is referenced by a URL that begins with
"file://localhost"
Always on
All local exection scripts will be executed
If the users options permit the script to be executed Lynx will
spawn a shell and run the script. If the script cannot be
executed Lynx will show the script within the Lynx window and
inform the user that the script is not allowed to be executed
and will ask the user to check his/her options. ToC
Comments and mailto: links
At any time while viewing documents within Lynx, you may use the 'c'
command to send a mail message to the owner of the current document if
the author of the document has specified ownership. If no ownership is
specified then comments are disabled. Certain links called "mailto:"
links will also allow you to send mail to other people. Using the mail
features within Lynx is straightforward.
Once you have decided to send a comment or have selected a "mailto:"
link a new screen will appear showing you who you are sending the
message to. Lynx will ask for your name, your e-mail address, and the
subject of the message. If you have filled in the "personal mail
address" field in the Options Menu, your e-mail address will be filled
in automatically. After entering the above information, if you have an
editor defined in the Options Menu and you are not an anonymous user
then your specified editor will be spawned for you so that you can
enter your message. If you do not have an editor defined or you are an
anonymous user, a simple line mode input scheme will allow you to
enter your message.
To finish sending the message, exit your spawned editor or, if you are
using the simple line mode input scheme, type a "." (period) on a line
by itself. You will be asked a final time whether to send the message.
If you press 'y' then the message will be sent, if you press 'n' the
message will be deleted. ToC
USENET News posting
While reading news articles with Lynx you should see a link that says
"Reply to user@host" and a link that says "Reply to newsgroup(s)"
Reply to user@host
user@host will actually appear as the mail address of the
person who posted the news article. Selecting the link will
allow you to send a message to the person who wrote the message
you are currently viewing. You will be given the option of
including the original message in your reply.
Reply to newsgroup(s)
Selecting this link will allow you to post back to the
newsgroup that you are currently reading and any newsgroups
that the message may be cross-posted to. You will be given the
option of including the original message in your reply. Once
you have typed in your message the inews program will be called
to post your message to your news host. ToC
Lynx and HTML Forms
This section describes the Lynx Forms Interface. HTML gives document
providers the ability to create on-line forms which may be filled out
when the document is viewed. When a form is submitted the information
on the form can be used to search a database or complete a survey.
An HTML Form provides for the use of buttons or to perform an action
(such as submit), checkboxes and radio buttons to select options from
a list, and fields for entering text.
Buttons:
Buttons are displayed in the same way that Lynx displays links
in a document. To "push" the button press the RIGHT ARROW or
RETURN key.
Checkboxes and Radio buttons
Checkboxes and radio buttons are displayed as parenthesis: ().
When a box is checked or a button selected, an asterisk appears
within the parenthesis: (*). To check a box or select a radio
button press the RIGHT ARROW or RETURN key.
Text Entry Fields
Text entry fields are displayed as a row of underscores the
length of the entry field: _______. You may enter text directly
by typing at the keyboard. Use the BACKSPACE key to correct
errors. If you input more text than the field can hold your
input will be truncated. If you fill a text field the cursor
will not move off the field but remain at the last field
position.
You can move around the form using the standard Lynx navigation keys.
UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW keys respectively select the previous or
next field, box, or button. The TAB key selects the next field, box,
or button.
NOTE:If you have a text input field selected you will not have access
to any of the Lynx keystroke commands. Select a button or box when you
want to use Lynx keystrokes.
Viewing the HTML document source and editing documents
When viewing HTML documents it is possible to view the unrendered
(i.e., the original HTML) source of the document by pressing the '\'
(backslash) key. The document will be reloaded from the server or disk
and displayed on the screen unrendered. When viewing unrendered
documents you may print them as any normal document.
Selecting the Print to a local file option from the Print Menu, makes
it possible to save the source of the document to disk so that you may
have a local copy of the document.
NOTE: When saving an HTML document it is important to name the
document with a ".html" extension, if you want to read it with Lynx
again later.
Lynx can allow users to edit documents that reside on the local
system. To enable editing, documents must be referenced using a
"file:" URL or by specifying a plain filename on the command line as
in the following two examples:
lynx file://localhost/FULL/PATH/FILENAME
lynx path/filename.html
In addition, the user must also specify an editor in the Options Menu
so that Lynx knows which editor to use. If the file is specified
correctly and an editor is defined, then you may edit documents by
using the 'e' command. When the 'e' command is entered your specified
editor is spawned to edit the file. After changes are completed, exit
your editor and you will return to Lynx. Lynx will reload and render
the file so that changes can be immediately examined. ToC
Reloading files and refreshing the display
The CTRL-R command will reload and rerender the file that you are
currently viewing. CTRL-L or CTRL-W will refresh or wipe the screen to
remove or correct any errors that may be caused by operating system or
other messages. ToC
Lynx bookmarks
It is often useful to place a bookmark to aid in returning quickly to
a document. To use the bookmark feature you must first use the Options
Menu to specify a bookmark filename.
To save a bookmark to the document you wish to place in the bookmark
file press the 'a' key and you will be asked
Save D)ocument or L)ink to bookmark file or C)ancel? (d,l,c):
Answer 'd' to save a link to the document you are currently viewing or
'l' to save the link that is currently selected on the page. Selecting
'c' will cancel without saveing anything to your bookmark file.
Use the 'v' command to view the list of bookmarks you have saved.
While viewing the bookmark list you may select a bookmark as you would
any other link. ToC
Other useful commands
When '!' is pressed your default shell will be spawned. When
you quit or exit the shell you will return to Lynx. (Usually
'exit' under UNIX and 'logout' under VMS) This command is
usually disabled for anonymous users.
The 'g' command allows any URL to be viewed. Pressing the 'g'
command will bring up a prompt asking for a URL. Type in the
URL that you wish to view.
The '=' command shows information about the current document
and the currently selected link if there is one. The number of
lines in the file, URL, title, owner, and type are shown.
Lynx supports completely interruptable I/O processes. Press the
'z' key at any time during a connect or transfer process and
the process will be halted. If any data was transferred before
the interrupt, it will be displayed. ToC
The Lynx command
The basic syntax of the Lynx command can be represented as one of the
following:
lynx [options]
lynx [options] pathname
lynx [options] URL
pathname
is the name of an ASCII text file or an HTML file that enters a
hypertext network.
+ If no file is specified, Lynx will use a default starting
file and base directory determined during installation.
+ If a specified file is local (i.e., not a URL) Lynx displays
that file and uses the directory in which that file resides
as the base directory.
+ If a URL is specified, the file will be retrieved, and only
the server base directory will be relevant to further
accesses.
options
can be selected from the following list, where items in
all-caps indicate that a substitution must be made.
-anonymous
used to specify the anonymous account
enable case-sensitive string searching
-cache=NUMBER
set the NUMBER of documents cached in memory. The default
-cfg=FILENAME
specifies a Lynx configuration file other than the
default lynx.cfg.
-display=DISPLAY
set the display variable for X rexeced programs
dumps the formatted output of the default document or one
specified on the command line to standard out. Under UNIX
this can be used in the following way: lynx -dump
http://info.cern.ch/default.html
-editor=EDITOR
enable edit mode using the specified EDITOR (vi, ed,
emacs, etc.)
-emacskeys
enable emacs-like key movement
enable local program execution
-locexec
enable local program execution from local files only
-noexec
disable local program execution (default)
print this Lynx command syntax usage message
-index=URL
set the default index file to the specified URL
-noprint
disable print functions
enable print functions (default)
-restrictions
allows a list of services to be disabled selectively and
takes the following form: "lynx -restrictions=[default],
[all], [inside_telnet], [outside_telnet], [shell],
[editor], [bookmark], [option_save], [print], [file_url],
[download], [exec]"
restricts all options.
bookmark
disallow changing the location of the bookmark
default
same as command line option -anonymous. Disables
default services for anonymous users. Currently set
to all restricted except for: inside_telnet,
outside_telnet, and goto. Defaults are setable
within userdefs.h.
download
disallow saving binary files to disk in the
download menu.
editor
disallow editing.
disable execution scripts.
file_url
disallow using G)oto to go to file: URL's.
disable the 'g' (goto) command.
inside_telnet
disallow telnets for people coming from inside your
domain.
options_save
disallow saving options in .lynxrc.
outside_telnet
disallow telnets for people coming from outside
your domain.
disallow most print options.
disallow shell escapes.
-show cursor
If enabled the cursor will not be hidden in the right
hand corner but will instead be positioned at the start
of the currently selected link. show cursor is the
default for systems without FANCY_CURSES capabilities,
and the default configuration can be changed in
userdefs.h.
-source
works the same as dump but outputs HTML source instead of
formatted text.
-telnet
disable recognition of embedded telnet commands
completely.
-term=TERM
tell Lynx what terminal type to assume its talking to.
(This may be useful for remote execution, when, for
example, Lynx connects to a remote TCP/IP port that
starts a script that, in turn, starts another Lynx
process.)
turns on WWW trace mode
-vikeys
enable vi-like key movement
-version
print version information
No options are required, nor is a starting file required. White space
may be substituted for any equal sign (=) appearing in the option list
above. ToC
Lynx development history
Lynx grew out of efforts to build a campus-wide information system at
The University of Kansas. The earliest versions of Lynx provided a
user-friendly, distributed hypertext interface for users connected to
multiuser (UN*X and VMS) systems via curses-oriented display devices.
A custom hypertext format was developed to support hypertext links to
local files and files on remote Gopher servers. Using Gopher servers
for distributed file service allowed information providers to publish
information from a wide variety of platforms (including UN*X, VMS,
VM/CMS and Macintosh). In addition, Lynx became the most user-friendly
Gopher client, although that was only an ancillary capability.
This distributed approach let providers retain complete control over
their information, but it made communication between users and
providers somewhat more difficult. Following the lead of Neal Erdwien,
of Kansas State University, the Lynx hypertext format was extended to
include links for including ownership information with each file. This
information made it possible for users running Lynx clients to send
comments and suggestions via e-mail to the providers.
This early version of Lynx was also augmented to support hypertext
links to programs running on remote systems. It included the ability
to open a Telnet connection, as well as the ability to start programs
via rexec, inetd, or by direct socket connects. These capabilities
were included to allow users to access databases or custom program
interfaces.
A subsequent version of Lynx incorporated the World Wide Web libraries
to allow access to the full list of WWW servers, along with the option
to build hypertext documents in HTML, rather than the native Lynx
format. HTML has become far more widely used, and the native format is
being phased out. With the addition of the WWW libraries, Lynx became
a fully-featured WWW client, limited only by the display capabilites
offered in the curses environment.
At The University of Kansas, Lynx is used in several different ways to
give users access to the campus wide information system. First, it is
run on several local clients from a script named "kufacts" that points
to the starting file located on a local server. Second, it runs
whenever a user logs into an account called "kufacts" on a system
named kufacts.cc.ukans.edu. Users without a local account may use this
system to explore the KU CWIS and experiment with Lynx.
Lynx was designed by Lou Montulli, Charles Rezac and Michael Grobe of
Academic Computing Services at The University of Kansas. Lynx was
implemented by Lou Montulli and is now maintained by Garrett Arch
Blythe.
Lynx has incorporated code from a variety of sources along the way.
The earliest versions of Lynx included code from Earl Fogel of
Computing Services at the University of Saskatchewan, who implemented
HYPERREZ in the UN*X environment. Those versions also incorporated
libraries from the UN*X Gopher clients developed at the University of
Minnesota, and the later versions of Lynx rely on the WWW client
library code developed by Tim Berners-Lee (and others) and the WWW
community.
Lynx is presently available via anonymous FTP from ftp2.cc.ukans.edu.
Additional Information
For a tutorial introduction to HTML see:
http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/html-primer.html.
For a quick reference guide to HTML see:
http://kuhttp.cc.ukans.edu/lynx_help/HTML_quick.html
For reference information on HTML see:
http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/MarkUp.html
Garrett Blythe
Lou Montulli
Michael Grobe
Stephen Ware
Academic Computing Services
The University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas 66045

MetalNET QWK mail net. The midwest's only
all music e-mail net. 11 music conferences
ranging from rock, metal, alternative to rap
and country and just added a conferencd for
listeners and composers of digital music and
MTV discussion. Add MetalNET to your message
base and give your users somthing to listen
to. Now supporting QWK & Frontend mailers.
A list of MsDos FTP sites, their
moderators and other useful information
for downloading; by Prof. Timo Salmi,
Finland, and Rhys Weatherley, Australia.




-- NNNNNNNNNNNN --
New England Net Information Pack v2.00
-- EEEEEEEEEEEE --
NE-Net is friendly. Started in 1988!
Boards outside of NE are welcomed to
apply. Managed by a SC, keeping politics
in the sandbox where they belong! 01/95
NET-12, The Family Values Network
was formed out of the frustration
of constantly viewing messages
containing hostile and childish
content in many of the Networks.
NET-12 has 12 common conferences
and "STRICTLY" enforces the
"BE NICE TO EACH OTHER" rule.
Supports QWK (now) FIDO (later).
Being new, this net will consider
suggestions, but the "BE NICE"
rule always applies.
GUIDE TO SELECT BBS'S ON THE INTERNET (SBI LIST)
Maintained by Richard S. Mark
cerebus@dkmail.dkeep.com or cerebus@freenet.ufl.edu
(see README.DOC for information about this list)
SBI1194.LST (rev date: 11/05/94)
HOW TO GET THESE FILES:
FTP dkunix.dkeep.com in /pub/sbi
FINGER sbi@dkeep.com (Guide to Select BBS's on Internet)
sbiq@dkeep.com ("Quick" Guide to Select BBS's on Internet)
ARCHIVE Dragon Keep - dkeep.com / (904) 375-3500 - Free DL - /GO SBI
Or call you Favorite BBS and download SBI.ZIP (ie, SBI1194.ZIP)
* = New since last revision
* System Name: Boardwatch Magazine BBS
TELNET: boardwatch.com (198.211.187.1)
FTP: ? (anonymous: ? )
FINGER: ?
WWW: HTTP://www.boardwatch.com
Sysop email: ?
Guest/New Login: NEW
Phone Access: 303.973.4222
Location: Colorado
Number of Lines: Pay: NO Type: TBBS
DESCRIPTION:
Boardwatch Magzine Online edition, Lots of BBS lists, message forums.
* System Name: ExecPC
TELNET: execpc.com (204.29.202.50)
FTP: execpc.com (anonymous: OK )
FINGER: ?
Sysop email: ?
Guest/New Login: newuser
Phone Access: ?
Location: ?
Number of Lines: 280 Pay: YES Type: CUSTOM
DESCRIPTION:
The largest BBS in the World. This place has everything. The telnet
address above accesses their Unix side - hopefully, the main BBS will be
available soon via telnet!
* System Name: MindVox
TELNET: phantom.com (38.145.218.228)
FTP: ? (anonymous: ? )
FINGER: ?
Sysop email: ?
Guest/New Login: guest
Phone Access: ?
Location: New York, NY
Number of Lines: Pay: YES Type: CUSTOM
DESCRIPTION:
MindVox is a storehouse of knowledge pertaining to a wide variety of
topics and contains a vast collection of archives that house information
on just about anything! One of the mose UNIQUE places in Cyberspace!
* System Name: On-Line Entertainment
TELNET: connect.on-line.co.uk (193.114.232.1)
FTP: ? (anonymous: ? )
FINGER: ?
Sysop email: ?
Guest/New Login: connect
Phone Access: ?
Location: United Kingdom
Number of Lines: Pay: YES Type: CUSTOM
DESCRIPTION:
The European Interactive Community. Lots of great online games!
Netbook8.zip
Files: Netbook8.txt
Netbook8.htm
Netbook8.zip is an interactive web browser home page
of 1325 alphabetized web sites in 40 different categories.
Netbook8.zip should work with most web browsers, but
it needs IBM's latest version .93 or later of web browser.
Netbook8.htm is available as scott.html from:
http://www.picosof.com:8080/html/scott.html
Netbook8.zip is available from:
ftp: hobbes.nmsu.edu /os2 /incoming
ftp: ftp.cdrom.com /.1 /os2 /incoming
Netbook8.zip will be moved to in about a week to:
ftp: hobbes.nmsu.edu /os2 /new
ftp: ftp.cdrom.com /.1 /os2 /new
Netbook8.zip is very useful for navigating the web particularly
for first time users. Just open the file netbook8.htm or scott.html
from one's web browser and click onto the categories and sites one
desires.
Netbook8.zip is posted as free ware and it may be used on other
web home pages to provide other links to the web. Netbook8.zip
will be upgraded in two to three months when I have selected
another three to five hundred sites.
Netbook8.htm compiles on a 386/33 8 meg memory computer
in less than fifteen seconds permitting rapid switching between
the list and web sites.
Any feedback would be appreciated. Email comments to:
Michael Scott
email: mikescot@ix.netcom.com
Enjoy surfing the net !




News Xpress Version 1.0 Beta #2
Written by W.L. Ken, Ng
Overview
News Xpress(NX) is a Windows Sockets compliant USENET newsreader for
Microsoft Windows that uses the NNTP to access newsgroups and articles on
a news server.
Some of the key features of NX are:
- Use Windows Multiple Document Interface (MDI)
- Read, print, post and follow news
- Send mail (SMTP)
- Multiple newsgroups can be open at the same time
- Support threads. It can use both Subject and References headers
to thread article
- Articles can be marked as read or unread
- Automatically mark crossposted articles as read
- Built-in uuencode function for attaching binary files in postings
and mails
- Built-in uudecode function for decoding articles
- Support XOVER to retrieve overview database
- Support signature
- Use standard NEWSRC
- Multiple newsgroups or articles can be selected via press-and-drag
right mouse button
Installation
1. The distribution is a compressed ZIP file. Create a directory for NX,
cd into it, and unzip the ZIP file in that directory. For example:
C:\> MKDIR NX
C:\NX> PKUNZIP C:\DOWNLOAD\NX10B?.ZIP
If you don't have CTL3DV2.DLL in the Windows SYSTEM directory,
C:\NX> MOVE CTL3DV2.DLL C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM
otherwise,
C:\NX> DEL CTL3DV2.DLL
If you had installed the NX beta #0 or beta #1, you should remove
the CTL3D.DLL from the NX directory.
2. If you want NX to use the profile in the directory other than
Windows, you could
C:\NX> SET NX=C:\NX\NX.INI
C:\NX> SET NX=C:\NX\KEN.INI
and add this command into your AUTOEXEC.BAT.
3. Create an icon for NX in the Program Manager group.
4. Add a line to specify the time zone in your AUTOEXEC.BAT,
e.g. SET TZ=PST8PDT.
History
Several bugfixes and changes from V1.0 Beta #0
- Catchup problem
- Save windows position and size correctly
- UUdecode multipart files
- Crash if SPACEBAR is pressed while there is no article in the
list window
Changes:
- Perform authorization check right after connection is established
- The "File|Quit without saving" command forces NX to cancel
socket call and terminate NX
- Add filter for selecting newsgroups
- Single click on a folder icon of thread will open/close thread
- Added an option for prompting new newsgroups
- Added an option for opening all threads automatically
- Configurable Subject header template for attachment
%s - original subject string
%f - filename
%p - current part number
%t - total number of parts
- Extended tilde escape sequence for more files attachment control
~N new article
~H add or replace header
~A attach file
Several bugfixes and changes from V1.0 Beta #1
- Should work with Novell LAN Workplace
- Append signature into outgoing mails
- NEWSRC problem
- Groups filter problem
- "No overview database" problem should be fixed
- Authentication password encryption problem
Changes:
- Configurable port numbers for both NNTP and SMTP
- Display the number of articles of each thread
- Support different printer font
- More keys binding
- Articles navigation (next and previous)
- Added stop command. The stop command serves for multiple purpose,
e.g. terminate headers information transfer, cancel print job, and
stop multiple articles downloading.
- Added update command to update the selected groups information
(unread count)
- Can be specified to use different pathname for NEWSRC file in the setup
dialog box
- NX environment variable tells NX where to look for the profile,
e.g. SET NX=C:\KEN\MYPRIVATE.INI
Known problems:
- Cannot display articles larger than 64K. This problem occurs because
of the limitation of Windows edit control. Note, articles are truncated
on the display window only, you can still save, decode, forward and
print those articles as they are saved in your hard disk
- Hang while displaying Base64 encoding type articles
I hope you find NX useful.
Copyright
Permission to use, copy and distribute this software and its documentation
for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that it is not
modified.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Reporting Bugs
Mail your bug reports to Ken Ng . Please include the
steps to reproduce the bugs, and any other information that might help
me locate and correct the cause.
W.L. Ken, Ng
OmniLink Nationwide QWK Mail network that
specializes in fun and entertaining
conferences. Applications are being taken for
both nodes and HubSites. Contains everything
you need to get started in the network.
Sep 1994 Version
Offline Mail Executive v1.00 [DOS]. Allows
points and mail-only nodes to use a Blue Wave
compatible offline mail reader to read/write
messages. No more do you need both a point
package and an offline reader, nor do you
need to set up a BBS just to use your offline
reader as a point! Supports the Squish, JAM,
and Fido message formats. (Requires a front-
end mailer and an EchoMail processor for a
complete system setup.)
Passion and Pleasure - An Adults' Only
Network! Currently we are seeking HUBs
and Nodes to join our expanding NET.
Application and network information
is included in this file. Come and join
us! NO FEE REQUIRED!!!!

PGPBLUE is an interface program, which interfaces PGP with The Bluewave
Offline Mail Reader. Features En/Decrypting Posting/Adding Public Keys.
Automatic detection of Encrypted messages and Public keys.
------- PacketBoy v2.10 ------- by Glen Neal
PacketBoy is a QWK/BlueWave OMR for Windows
for both packet and database reader users.
Four color display of ascii messages, auto
internal Ansi, RIP and PCBoard graphics,
spelling checker, paragraph word wrap, tag
manager (conference specific), signature
manager, packet manager, eight view modes,
quick font toggle, slideshow, .WAV support.
@X0CNEW: Fonts selector, Tagfile picklist.
Planet Earth Network! 12/94
Join one the friendliest, growing
networks around. We are changing
to incorporate topics that are
interesting and stimulating.
Swift approval within 24 hours.
FTS gateway available.
Archive-name: perl-faq/part0
Version: $Id: perl-intro,v 2.2 1994/11/07 18:05:12 spp Exp spp $
Posting-Frequency: bi-weekly
Archive-name: perl-faq/part1
Version: $Id: part1,v 2.3 1994/11/07 18:05:23 spp Exp spp $
Posting-Frequency: bi-weekly
This posting contains answers to general information and availability
questions. The following questions are answered in this posting:
1.1) What is Perl?
Perl is a compiled scripting language written by Larry Wall*.
Here's the beginning of the description from the perl(1) man page:
Perl is an interpreted language optimized for scanning arbi-
trary text files, extracting information from those text
files, and printing reports based on that information. It's
also a good language for many system management tasks. The
language is intended to be practical (easy to use, effi-
cient, complete) rather than beautiful (tiny, elegant,
minimal). It combines (in the author's opinion, anyway)
some of the best features of C, sed, awk, and sh, so people
familiar with those languages should have little difficulty
with it. (Language historians will also note some vestiges
of csh, Pascal, and even BASIC-PLUS.) Expression syntax
corresponds quite closely to C expression syntax. Unlike
most Unix utilities, perl does not arbitrarily limit the
size of your data--if you've got the memory, perl can slurp
in your whole file as a single string. Recursion is of
unlimited depth. And the hash tables used by associative
arrays grow as necessary to prevent degraded performance.
Perl uses sophisticated pattern matching techniques to scan
large amounts of data very quickly. Although optimized for
scanning text, perl can also deal with binary data, and can
make dbm files look like associative arrays (where dbm is
available). Setuid perl scripts are safer than C programs
through a dataflow tracing mechanism which prevents many
stupid security holes. If you have a problem that would
ordinarily use sed or awk or sh, but it exceeds their capa-
bilities or must run a little faster, and you don't want to
write the silly thing in C, then perl may be for you. There
are also translators to turn your sed and awk scripts into
perl scripts. OK, enough hype.
1.2) What are perl4 and perl5, are there any differences?
Perl4 and perl5 are different versions of the language. Perl4 was
previous release, and perl5 is "Perl: The Next Generation."
Perl5 is, essentially, a complete rewrite of the perl source code
from the ground up. It has been modularized, object oriented,
tweaked, trimmed, and optimized until it almost doesn't look like
the old code. However, the interface is mostly the same, and
compatibility with previous releases is very high.
1.3) What features does perl5 provide over perl4?
If you get the newest source (from any of the main FTP sites), you
find a directory full of man pages (possibly to be installed as
section
1p and 3pm) that discuss the differences, new features, old
incompatibilies and much more. Here, however, are some highlights
to the new feature and old incompatibilites.
* Enhanced Usability: Perl code can now be written in a much more
legible style. Regular expressions have been enhanced to allow
minimal matches, conditionals, and much more. Cryptic variable
names (although still supported) have been aliased to new
nmemonics, using the "English" module, allowing old scripts to
and new scripts to be readable. Error messages and optional
warnings are more informative and will catch many common
mistakes.
See the perldiag(1) man page, which contains pithy prose from
Wall* on each and every possible muttering perl might spout at
* Simplified Grammar: The new yacc grammar is one half the size
the old one. Many of the arbitrary grammer rules have been
regularized. The number of reserved words has been cut by 2/3.
* Lexical Scoping: Perl variables may now be declared within a
lexical scope, similar to C's "auto" variables. This is a
great improvement on efficiency and contributes to better
privacy. See the my() entry in perlfunc(1).
* Arbitrarily nested data structures: Full fledged
multidimensional
arrays. Any scalar value, including an array element, may now
contain a reference to any other variable or subroutine.
Easily created anonymous variables and subroutines. See
perlref(1).
* Modularity and Reusability: The Perl library is now defined in
terms of modules which can be easily shared among various
packages. Packages can import any or all of a module's
published interface. See perlmod(1), perlsub(1), and
Exporter(3pm).
* Object-oriented programming: A package can function as a class.
Dynamic multiple inheritance and virtual methods are supported
in a straight-forward manner with little new syntax. Filehandles
are now treated as objects. See perlobj(1), perlmod(1), and
FileHandle(3pm).
* Embeddible and Extensible: Perl can be easily embedded in C/C++
approlications, and can either call or be called by your
routines through a documented interface. The XS preprocessor
is provided to make it easy to glue your C/C++ routines into
Perl. Dynamic loading of modules is supported. See perlapi(1),
perlcall(1), and DynaLoader(3pm).
* POSIX compliant: A major new module is the POSIX module, which
provides access to all available POSIX routines and definitions.
Seee POSIX(3pm).
* Package constructors and destructors: The new BEGIN and END
blocks
provide means to capture control as a package is being compiled
after the program exits. As a degenerate case, they work just
awk's BEGIN and END when you use the -p or -n switches. See
perlmod(1).
* Multiple simultaneous DBM implementations: A perl program now
access to DBM, NDBM, SDBM, GDBM and Berkeley DB files in the same
script. The dbmopen interface has been generalized to allow any
variable to be tied to an object class which defines its access
methods. tie/untie now preferable to dbmopen/dbmclose. See the
tie() entry in perlfunc(1) and the DB_File(3pm) man pages.
* Subroutine definitions may now be autoloaded: The AUTOLOAD
mechanism
allows any arbitrary semantics to undefined subroutine calls.
the section on Autoloading in the perlsub(1) manpage.
* Regular Expression Enhancements: Qualifiers may be followed by
to signify that they should be non-greedy. A "?" directly after
an opening paren indicates non backreference grouping and the next
character determines the purpose of the match (?:a|b|c) will match
any of a b or c without producing a backreference, (?=stuff) does
a non-eating look ahead to assure that the next thing is stuff,
(?!nonsense) looks ahead to assure that the next thing must not
be "nonsense". Embedded whitespace and comments for readability.
A consistent extensibility mechanism has been added that is
upwardly compatible with all old regexps. Variables may now be
interpoled literally into a pattern with \Q or the quotemeta
fuction, which works like \U but backwhacks non-alphanumerics.
New m and s "flags" for pattern matching force multi- or
single-line matching. The "s" makes "." match "\n". \A and
\Z anchor matches to the beginning and end of a string and ignore
multiline semantics. \G matches where the previous m//g or s///g
left off.
* The -w (warnings) switch is much more informative.
* References and Objects (see t/op/ref.t) for examples.
* => is a synonum for comma and helps group paired arguments, such
as initializers for associative arrays and named arguments to
subroutines.
* All functions, even predeclared subroutines, are treated as list
operators or unary operators. Parens are optional.
* Flattened interpreter: Compare perl4's eval.c with perl5's
Compare perl4's 900 line interpreter look with perl5's one line.
* eval is now treated like a subroutine call, meaning (among other
things) you can return from it.
* format value lists may be spread over multiple lines with a do
* flags on the #! line are interpreted even if the script wasn't
invoked directly.
* ?: is now an lvalue.
* list context now propogates to the right side of && and ||, and
as the 2nd and 3rd arguments of ?:
* preferred package delimeter now :: rather than '.
* new "and" and "or" operators, like && and || but with a lower
precedence than comma, so they work better with list operators.
* New functions abs(), chr(), uc(), ucfirst(), lc(), and lcfirst()
* require(number) checks to see that the version is at least that
version
* qw//, which is equivalent to split(' ', q//)
* assignment of a reference to a glob replaces the single element
of the glob corresponding to the reference type:
*foo = \$bar, * foo = \&bletch;
* filehandle methods are supported:
output_autoflush STDOUT 1;
* Autoload stubs can now call the replacement subroutine with
goto &realsub.
* Subroutines can be defined lazily in any package by declaring
an AUTOLOAD routine, which will be called if a non-existant
subroutine is called in that package.
* "use" and "no" subsume many feautres. "use Module LIST" is
short for "BEGIN { require Module; import Module LIST }"
"no" is identical, except that it calls "unimport" instead.
"use integer" and variations of "use strict [vars,refs,subs]"
were implemented through new modules.
(Thanks to Tom Christiansen* for this section)
1.4) Where can I get docs on perl5?
The complete perl documentation is available with the Perl
distribution, or can be accessed from the following sites.
Note that the PerlDoc ps file is 240 pages long!!
http://www.metronet.com/0/perlinfo/perl5/manual/perl.html
ftp://ftp.uu.net/languages/perl/PerlDoc.ps.gz
ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/PerlDoc.ps.gz
ftp://ftp.cbi.tamucc.edu/pub/duff/Perl/PerlDoc.ps.gz
ftp://www.metronet.com/pub/perlinfo/perl5/manual/PerlDoc.ps.gz
http://web.nexor.co.uk/perl/perl.html (Europe)
ftp://ftp.zrz.tu-berlin.de/pub/unix/perl/PerlDoc.ps.gz
(Europe)
ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/PERL/perl5.0/PerlDoc.ps.gz
(Europe)
ftp://sungear.mame.mu.oz.au/pub/perl/doc/PerlDoc.ps.gz (Oz)
1.5) Will perl5 break my perl4 scripts?
In general, no. However, certain bad old practices have become
highly
frowned upon. The following are the most important of the known
incompatibilies between perl4 and perl5. See perltrap(1) for more
details.
* "@" ***ALWAYS*** interpolate in double quoted strings. Non-
"@"s must be escaped:
Mail("foo@bar.com") needs to be
Mail("foo\@bar.com");
The compiler catches this.
* "open FILE || die" needs to be "open(FILE) || die". The
compiler
forgives you for this, but won't stop complaining until you fix
* Barewords are no longer (necessarily) strings: they will
actually
call the function (if it existed when that code was compiled)
instead of returning a string of that value. Check your
signal handlers. The 'use strict subs' pragma (see strict(3pm))
will help you with this.
* "shift @x + 20" needs to be "shift(@x) + 20" because of
precedence,
and likewise "$y = scalar keys %foo + 30" needs to be instead
"$y = scalar keys(%foo) + 30".
* The internal symbol table is called %{PACKAGE::} for any given
package. It used to be %{_PACKAGE}.
* You may no longer (attempt to) write to read-only variables,
or assign to a substr() past the end of a string.
* Various deprecated practices elicit warning messages.
1.6) When will Perl stabilize?
When asked at what point the Perl code would be frozen, Larry answere:
Part of the redesign of Perl is to *allow* us to more or less
freeze
the language itself. It won't totally freeze, of course, but I
the rate of change of the core of the language is asymptotically
approaching 0. In fact, as time goes on, now that we have an
official
extension mechanism, some of the things that are currently in the
of the language may move out (transparently) as extensions. This
already happened to dbmopen().
I've also been continuously reminding myself of what Henry Spencer
calls "second system syndrome", in which everything under the sun
added, resulting in a colossal kludge, like OS 360. You'll find
the new features in Perl 5 are all pretty minimalistic. The
object-oriented features in particular added only one new piece of
syntax, a C++-style method call.
: The whole idea
: Perl is to be a fast text-processing, system-maintenance, zero-
startup
: time language. If it gets to be so large and complicated that it
: fast-running and easy to use, it won't be to anyone's benefit.
My motto from the start has been, "If it ain't broke, don't fix
I've been trying very hard not to remove those features from Perl
make it what it is. At the same time, a lot of streamlining has
into the syntax. The new yacc file is about half the size of the
one, and the number of official reserved words has been cut by
All built-in functions have been unified (dualified?) as either
operators or unary operators.
: I really like a lot of the features in Perl, but in order for
Perl to
: be useful on a long term basis, those features have to stay put.
: bought the Camel book less than a year ago and it sounds like
within
: another year it will be obsolete.
The parts of Perl that the Camel book covers have not changed all
much. Most old scripts still run. Many scripts from Perl version
still run. We'll certainly be revising the Camel, but the new man
pages are split up such that it's pretty easy to ferret out the
info when you want it.
We did break a few misfeatures in going to Perl 5. It seemed like
first and last chance to do so. There's a list of the
incompatibilities in the documentation.
: Not only is it a lot of work to recompile Perl
: on 20+ machines periodically, but it's hard to write scripts
that are
: useful in the long term if the guts of the language keep
changing.
: (And if I keep having to buy new books. I keep hearing about new
: features of Perl 5 that aren't documented in any of the perl 5
: documentation that *I* can find.)
I think you'll find a lot of folks who think that 4.036 has been a
pretty stable platform.
Perl 5 is a special case. I've been working on it for years.
(This is
part of the reason 4.036 has been so stable!) There are many
changes,
most of them for the better, I hope. I don't expect the
transition to
be without pain. But that's why I stuck numbered versions out in
bin directory, so that you can upgrade piecemeal if you like. And
that's why I made the -w switch warn about many of the
incompatibilities.
And overriding all that, I've tried to keep it so that you don't
to know much about the new stuff to use the old stuff. You can
upgrade
your *knowledge* piecemeal too.
The extension mechanism is designed to take over most of the
evolutionary role from now on. And it's set up so that, if you
have a particular extension, you know it right up at the front.
: Are there any plans to write a Perl compiler? While interpreted
: is great for many applications, it would also be cool to be able
: precompile many scripts. (Yes, I know you can undump things, but
: undump isn't provided with Perl and I haven't found a copy.) The
: creation of a perl library and dynamically-loadable modules
: like a step in that direction.
Yes, part of the design of Perl 5 was to make it *possible* to
write a
compiler for it. It could even be done as an extension module, I
suppose. Anyone looking for a master's thesis topic?
In summary, almost every concern that you might think of has
already
been (at least) thought about. In a perfect world, every concern
could be addressed perfectly. But in this world we just have to
through.
1.7) What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
32! [ ord('p') - ord('P') ] (Shouldn't that be 42, the Answer to
Great Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything? ;)
Larry now uses "Perl" to signify the language proper and "perl"
implementation of it, i.e. the current interpreter. Hence Tom's
quip that "Nothing but perl can parse Perl."
On the other hand, the aesthetic value of casewise parallelism in
"awk", "sed", and "perl" as much require the lower-case version as
"Pascal", and "Perl" require the upper-case version. It's also
easier
to type "Perl" in typeset print than to be constantly switching in
Courier. :-)
In other words, it doesn't matter much, especially if all you're
is hearing someone talk about the language; case is hard to
distinguish
aurally.
1.8) Is it a perl program or a perl script?
It depends on whether you are talking about the perl binary or
something that you wrote using perl. And, actually, even this
necessarily true.
"Standard" UNIX terminology is (roughly) this: programs are
compiled
into machine code once and run multiple times, scripts are
translated
(by a program) each time they are used. However, some say that a
program is anything written which is executed on a computer
system.
Larry considers it a program if it is set in stone and you can't
change
it, whereas if you can go in and hack at it, it's a script. Of
course,
if you have the source code, that makes just about anything a
script. ;)
In general, it probably doesn't really matter. The terms are used
interchangeably. If you particularly like one or the other, use
you want to call yourself a perl programmer, call them programs.
you want to call yourself a perl scripter, call them scripts.
Randal*
and I (at least) will call them hacks. (See question 2.10 ;)
1.9) Is perl difficult to learn?
Not at all. Many people find Perl extremely easy to learn. There
at least three main reasons for this.
The first reason is that most of Perl has been derived from
standard
utilities, tools, and languages that you are (probably) already
familiar with. If you have any knowledge of the C programming
language
and standard C library, the Unix Shell, sed and awk, Perl should
simple and fun for you to learn.
The second reason that Perl is easy to learn is that you only have
know a very small subset of Perl to be able to get useful results.
fact, once you can master
#!/usr/local/bin/perl
print "Hello, world\n";
you can start writing Perl scripts. In fact, you will probably
have to (or be able to) know everything about Perl. As you feel
need or desire to use more sophisticated features (such as C
structures
or networking), you can learn these as you go. The learning curve
Perl is not a steep one, especially if you have the headstart of
having
a background in UNIX. Rather, its learning curve is gentle and
gradual, but it *is* admittedly rather long.
The third reason is that you can get immediate results from your
scripts. Unlike a normal compiled language (like C or Pascal, for
example), you don't have to continually recompile your program
time you change one little thing. Perl allows you to experiment
test/debug quickly and easily. This ease of experimentation
flattens
the learning curve even more.
If you don't know C or UNIX at all, it'll be a steeper learning
but what you then learn from Perl will carry over into other
like using the C library, UNIX system calls, regular expressions,
associative arrays, just to name a few. To know Perl is to know
and vice versa.
1.10) Should I program everything in Perl?
Most definitely. In fact, you should delete the binaries for sed,
cc, gcc, grep, rm, ls, cat... well, just delete your /bin
directory.
But seriously, of course you shouldn't. As with any job, you
should
use the appropriate tool for the task at hand. Just because a
hammer
will put screws into a piece of board, you probably don't want to
While it's true that the answer to the question "Can I do (some
arbitrary task) in Perl?" is almost always "yes", that doesn't
this is necessarily a good thing to do. For many people, Perl
serves
as a great replacement for shell programming. For a few people,
also serves as a replacement for most of what they'd do in C. But
some things, Perl just isn't the optimal choice, such as tasks
requiring very complex data structures.
1.11) How does Perl compare with other scripting languages, like Tcl,
Python
or REXX?
REXX is an interpreted programming language first seen on IBM
systems.
Python is an interpreted programming language by Guido van
Rossum*.
TCL is John Ousterhout*'s embeddable command language, designed
for embedded command extensions, but lately used for larger
applications. TCL's most intriguing feature for many people is
tcl/tk toolset that allows for interpreted X-based tools. Others
it for its "expect" extension.
To avoid any flamage, if you really want to know the answer to
question, probably the best thing to do is try to write equivalent
code to do a set of tasks. All three have their own newsgroups in
which you can learn about (but hopefully not argue about) these
languages.
To find out more about these or other languages, you might also
out David Muir Sharnoff*'s posting "Catalog of Compilers,
Interpreters,
and Other Language Tools" which he posts to comp.lang.misc,
comp.sources.d, comp.archives.admin, and news.answers newsgroups.
a comprehensive treatment of many different languages. (Caveat
lector:
he considers Perl's syntax "unappealing".)
1.12) How can I get Perl over the Internet?
Perl is available from any comp.sources.misc archive. You can use
archie server (see the alt.sources FAQ in news.answers) to find
if you want.
Volume Issues Patchlevel and Notes
18 19-54 Patchlevel 3, Initial posting.
20 56-62 Patches 4-10
Since 1993, a number of archives have sprung up specifically for
and Perl related items. Larry maintains the official distribution
site (for both perl4.036 and perl5) at netlabs. Probably the
largest
archive is at the University of Florida. In order of probability
sites will have the sources.
Site IP Directory and notes
North America:
ftp.netlabs.com 192.94.48.152 /pub/outgoing/perl[VERSION]/
ftp.cis.ufl.edu 128.227.100.198 /pub/perl/src/[VERSION]/
prep.ai.mit.edu 18.71.0.38 /pub/gnu/perl5.000.tar.gz
ftp.uu.net 192.48.96.9 /languages/perl/perl5.000.tar.gz
ftp.khoros.unm.edu 198.59.155.28 /pub/perl/perl5.000.tar.gz
ftp.cbi.tamucc.edu 165.95.1.3
/pub/duff/Perl/perl5.000.tar.gz
ftp.metronet.com 192.245.137.1 /pub/perl/sources/
genetics.upenn.edu 128.91.200.37 /perl5/perl5_000.zip
Europe:
ftp.cs.ruu.nl 131.211.80.17
/pub/PERL/perl5.0/perl5.000.tar.gz
ftp.funet.fi 128.214.248.6
/pub/languages/perl/ports/perl5/perl5.000.tar.gz
ftp.zrz.tu-berlin.de 130.149.4.40
/pub/unix/perl/perl5.000.tar.gz
src.doc.ic.ac.uk 146.169.17.5
/packages/perl5/perl5.000.tar.gz
Australia:
sungear.mame.mu.oz.au 128.250.209.2
/pub/perl/src/5.0/perl5.000.tar.gz
If there is a site in Asia or Japan, please tell us about it.
Thanks!
You can also retrieve perl via non-ftp methods:
http: //src.doc.ic.ac.uk/packages/perl5/perl5.000.tar.gz
gopher:
//src.doc.ic.ac.uk/0/packages/perl5/perl5.000.tar.gz
1.13) How can I get Perl via Email?
The following is a list of known ftpmail sites. Please attempt to
the site closest to you with the ftp archive closest to it. Many
these sites already have perl on them. For information on how to
one of these sites, send email containing the word "help" to the
address.
United States:
Massachusetts: ftpmail@decwrl.dec.com
New Jersey: bitftp@pucc.princeton.edu
North Carolina: ftpmail@sunsite.unc.edu
Europe/UK:
Germany: ftpmail@ftp.uni-stuttgart.de
bitftp@vx.gmd.de
UK: ftpmail@doc.ic.ac.uk
Australia: ftpmail@cs.uow.edu.au
Henk P Penning* suggests that if you are in Europe you should try
following (if you are in Germany or the UK, you should probably
use one
of the servers listed above):
Email: Send a message to 'mail-server@cs.ruu.nl' containing:
path your_email_address
send help
send PERL/INDEX
The path-line may be omitted if your message contains a normal
From:-line. You will receive a help-file and an index of the
directory that contains the Perl stuff.
If all else fails, mail to Larry usually suffices.
1.14) How can I get Perl via UUCP?
There currently is no way of getting Perl via UUCP. If anyone
knows of
a way, please contact me. The OSU site has discontinued the
service.
1.15) Are there other ways of getting perl?
Another possibility is to use UUNET, although they charge you for
You have been duly warned. Here's the advertisement:
Anonymous Access to UUNET's Source Archives
1-900-GOT-SRCS
UUNET now provides access to its extensive collection of UNIX
related sources to non- subscribers. By calling 1-900-468-7727
and using the login "uucp" with no password, anyone may uucp any
of UUNET's on line source collection. Callers will be charged 40
cents per minute. The charges will appear on their next tele-
phone bill.
The file uunet!/info/help contains instructions. The file
uunet!/index//ls-lR.Z contains a complete list of the files
available and is updated daily. Files ending in Z need to be
uncompressed before being used. The file uunet!~/compress.tar is
a tar archive containing the C sources for the uncompress program.
This service provides a cost effective way of obtaining
current releases of sources without having to maintain accounts
with UUNET or some other service. All modems connected to the
900 number are Telebit T2500 modems. These modems support all
standard modem speeds including PEP, V.32 (9600), V.22bis (2400),
Bell 212a (1200), and Bell 103 (300). Using PEP or V.32, a 1.5
megabyte file such as the GNU C compiler would cost $10 in con-
nect charges. The entire 55 megabyte X Window system V11 R4
would cost only $370 in connect time. These costs are less than
the official tape distribution fees and they are available now
via modem.
UUNET Communications Services
3110 Fairview Park Drive, Suite 570
Falls Church, VA 22042
info@uunet.uu.net
1.16) Has perl been ported to machine FOO?
Perl runs on virtually all Unix machines simply by following the
file and instructions in the Configure script. This auto-
configuration
script allows Perl to compile on a wide variety of platforms by
modifying the machine specific parts of the code. For most Unix
systems, or VMS systems for v5 perl, no porting is required. Try
compile Perl on your machine. If you have problems, examine the
README
file carefully. If all else fails, send a message to
comp.lang.perl
and crosspost to comp.sys.[whatever], there's probably someone out
there that has already solved your problem and will be able to
help you
Perl has been ported to many non-Unix systems, although currently
are no v5 ports. All of the following are mirrored at
ftp.cis.ufl.edu:/pub/perl/src/[OS]/. The following are the
official distribution points. Please contact the porters directly
(when possible) in case of questions on these ports.
* MS-DOS binaries and source are available at ftp.ee.umanitoba.ca
[130.179.8.47] in /pub/msdos/perl
There are currently half a dozen different ports for MS-DOS.
BigPerl4 (v3) is perl4.036 compiled with the Watcom C/386
compiler (32-bit, flat-memory model C compiler) with the
following features:
* Up to 32MB of memory can be used.
* Supports virtual memory.
* Works under Windows 3.1 (however, a second copy of perl cannot
be spawned under Windows).
* The perl debugger can be used.
* Contains GDBM support.
* Windows/NT binaries are available from ftp.cis.ufl.edu. Does
anyone know the official distribution point? I got these from
archive.cis.ohio-state.edu quite awhile back.
* Machintosh binaries and source are available from nic.switch.ch
[130.59.1.40] in /software/mac/perl.
Version 4.1.3 is perl4.036 compiled with the MPW C compiler
* Mac_Perl_413_src.sit.bin Sources
* Mac_Perl_413_tool.sit.bin MPW Tool
* Mac_Perl_413_appl.sit.bin Standalone Application
There is a mailing list for discussing Macintosh Perl. Contact
"mpw-perl-request@iis.ee.ethz.ch".
Timothy Murphy* also ported a version of perl to the Macintosh
using Think C. It has probably been abandoned in favour of the
MPW port, but is still available at ftp.maths.tcd.ie
[134.266.81.10] in the directory /pub/Mac/perl-4.035/.
* OS/2 sources are also available at ftp.cis.ufl.edu in
/pub/perl/src/os2. This appears to have been abandoned and added
to the official distribution. See the directory os2 in the perl5
sources.
* VMS systems should be able to build directly from the standard
distribution.
1.17) How do I get Perl to compile on Solaris?
The following directions are for perl, version 4. Perl, version
should compile more easily. If not, send mail to The Perl Porters
Mailing List (perl5-porters@isu.edu)
John Lees* reports:
I have built perl on Solaris 2.1, 2.2 beta, and 2.2 FCS. Take
/usr/ucb out of your path and do not use any BSD/UCB libraries.
Only -lsocket, -lnsl, and -lm are needed. You can use the hint for
Solaris 2.0, but the one for 2.1 is wrong. Do not use vfork. Do not
use -I/usr/ucbinclude. The result works fine for me, but of couse
does not support a couple of BSDism's.
Casper H.S. Dik* reports
You must remove all the references to /usr/ucblib AND
/usr/ucbinclude. And ignore the Solaris_2.1 hints. They are
The undefining of vfork() probably has to do with the
confusion it
gives to the compilers. If you use cc, you mustn't compile
util.c/tutil.c with -O. I only used the following libs: -lsocket
-lnsl -lm (there is a problem with -lmalloc)
Michael D'Errico* reports:
If you are using Solaris 2.x, the signal handling is broken.
you set up a signal handler such as 'ripper' it will be forgotten
after the first time the signal is caught. To fix this, you need
to recompile Perl. Just add '#define signal(x,y) sigset((x),(y))'
after the '#include ' directive in each file that it
occurs, then make it again.
1.18) How do I get Perl to compile on a Next?
According to Andreas Koenig*, under NeXTstep 3.2, both perl4.036
perl5.000 compile with the supplied hints file.
However, Bill Eldridge* provides this message to help get
perl4.036 on
NeXTstep 3.0 to work:
To get perl to compile on NeXTs, you need to combine the ANSI
and BSD headers:
cd /usr/include
mkdir ansibsd
cd ansibsd
ln -s ../ansi
ln -s ../bsd
Then, follow the configuration instructions for NeXTs,
*replacing*
all mention of -I/usr/include/ansi or -I/usr/include/bsd with
-I/usr/include/ansibsd.
1.19) What extensions are available from Perl and where can I get
Some of the more popular extensions include those for windowing,
graphics, or data base work. See perlmod(1).
Tk (as in tcl/tk, but sans tcl)
ftp://ftp.cis.ufl.edu/pub/perl/src/tkperl/tkperl5a5.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.khoros.unm.edu/pub/perl/extensions/tkperl5a5.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.metronet.com/pub/perlinfo/perl5/tkperl/tkperl5a5.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/PERL/perl5.0/tkperl5a5.tar.gz
ftp://black.ox.ac.uk/src/ALPHA/tkperl5a5.tar.gz
Curses (standard C library)
ftp://ftp.ncsu.edu/pub/math/wsetzer/cursperl5a6.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.metronet.com/pub/perlinfo/perl5/cursperl5a6.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/PERL/perl5.0/cursperl5a6.tar.gz
Msql (SQL)
ftp://ftp.zrz.TU-Berlin.DE/pub/unix/perl/MsqlPerl-a1.tgz
ftp://ftp.khoros.unm.edu/pub/perl/extensions/MsqlPerl-a1.tgz
ftp://ftp.metronet.com/pub/perlinfo/perl5/MsqlPerl5-a1.tgz
ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/PERL/perl5.0/MsqlPerl-a1.tar.gz
Sx (Athena & Xlib)
ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/Perl/Sx.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.khoros.unm.edu/pub/perl/extensions/Sx.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.metronet.com/pub/perlinfo/perl5/Sx.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/PERL/perl5.0/PerlDoc.ps.gz
1.20) What is dbperl and where can I get it?
Many database-oriented extensions to Perl have been written.
Basically, these use the usub mechanism (see the usub/
subdirectory) in
the source distribution) to link in a database library, allowing
embedded calls to Informix, Ingres, Interbase, Oracle and Sybase.
Here are the authors of the various extensions:
What Target DB Who
?Infoperl Informix Kurt Andersen
(kurt@hpsdid.sdd.hp.com)
Ingperl Ingres Tim Bunce (timbo@ig.co.uk) and Ted Lemon
Interperl Interbase Buzz Moschetti (buzz@bear.com)
Isqlperl Informix William Hails, bill@tardis.co.uk
Oraperl Oracle Kevin Stock (kstock@Auspex.com)
Pgperl Postgres Igor Metz (metz@iam.unibe.ch)
*Sqlperl Ingres Ted Lemon (mellon@ncd.com)
Sybperl Sybase Michael Peppler (mpeppler@itf.ch)
Uniperl Unify 5.0 Rick Wargo (rickers@coe.drexel.edu)
? Does this one still exist?
* Sqlperl appears to have been subsumed by Ingperl
Buzz Moschetti* has organized a project to create a higher level
interface to will allow you to write your queries in a database-
independent fashion. If this type of project interests you, send
to and asked to be placed on the
"perldb-interest" mailing lists.
Here's a bit of advertising from Buzz:
Perl is an interpreted language with powerful string, scalar, and
array processing features developed by Larry Wall that "nicely
bridges the functionality gap between sh(1) and C." Since
relational DB operations are typically textually oriented, perl is
particularly well-suited to manage the data flows. The C source
code, which is available free of charge and runs on many platforms,
contains a user-defined function entry point that permits a
developer to extend the basic function set of the language. The
DBperl Group seeks to exploit this capability by creating a
standardized set of perl function extensions (e.g. db_fetch(),
db_attach()) based the SQL model for manipulating a relational DB,
thus providing a portable perl interface to a variety of popular
RDMS engines including Sybase, Oracle, Ingres, Informix, and
Interbase. In theory, any DB engine that implements a dynamic SQL
interpreter in its HLI can be bolted onto the perl front end with
predicatable results, although at this time backends exist only for
the aforementioned five DB engines.
The official archive for DBperl extensions is ftp.demon.co.uk:
/pub/perl/db. It's the home of the evolving DBperl API
Specification.
Here's an extract from the updated README there:
DBI/ The home of the DBI archive. To join the DBI mailing list
send your request to perldb-interest-REQUEST@vix.com
DBD/ Database Drivers for the DBI ...
Oracle/ By Tim Bunce (not yet ready!)
Ingres/ By Tim Bunce (not yet started!)
mod/ Other Perl 5 Modules and Extensions ...
Sybperl/ By Michael Peppler, mpeppler@itf.ch
perl4/ Perl 4 extensions (using the usub C interface)
oraperl/ ORACLE 6 & 7 By Kevin Stock (sadly no longer on the
sybperl/ SYBASE 4 By Michael Peppler, mpeppler@itf.ch
ingperl/ INGRES By Tim Bunce timbo@ig.co.uk and Ted
isqlperl/ INFORMIX By William Hails, bill@tardis.co.uk
interperl/ INTERBASE By Buzz Moschetti, buzz@bear.com
oraperl/ ORACLE 6 & 7 By Kevin Stock (sadly no longer on the
sybperl/ SYBASE 4 By Michael Peppler, mpeppler@itf.ch
ingperl/ INGRES By Tim Bunce timbo@ig.co.uk and Ted
isqlperl/ INFORMIX By William Hails, bill@tardis.co.uk
interperl/ INTERBASE By Buzz Moschetti, buzz@bear.com
uniperl/ UNIFY 5.0 By Rick Wargo, rickers@coe.drexel.edu
pgperl/ POSTGRES By Igor Metz, metz@iam.unibe.ch
btreeperl/ NDBM perl extensions. By John Conover,
john@johncon.com
ctreeperl/ C-Tree perl extensions. By John Conover,
john@johncon.com
duaperl/ X.500 Directory User Agent. By Eric Douglas.
scripts/ Perl and shell scripts
rdb/ RDB is a perl RDBMS for ASCII files. By Walt Hobbs,
hobbs@rand.org
shql/ SHQL is an interactive SQL database engine. Written
shell script, SHQL interprets SQL commands and
manipulates flat files based on those commands. By
Bruce Momjian, root@candle.uucp
xbase/ Perl scripts for accessing xBase style files (dBase
refinfo/ Reference information
sqlsyntax/ Yacc and lex syntax and C source code for SQL1 and
ftp.uu.net:/pub/uunet/published/oreilly/nutshell/yacclex,
and a draft SQL3 syntax from Jeff Fried
+
formats/ Details of file formats such as Lotus 1-2-3 .WK1
There are also a number of non SQL database interfaces for perl
available from ftp.demon.co.uk. These include:
Directory Target System Authors and notes
btreeperl NDBM extension John Conover (john@johncon.com)
ctreeperl CTree extension John Conover (john@johncon.com)
duaperl X.500 DUA Eric Douglas
rdb RDBMS Walt Hobbs (hobbs@rand.org)
shql SQL Engine Bruce Momjian (root@candle.uucp)
1.21) Which DBM should I use?
As shipped, Perl (version 5) comes with interfaces for several DBM
packages (SDBM, old DBM, NDBM, GDBM, Berkeley DBM) that are not
supplied
but either come with your system are readily accessible via FTP.
is guaranteed to be there. For a comparison, see AnyDBM_File(3pm)
and DB_File(3pm).
1.22) Is there an SNMP aware Perl?
snmperl was written by Guy Streeter (streeter@ingr.com), and was
posted in late February 1993 to comp.protocols.snmp. It can be
archived at one of two (known) places:
Host liasun3.epfl.ch
Location: /pub/net/snmp
FILE -rw-rw-r-- 3407 Aug 11 1992 snmperl.README
FILE -rw-r--r-- 17678 Aug 11 1992 snmperl.tar.Z
Host ftp.cis.ufl.edu
Location: /pub/perl/scripts/snmp
Here is the gist of the README:
README $Revision: 2.3 $
This directory contains the source code to add callable C
subroutines
to perl. The subroutines implement the SNMP functions "get",
"getnext", and "set". They use the freely-distributable SNMP
package
(version 1.1b) from CMU.
There are four subroutines defined in the callable interface:
snmp_get, snmp_next, snmp_set, and snmp_error.
snmp_get and snmp_next implement the GET and GETNEXT operations,
respectively. The first two calling arguments are the hostname
Community string. The IP address of the host, as a dotted-quad
string, may be used as the hostname. The rest of the calling
arguments are a list of variables. See the CMU package
documentation
for how variables may be specified.
snmp_set also takes hostname and Community string as arguments.
remaining arguments are a list of triples consisting of variable
variable type, and value. The variable type is a string, such as
"INTEGER" or "IpAddress".
snmp_get, snmp_next, and snmp_set return a list containing
alternating variables and values. snmp_get and snmp_next will
simply
omit non-existent variables on return. snmp_set will fail
completely
if one of the specified variables does not exist (or is read-
snmp_error will return a text string containing some error
information about the most recent snmp_get|next|set call, if it
OTHER NOTES:
I didn't find all the places where the CMU library writes to
stderr
or calls exit() directly.
The changes I made to mib.c involve the formatting of variable
values
for return to the caller. I took out the descriptive prefix so
string contains only the value.
Enumerated types are returned as a string containing the
symbolic
representation followed in parentheses by the numeric.
DISTRIBUTION and OWNERSHIP
perl and the CMU SNMP package have their own statements. Read
The work I've done is free and clear. Just don't say you wrote it
you didn't, and don't say I wrote it if you change it.
Guy Streeter
streeter@ingr.com
April 1, 1992 (not a joke!)
Stephen P Potter spp@vx.com Varimetrix Corporation
2350 Commerce Park Drive, Suite 4 Palm Bay, FL 32905
(407) 676-3222 CAD/CAM/CAE/Software
@SUBJECT:comp.lang.perl FAQ 2/5 - Information Sources
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From: spp@vx.com
Newsgroups: comp.lang.perl,comp.answers,news.answers
Subject: comp.lang.perl FAQ 2/5 - Information Sources
Supersedes:
Followup-To: poster
Date: 30 Nov 1994 09:40:58 GMT
Organization: none
Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU
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Message-ID:
References:
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news.answers:32286
Archive-name: perl-faq/part2
Version: $Id: part2,v 2.3 1994/11/07 18:05:30 spp Exp spp $
Posting-Frequency: bi-weekly
This posting contains answers to general information questions, mostly
about information sources.
2.1) Is there a USENET group for Perl?
Yes there is: comp.lang.perl. This group, which currently can get
to 100 messages per day, contains all kinds of discussions about
everything from bug reports to new features to the history to
humour
and trivia. This is the best source of information about anything
related, especially what's new with Perl5. Because of it's vast
of topics, it functions as both a comp.lang.* style newsgroup
(providing technical information) and also as a rec.* style
newsgroup,
kind of a support group for Perl addicts (PerlAnon?).
Larry is a frequent poster to this group as well as most (all?) of
seasoned Perl programmers. Questions will be answered by some of
most knowledgable Perl Hackers, often within minutes of a question
being posted (give or take distribution times).
2.2) Have any books or magazine articles been published about Perl?
There have been quite a few books and articles. The most well
and most useful book for 4.036 and earlier is _Programming Perl_
(affectionately known as ``the Camel Book''), written by Larry and
Randal Schwartz*, published by O'Reilly & Associates as part of
Nutshell Handbook Series (ISBN: 0-937175-64-1). Besides serving
reference guide for Perl, it also contains tutorial material and
great source of examples and cookbook procedures, as well as wit
wisdom, tricks and traps, pranks and pitfalls. The code examples
contained therein are available via anonymous FTP from ftp.ora.com
/pub/examples/nutshell/programming_perl/perl.tar.Z or at
ftp.cis.ufl.edu in /pub/perl/ora/programming_perl. Corrections
additions to the book can be found in the Perl man page right
before
the BUGS section under the heading ERRATA AND ADDENDA.
A new version of the Camel book, revised and updated for Perl5 is
out sometime around spring of next year. Until then, the man
distributed with the perl 5.000 source contain a wealth of
information
on the new features and old incompatibilities with perl4.036.
Also available is ``the Llama Book'', _Learning Perl_ by Randal
Schwartz, another Nutshell book. This book is a collection of
some of
the best introductory and tutorial information available about
definite must for novice Perl users. The examples and code from
book are available from the same places as the Camel book code.
If you can't find these books in your local technical bookstore,
may be ordered directly from O'Reilly by calling 1-800-998-9938 if
North America and 1-707-829-0515 otherwise.
Larry routinely carries around a camel stamp to use when
autographing
copies of his book. If you can catch him at a conference you can
usually get him to sign your book for you.
Larry Wall has published a 3-part article on perl in Unix World
(August through October of 1991), and Rob Kolstad also had a 3-
parter
in Unix Review (May through July of 1990). Tom Christiansen also
a brief overview article in the trade newsletter Unix Technology
Advisor from November of 1989. You might also investigate "The
Wisdom
of Perl" by Gordon Galligher from SunExpert magazine; April 1991
Volume 2 Number 4. The Dec 92 Computer Language magazine also
contains a cover article on Perl, "Perl: the Programmers Toolbox".
Many other articles on Perl have been recently published. If you
have references, especially on-line copies, please mail them to
the FAQ maintainer for inclusion is this notice.
The USENIX LISA (Large Installations Systems Administration)
Conference
have for several years now included many papers of tools written
Perl. Old proceedings of these conferences are available; look in
your current issue of ";login:" or send mail to office@usenix.org
for further information.
At this point, the "writing committe" (Larry, Randal, and Tom; aka
) is looking at:
o A heavy rewrite of the Camel to update it to Perl5. Expect the
tutorial section to be cut in deference to the Llama.
o A light update of the Llama to eliminate the "I think perl5 will
do ..." and a change to "Perl5 will do ..."
o A new book, "Learning More Perl" (working title), a sequel to the
Llama, covering what wasn't covered in the Llama including Perl5.
According to Randal, this is the current priority. However, he
that the new Camel won't be out until sometime in the spring of
year, at the earliest.
Prentice Hall also has two perl books, either on the shelves or in
works. The first is ``Perl by Example'' by Ellie Quigley. (385
$26.96, ISBN 0-13-122839-0) A perl tutorial (perl4); every feature
presented via an annotated example and sample output.
The second book is called ``Software Engineering with Perl'' by
Dichter and Mark Pease. Randal Schwartz has reviewed the second
(SEwP) and has this to say about it:
SWwP is not meant as instruction in the Perl language, but rather
as an example of how Perl may be used to assist in the semi-formal
software engineering development cycles. There's a lot of Perl
code that's fairly well commented, but most of the book describes
software engineering methodologies. For the perl-challenged,
there's a *light* treatment of the language as well, but they refer
to the llama and the camel for the real meat.
Japan seems to be jumping with Perl books. If you can read
japanese
here are a few you might be interested in. Thanks to Jeffrey
Friedl*
for this list (NOTE: my screen cannot handle japanese characters,
this is all in English for the moment NOTE2: These books are
written
in Japanese, these titles are just translations):
Title: Welcome to Perl Country
Authors: Kaoru Maeda, Hiroshi Koyama, Yasushi Saito and Arihito
Publisher: Science Company Date: April 25, 1993
ISBN: 4-7819-0697-4 Price: 2472Y
Comments: Written during the time the Camel book was being
translated. A useful introduction, but uses jperl (Japanese Perl)
which is not necessarily compatible.
Title: Perl Writing Methods (Perl Calligraphy?)
Author: Toshiyuki Masui
Publisher: ASCII Corporation Date: July 1, 1993
ISBN: 4-7561-0281-6 Price: 3200Y
Comments: More advanced than "Welcome.." and not meant as an
introduction. Uses the standard perl and has examples for handling
Japanese text.
Title: Introduction to Perl
Author: Shinji Kono
Publisher: ASCII Corporation Date: July 11, 1994
ISBN: 4-7561-0292-1 Price: 1800Y
Comments: Uses the interactive Perl debugger to explain how things
Title: Programming Perl
Authors: L Wall & R Schwartz Translator: Yoshiyuri Kondo
Publisher: Softbank Corporation Date: February 28, 1993
ISBN: 4-89052-384-7 Price: 4500Y
Comments: Official Japanese translation. Somewhat laced with
translator notes to explain the humour. The most useful book.
There is also a German translation of Programming Perl. It is
available
from Hanser Verlag:
Title: Programmieren in Perl
2.3) When will the Camel and Llama books be updated?
When they do. :-) Actually, we're looking at having them in print
about 6 months from now (for floating values of now :-). Send the
writing committee mail (perlbook@perl.com) mail if you have
suggestions.
2.4) What FTP resources are available?
Within the past year, several ftp sites have sprung up for Perl
Perl related items. The site with the biggest repository of Perl
scripts right now seems to be ftp.cis.ufl.edu [128.227.100.198].
scripts directory has an INDEX with over 400 lines in it, each
describing what the script does. The src directory has sources
binaries for a number of different perl ports, including MS-Dos,
Macintosh and Windows/NT. This is maintained by me, Steve*.
Note: I've changed jobs recently and am not currently directly
on the Internet. This means this site may get a little out of
date until I can get back up to UF and update it. However, I
did set up automatic mirrors to many sites, so much of it should
remain uptodate. (If only Larry would put the beta patches on
netlabs....)
Note: European users please use the site src.doc.ic.ac.uk
[149.169.2.1] in /pub/computing/programming/languages/perl/
The link speed would be a lot better for all. Contact
L.McLoughlin@doc.ic.ac.uk for more information. It is updated
This may not be working yet. I'm working with Lee to get it
There are also a number of other sites. I'll add more of them as
information on them.
2.5) What WWW/gopher resources are available?
The World Wide Web is exploding with new Perl sites all the time.
of the more notable ones are:
http://www.cis.ufl.edu/perl
http://www.metronet.com/1h/perlinfo, which has a great section on
http://www.eecs.nwu.edu/perl/perl.html
http://web.nexor.co.uk/perl/perl.html, a great site for
European
and UK users.
2.6) Can people who don't have access to USENET get comp.lang.perl?
"Perl-Users" is the mailing list version of the comp.lang.perl
newsgroup. If you're not lucky enough to be on USENET you can
post to
comp.lang.perl by sending to one of the following addresses.
Which one
will work best for you depends on which nets your site is hooked
Ask your local network guru if you're not certain.
Internet: PERL-USERS@VIRGINIA.EDU
Perl-Users@UVAARPA.VIRGINIA.EDU
BitNet: Perl@Virginia
uucp: ...!uunet!virginia!perl-users
The Perl-Users list is bidirectionally gatewayed with the USENET
newsgroup comp.lang.perl. This means that VIRGINIA functions as a
reflector. All traffic coming in from the non-USENET side is
immediately posted to the newsgroup. Postings from the USENET
side are
periodically digested and mailed out to the Perl-Users mailing
digest is created and distributed at least once per day, more
often if
traffic warrants.
All requests to be added to or deleted from this list, problems,
questions, etc., should be sent to:
Internet: Perl-Users-Request@Virginia.EDU
Perl-Users-Request@uvaarpa.Virginia.EDU
BitNet: Perl-Req@Virginia
uucp: ...!uunet!virginia!perl-users-request
Coordinator: Marc Rouleau
2.7) Are archives of comp.lang.perl available?
Yes, there are. ftp.cis.ufl.edu:/pub/perl/comp.lang.perl/monthly
an almost complete collection dating back to 12/89 (missing 08/91
through 12/93). They are kept as one large file for each month.
A more sophisticated query and retrieval mechanism is desirable.
Preferably one that allows you to retrieve article using a fast-
access
indices, keyed on at least author, date, subject, thread (as in
and probably keywords. Right now, the MH pick command works for
but it is very slow to select on 18000 articles.
If you have, or know where I can find, the missing sections,
please let
perlfaq@perl.com know.
2.8) Is there a WAIS server for comp.lang.perl?
Yes there is. Set your WAIS client to
archive.orst.edu:9000/comp.lang.perl. According to their
introduction,
they have a complete selection from 1989 on.
Bill Middleton offers this:
"I have setup a perl script retrieval service and WaisSearch here
feenix. To check it out, just point your gopher at us, and select
appropriate menu option. The WaisSearch is of the iubio type,
means you can do boolean searching. Thus you might try something
caller
ioctl and fcntl
grep and socket not curses
and other things to see examples of how other folks have done this
or that. This service is still under construction, but I'd like
get feedback, if you have some time.
There's also a WaisSearch into all the RFC's and some other fairly
nifty stuff."
2.9) What other sources of information about Perl or training are
available?
Johan Vromans* created an beautiful reference guide. The
reference
guide comes with the Camel book in a nice, glossy format. The
(source) and PostScript (ready to print) versions are available
for FTP
from ftp.cs.ruu.nl:/pub/DOC/perlref-4.036.1.tar.Z in Europe or
ftp.cis.ufl.edu:/pub/perl/doc/perlref-4.036.tar.gz in the United
States. Obsolete versions in TeX or troff may still be available,
these versions don't print as nicely. See also:
[] ftp://ftp.uu.net/languages/perl/perlref-4.036.1.tar.gz
[] ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/DOC/perlref-4.036.1.tar.gz
[] ftp://ftp.khoros.unm.edu/pub/perl/perlref-4.036.1.tar.gz
Johan is working on an update to this document to include perl5
functionality, which he hopes to release by Christmas 1994.
There is a #Perl channel on IRC (Internet Relay Chat) where Tom
Randal have been known to hang out. Here you can get immediate
answers
to questions from some of the most well-known Perl Hackers.
The perl5-porters (perl5-porters@isu.edu) mailing list was created
aid in communication among the people working on perl5. However,
has overgrown this function and now also handles a good deal of
traffic
about perl internals.
2.10) Where can I get training classes on Perl?
USENIX, LISA, SUG, WCSAS, AUUG, FedUnix and Europen sponsor
tutorials
of varying lengths on Perl at the System Administration and
General
Conferences. These public classes are typically taught by Tom
Christiansen*.
In part, Tom and Randal teach Perl to help keep bread on their
tables
long enough while they continue their pro bono efforts of
documenting
perl (Tom keeps writing more man pages for it :-) and expanding
perl toolkit through extension libraries, work which they enjoy
as it's fun and helps out the whole world, but which really
doesn't
pay the bills. Such is the nature of free(ly available) software.
Send mail to for details and availability.
Tom is also available to teach on-site classes, included courses
advanced perl and perl5. Classes run anywhere from one day to
long sessions and cover a wide range of subject matter. Classes
include lab time with exercises, a generally beneficial aspect.
would like more information regarding Perl classes or when the
public appearances are, please contact Tom directly.
Randal Schwartz* provides a 2-day lecture-only and a 4-5 day
lecture-lab
course based on his popular book "Learning Perl". For details,
contact
Randal directly via email or at 1.503.777.0095.
Internet One provides a 2 day "Introduction to Perl" and 2 day
"Advanced Perl" workshop. The 50% hands-on and 50% lecture format
allow attendees to write several programs themselves. Supplied
are the user manuals, reference copies of Larry Wall's "Program-
ming Perl", and a UNIX directory of all training examples and
labs. To obtain outlines, pricing, or scheduling information, use
the following:
o Phone: 1.303.444.1993
o Email: info@InternetOne.COM
o See our Ad in the "SysAdmin" magazine
o View the outlines via the Web: http://www.InternetOne.COM/
2.11) What companies use or ship Perl?
At this time, the known list of companies that ship Perl includes
least the following, although some have snuck it into /usr/contrib
its moral equivalent:
Comdisco Systems
CONVEX Computer Corporation
Crosspoint Solutions
DRD Corporation
IBM (SP systems)
Intergraph
Kubota Pacific
Netlabs
SGI (without taintperl)
Univel
Furthermore, the following vendors are reported to begin shipping
standard with their systems in the very near future:
Some companies ship it on their "User Contributed Software Tape",
such as DEC and HP. Apple Computer has shipped the MPW version of
Macintosh Perl on one of their Developer CDs
(Essentials*Tools*Objects
#11) (and they included it under "Essentials" :-)
Many other companies use Perl internally for purposes of tools
development, systems administration, installation scripts, and
suites. Rumor has it that the large workstation vendors (the TLA
are seriously looking into shipping Perl with their standard
systems
People with support contracts with their vendors are actively
encouraged to submit enhancement requests that Perl be shipped
as part of their standard system. It would, at the very least,
reduce the FTP load on the Internet. :-)
If you know of any others, please send them in.
2.12) Is there commercial, third-party support for Perl?
Not really. Although perl is included in the GNU distribution, at
check, Cygnus does not offer support for it. However, it's
unclear
whether they've ever been offered sufficient financial incentive
On the other hand, you do have comp.lang.perl as a totally gratis
support mechanism. As long as you ask "interesting" questions,
probably get plenty of help. :-)
While some vendors do ship Perl with their platforms, that doesn't
they support it on arbitrary other platforms. And in fact, all
they'll
probably do is forward any bug reports on to Larry. In practice,
is far better support than you could hope for from nearly any
vendor.
The companies who won't use something unless they can pay money
will be left out. Often they're motivated by wanting someone whom
could sue. If all they want is someone to help them out with Perl
problems, there's always the net. And if they really want to pay
someone for that help, well, Tom and Randal are always looking for
If companies want "commercial support" for it badly enough, speak
something might be able to be arranged.
2.13) What is a JAPH? What does "Will hack perl for ..." mean?
These are the "just another perl hacker" signatures that some
people
sign their postings with. About 100 of the of the earlier ones
available from the various FTP sites.
When people started running out of tricky and interesting JAPHs,
of them turned to writing "Will hack perl for ..." quotes. While
sometimes humourous, they just didn't have the flair of the JAPHs
have since almost completely vanished.
2.14) Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
Over a hundred quips by Larry, from postings of his or source
can be found in many of the FTP sites or through the World Wide
"ftp://ftp.cis.ufl.edu/pub/perl/misc/lwall-quotes"
2.15) What are the known bugs?
These apply to version 5 of perl. See also: `What does "Malformed
command links" mean?' for a version 4 bug.
The README says it's a pre-release.
Workaround: ignore this sentence.
Installs perl0.000 and sperl0.000 instead of 5.000.
Workaround: rename the files.
The debugger appears to be broken on "my" variables;
Workaround: none yet
Recursive signal handlers eventually core dump.
Workaround: ease up on the ^C key.
The following code misbehaves: print ++$_ . "\n" until /0/;
Workaround: initialize your variable
Destructors can clobber $@ on exit from an eval
Workaround: local $@; eval {...};
2.16) Where should I post bugs?
The best place to send your bug is , which is
currently just alias for . You may
subscribe
to the list in the customary fashion via mail to
. Feel free to post your bugs to
comp.lang.perl newsgroup as well, but do make sure they still go
the mailing list.
To enhance your chances of getting any bug you report fixed:
1. Try to narrow the problem down to as small a piece of code as
possible. If you can get it down to 1 line of Perl then so
the better.
2. Include a copy of the output from the myconfig script from the
Perl source distribution in your posting.
2.17) Where should I post source code?
You should post source code to whichever group is most
appropriate,
but feel free to cross-post to comp.lang.perl. If you want to
cross-post to alt.sources, please make sure it follows their
posting standards, including setting the Followups-To header
line to NOT include alt.sources; see their FAQ for details.
2.18) Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
The perlobj(1) man page is a good place to start, and then you can
check out the excellent perlbot(1) man page written by the dean of
o-o himself, Dean Roehrich. Areas covered include the following:
Idx Subsections in perlobj.1 Lines
2 DESCRIPTION 16
3 An Object is Simply a Reference 60
4 A Class is Simply a Package 31
5 A Method is Simply a Subroutine 34
6 Method Invocation 75
7 Destructors 14
8 Summary 7
Idx Subsections in perlbot.1 Lines
2 INTRODUCTION 9
3 Instance Variables 43
4 Scalar Instance Variables 21
5 Instance Variable Inheritance 35
6 Object Relationships 33
7 Overriding Superclass Methods 49
8 Using Relationship with Sdbm 45
9 Thinking of Code Reuse 111
The section on instance variables should prove very helpful to
wondering how to get data inheritance in perl.
2.19) Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs]
While it used to be deep magic, how to do this is now revealed in
perlapi(1), perlguts(1), and perlcall(1) man pages, which treat
this matter extensively.
2.20) What is perl.com?
Perl.com is just Tom's domain name, registered as dedicated to
training and consulting". While not a proper ftp site (he hasn't
the bandwidth (yet)), it does serve as a clearinghouse for certain
perl related mailing list. That means that you should always be
to get to Larry, Tom, or Randal through that host. The following
aliases work:
perl-packrats: The archivist list
perl-porters: The porters list
perlbook: The Camel/Llama/Alpaca writing committee
perlbugs: The bug list (perl-porters for now)
perlclasses: Info on Perl training
perlfaq: Submissions/Errata to the Perl FAQ
(Tom and Steve)
perlrefguide: Submissions/Errata to the Perl FAQ
2.21) What do the asterisks (*) throughout the FAQ stand for?
To keep from cluttering up the FAQ and for easy reference all
addresses have been collected in this location. For each person
listed, I offer my thanks for their input and help.
* Larry Wall
* Tom Christiansen
* Stephen P Potter
* Andreas Koenig
* Bill Eldridge
* Buzz Moschetti
* Casper H.S. Dik
* David Muir Sharnoff
* Dean Roehrich
* Dominic Giampaolo ,
* Frederic Chauveau
* Gene Spafford
* Guido van Rossum
* Henk P Penning
* Jeff Friedl
* Johan Vromans
* John Dallman
* John Lees
* John Ousterhout
* Jon Biggar
* Malcolm Beattie
* Michael D'Errico
* Randal Schwartz
* Roberto Salama
* Steven L Kunz
* Theodore C. Law
* Thomas R. Kimpton
* Timothy Murphy
Stephen P Potter spp@vx.com Varimetrix Corporation
2350 Commerce Park Drive, Suite 4 Palm Bay, FL 32905
(407) 676-3222 CAD/CAM/CAE/Software
@SUBJECT:comp.lang.perl FAQ 3/5 - Programming Aids
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Subject: comp.lang.perl FAQ 3/5 - Programming Aids
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This posting contains answers to general information questions, mostly
about programming aids.
3.1) How can I use Perl interactively?
The easiest way to do this is to run Perl under its debugger. If
have no program to debug, you can invoke the debugger on an
program like this:
perl -de 0
(The more positive hackers prefer "perl -de 1". :-)
Now you can type in any legal Perl code, and it will be
immediately
evaluated. You can also examine the symbol table, get stack
backtraces, check variable values, and if you want to, set
breakpoints
and do the other things you can do in a symbolic debugger.
3.2) Is there a Perl profiler?
While there isn't one included with the perl source distribution
various folks have written packages that allow you to do at least
sort of profiling. The strategy usually includes modifying the
debugger to handle profiling. Authors of these packages include
Wayne Thompson
Ray Lischner
Kresten Krab Thorup
The original articles by these folks containing their profilers
available on convex.com in /pub/perl/information/profiling.shar
anon ftp.
3.3) Is there a yacc for Perl?
Yes!! It's a version of Berkeley yacc that outputs Perl code
instead
of C code! You can get this from ftp.sterling.com [192.124.9.1]
/local/perl-byacc1.8.1.tar.Z, or send the author mail for details.
3.4) Is there a pretty-printer for Perl?
That depends on what you mean. If you want something that works
vgrind on Perl programs, then the answer is "yes, nearly". Here's
vgrind entry for perl:
PERL|perl|Perl:\
:pb=^\d?(sub|package)\d\p\d:\
:bb={:be=}:cb=#:ce=$:sb=":se=\e":lb=':\
if for foreach unless until while continue else elsif \
do eval require \
die exit \
defined delete reset \
goto last redo next dump \
local undef return \
write format \
sub package
It doesn't actually do everything right; in particular,
things like $#, $', s#/foo##, and $foo'bar all confuse it.
David Levine uses this:
# perl 4.x David Levine 05
# Derived from Tom Christiansen's perl vgrindef. I'd like to
treat all
# perl's built-ins as keywords, but vgrind fields are limited
# characters and the built-ins overflow that (surprise :-). So,
# include the dbm*, end*, get*, msg*, sem*, set*, and shm*
functions.
# couldn't come up with an easy way to distinguish beginnings of
literals
# ('...') from package prefixes, so literals are not marked.
# Be sure to:
# 1) include whitespace between a subprogram name and its opening
# 2) include whitespace before a comment (so that $# doesn't get
# interpreted as one).
:pb=^\d?(sub|package)\d\p\d:\
:bb=\e{:be=\e}:cb=\d\e#:ce=$:sb=\e":se=\e":\
:kw=accept alarm atan2 bind binmode caller chdir chmod chop \
chown chroot close closedir connect continue cos crypt defined
delete \
die do dump each else elsif eof eval exec exit exp fcntl fileno
for foreach fork format getc gmtime goto grep hex if include index
ioctl join keys kill last length link listen local localtime log
m mkdir next oct open opendir ord pack package pipe pop print
printf \
push q qq qx rand read readdir readlink recv redo rename require
return reverse rewinddir rindex rmdir s scalar seek seekdir select
shift shutdown sin sleep socket socketpair sort splice split
sprintf \
sqrt srand stat study sub substr symlink syscall sysread system \
syswrite tell telldir time times tr truncate umask undef unless
unlink \
unpack unshift until utime values vec wait waitpid wantarray warn
write y:
If what you mean is whether there is a program that will reformat
program much as indent(1) will do for C, then the answer is no.
complex feedback between the scanner and the parser (as in the
things
that confuse vgrind) make it challenging at best to write a stand-
Perl parser.
3.5) There's an a2p and an s2p; why isn't there a p2c (perl-to-C)?
Because the Pascal people would be upset that we stole their name.
The dynamic nature of Perl's do and eval operators (and remember
constructs like s/$mac_donald/$mac_gregor/eieio count as an eval)
make this very difficult. To fully support them, you would have
the whole Perl interpreter into each compiled version for those
scripts
using them. This is what undump does right now, if your machine
If what you're doing will be faster in C than in Perl, maybe it
should
have been written in C in the first place. For things that ought
written in Perl, the interpreter will be just about as fast,
because the
pattern matching routines won't work any faster linked into a C
program.
Even in the case of simple Perl programs that don't do any fancy
major gain would be in compiling the control flow tests, with the
still being a maze of twisty, turny subroutine calls. Since these
are not
usually the major bottleneck in the program, there's not as much
gained via compilation as one might think.
However, we're still looking for someone to generate byte-compiled
code for Perl, or eventually even C code out of it. These are
probably masters and PhD thesis topics respectively, and no one
has begun work on it yet.
3.6) Where can I get a perl-mode for emacs?
Since Emacs version 19 patchlevel 22 or so, there has been both a
perl-mode.el and support for the perl debugger built in. These
should
come with the standard Emacs 19 distribution.
In the perl source directory, you'll find a directory called
"emacs", which contains several files that should help you.
3.7) Is there a Perl shell?
Not really. Perl is a programming language, not a command
interpreter. There is a very simple one called "perlsh"
included in the Perl source distribution. It just does this:
$/ = ''; # set paragraph mode
$SHlinesep = "\n";
while ($SHcmd = <>) {
$/ = $SHlinesep;
eval $SHcmd; print $@ || "\n";
$SHlinesep = $/; $/ = '';
Not very interesting, eh?
Daniel Smith is working on an interactive
shell called SoftList. It's currently at version 3.0beta.
SoftList
3.0 has tcsh-like command line editing, can let you define a file
aliases so that you can run chunks of perl or UNIX commands, and
on. You can send mail to him for further information and
availability.
3.8) How can I use curses with perl?
In release 4 of perl, the only way to do this was was to build a
curseperl binary by linking in your C curses library as described
the usub subdirectory of the perl sources. This requires a
modicum of
work, but it will be reasonably fast since it's all in C (assuming
consider curses reasonably fast. :-) Programs written using this
method require the modified curseperl, not vanilla perl, to run.
While this is something of a disadvantage, experience indicates
it's better to use curseperl than to try to roll your own using
termcap directly.
Fortunately, in version 5, Curses is a dynamically loaded
extension
by William Setzer*. You should be able to pick it up wherever you
get Perl 5 from, or at least these places:
ftp://ftp.ncsu.edu/pub/math/wsetzer/cursperl5a6.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.metronet.com/pub/perlinfo/perl5/cursperl5a6.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/PERL/perl5.0/cursperl5a6.tar.gz
For a good example of using (v4) curseperl, you might want to pick
copy of Steven L Kunz's* "perl menus" package ("menu.pl") via
anonymous FTP from "ftp.iastate.edu". It's in the /pub/perl as
menu.pl.v2.3.shr1
menu.pl.v2.3.shr2
menu.pl.v2.3.tar.Z
menus.pl is a complete menu front-end for curseperl and
demonstates
a lot of things (plus it is useful to boot if you want full-screen
menu selection ability).
Another possibility is to use Henk Penning's cterm package, a
curses
emulation library written in perl. cterm is actually a separate
program with which you communicate via a pipe. It is available
ftp.cs.ruu.nl [131.211.80.17] via anonymous ftp. in the directory
pub/PERL. You may also acquire the package via email in
compressed,
uuencoded form by sending a message to mail-server@cs.ruu.nl
containing these lines:
send PERL/cterm.shar.Z
See the question on retrieving perl via mail for more information
how to retrieve other items of interest from the mail server
3.9) How can I use X with Perl?
Right now, you have several choices. If you are still using
perl4, use
the WAFE or STDWIN packages, or try to make your own usub binding.
However, if you've upgraded to version 5, you have several
exciting
possibilities, with more popping up each day. Right now, Tk and
are the best known such extensions.
If you like the tk package, you should get the Tk extension kit,
written by Malcolm Beattie*. Here are some places to get it:
Tk (as in tcl/tk, but sans tcl)
ftp://ftp.cis.ufl.edu/pub/perl/src/tkperl/tkperl5a4.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.khoros.unm.edu/pub/perl/extensions/tkperl5a4.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.metronet.com/pub/perlinfo/perl5/tkperl/tkperl5a4.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/PERL/perl5.0/tkperl5a4.tar.gz
ftp://black.ox.ac.uk/src/ALPHA/tkperl5a4.tar.gz
(try 5a5 everywhere after 2pm UST Thu 20 Oct 1994, as in)
ftp://sable.ox.ac.uk/pub/perl/tkperl5a5.tar.gz
You may also use the old Sx package, (Athena & Xlib), written by
originally written by by Dominic Giampaolo*, then and rewritten
by Frederic Chauveau*.fr>. It's available from these sites:
ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/Perl/Sx.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.khoros.unm.edu/pub/perl/extensions/Sx.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.metronet.com/pub/perlinfo/perl5/Sx.tar.gz
ftp://ftp.cs.ruu.nl/pub/PERL/perl5.0/PerlDoc.ps.gz
STDWIN is a library written by Guido van Rossum* (author of the
Python
programming language) that is portable between Mac, Dos and X11.
could write a Perl agent to speak to this STDWIN server.
WAFE is a package that implements a symbolic interface to the
Athena
widgets (X11R5). A typical Wafe application consists in our
framework
of two parts: the front-end (we call it Wafe for
Widget[Athena]front
end) and an application program running typically as a separate
process. The application program can be implemented in an
arbitrary
programming language and talks to the front-end via stdio. Since
(the front-end) was developed using the extensible TCL shell (cite
Ousterhout), an application program can dynamically submit
requests to
the front-end to build up the graphical user interface; the
application can even down-load application specific procedures
the front-end. The distribution contains sample application
programs
in Perl, GAWK, Prolog, TCL, and C talking to the same Wafe binary.
Many of the demo applications are implemented in Perl. Wafe 0.9
be obtained via anonymous ftp from
ftp.wu-wien.ac.at[137.208.3.5]:pub/src/X11/wafe-0.9.tar.Z
Alternatively, you could use wish from tcl.
#!/usr/local/bin/perl
# An example of calling wish as a subshell under Perl and
# interactively communicating with it through sockets.
# The script is directly based on Gustaf Neumann's perlwafe
script.
# Dov Grobgeld dov@menora.weizmann.ac.il
$wishbin = "/usr/local/bin/wish";
die "socketpair unsuccessful: $!!\n" unless
socketpair(W0,WISH,1,1,0);
if ($pid=fork) {
select(WISH); $| = 1;
select(STDOUT);
# Create some TCL procedures
print WISH 'proc echo {s} {puts stdout $s; flush stdout}',"\n";
# Create the widgets
print WISH < # This is a comment "inside" wish
frame .f -relief raised -border 1 -bg green
pack append . .f {top fill expand}
button .f.button-pressme -text "Press me" -command {
echo "That's nice."
button .f.button-quit -text quit -command {
echo "quit"
pack append .f .f.button-pressme {top fill expand} \\
.f.button-quit {top expand}
# Here is the main loop which receives and sends commands
# to wish.
while () {
print "Wish sais: <$_>\n";
if (/^quit/) { print WISH "destroy .\n"; last; }
} elsif (defined $pid) {
open(STDOUT, ">&W0");
open(STDIN, ">&W0");
close(W0);
select(STDOUT); $| = 1;
exec "$wishbin --";
die "fork error: $!\n";
3.10) Can I dynamically load C user routines?
Yes -- dynamic loading comes with the distribution. That means
you no longer need 18 different versions of fooperl floating
around.
In fact, all of perl can be stuck into a libperl.so library and
then your /usr/local/bin/perl binary reduced to just 50k or so.
See DynLoader(3pm) for details.
In perl4, the answer is kinda. One package has been released that
this, by Roberto Salama*. He writes:
Here is a version of dylperl, dynamic linker for perl. The code
here is
based on Oliver Sharp's May 1993 article in Dr. Dobbs Journal
(Dynamic
Linking under Berkeley UNIX).
dyl.c - code extracted from Oliver Sharp's article
hash.c - Berkeley's hash functions, should use perl's but
could not be bothered
dylperl.c - perl usersubs
user.c - userinit function
sample.c - sample code to be dyl'ed
sample2.c - "
test.pl - sample perl script that dyl's sample*.o
The Makefile assumes that uperl.o is in /usr/local/src/perl/...
will probable have to change this to reflect your installation.
than that, just type 'make'...
The idea behind being able to dynamically link code into perl is
the linked code should become perl functions, i.e. they can be
invoked
as &foo(...). For this to happen, the incrementally loaded code
use the perl stack, look at sample.c to get a better idea.
The few functions that make up this package are outlined below.
&dyl("file.o"): dynamically link file.o. All functions and non-
static
variables become visible from within perl. This
function returns a pointer to an internal hash table
corresponding to the symbol table of the newly loaded
eg: $ht = &dyl("sample.o")
This function can also be called with the -L and -l ld options.
eg: $ht = &dyl(""sample2.o", "-L/usr/lib", "-lm")
will also pick up the math library if sample.o
accesses any symbols there.
&dyl_find("func"): find symbol 'func' and return its symbol table
&dyl_functions($ht): print the contents of the internal hash table
&dyl_print_symbols($f): prints the contents of the symbol returned
dyl_find()
There is very little documentation, maybe something to do for a
future
release. The files sample.o, and sample2.o contain code to be
incrementally loaded, test.pl is the test perl script.
Comments are welcome. I submit this code for public consumption
basically, am not responsible for it in any way.
3.11) What is undump and where can I get it?
The undump program comes from the TeX distribution. If you have
then you may have a working undump. If you don't, and you can't
one, *AND* you have a GNU emacs working on your machine that can
itself, then you might try taking its unexec() function and
compiling
Perl with -DUNEXEC, which will make Perl call unexec() instead of
abort(). You'll have to add unexec.o to the objects line in the
Makefile. If you succeed, post to comp.lang.perl about your
experience
so others can benefit from it.
If you have a version of undump that works with Perl, please
submit
its anon-FTP whereabouts to the FAQ maintainer.
3.12) How can I get '#!perl' to work under MS-DOS?
John Dallman* has written a program "#!perl.exe" which will do
It is available through anonymous ftp from ftp.ee.umanitoba.ca in
directory /pub/msdos/perl/hbp_20.zip. This program works by
finding
the script and perl.exe, building a command line and running
perl.exe
as a child process. For more information on this, contact John
directly.
Stephen P Potter spp@vx.com Varimetrix Corporation
2350 Commerce Park Drive, Suite 4 Palm Bay, FL 32905
(407) 676-3222 CAD/CAM/CAE/Software
@SUBJECT:comp.lang.perl FAQ 4/5 - General Programming
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From: spp@vx.com
Newsgroups: comp.lang.perl,comp.answers,news.answers
Subject: comp.lang.perl FAQ 4/5 - General Programming
Supersedes:
Followup-To: poster
Date: 30 Nov 1994 09:40:53 GMT
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References:
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Archive-name: perl-faq/part4
Version: $Id: part4,v 2.3 1994/11/07 18:06:47 spp Exp spp $
Posting-Frequency: bi-weekly
This posting contains answers to the following questions about General
Programming, Regular Expressions (Regexp) and Input/Output:
4.1) What are all these $@%*<> signs and how do I know when to use
Those are type specifiers:
$ for scalar values
@ for indexed arrays
% for hashed arrays (associative arrays)
* for all types of that symbol name. These are sometimes used like
pointers
<> are used for inputting a record from a filehandle.
See the question on arrays of arrays for more about Perl pointers.
While there are a few places where you don't actually need these
specifiers, except for files, you should always use them. Note
is NOT the type specifier for files; it's the equivalent of
getline function, that is, it reads a line from the handle FILE.
doing open, close, and other operations besides the getline
function on
files, do NOT use the brackets.
Beware of saying:
$foo = BAR;
Which wil be interpreted as
$foo = 'BAR';
and not as
$foo = ;
If you always quote your strings, you'll avoid this trap.
Normally, files are manipulated something like this (with
appropriate
error checking added if it were production code):
open (FILE, ">/tmp/foo.$$");
print FILE "string\n";
close FILE;
If instead of a filehandle, you use a normal scalar variable with
manipulation functions, this is considered an indirect reference
filehandle. For example,
$foo = "TEST01";
open($foo, "file");
After the open, these two while loops are equivalent:
while (<$foo>) {}
while () {}
as are these two statements:
close $foo;
close TEST01;
but NOT to this:
while (<$TEST01>) {} # error
^ note spurious dollar sign
This is another common novice mistake; often it's assumed that
open($foo, "output.$$");
will fill in the value of $foo, which was previously undefined.
just isn't so -- you must set $foo to be the name of a filehandle
before you attempt to open it.
4.2) How come Perl operators have different precedence than C
operators?
Actually, they don't; all C operators have the same precedence in
Perl as
they do in C. The problem is with a class of functions called
operators, e.g. print, chdir, exec, system, and so on. These are
somewhat
bizarre in that they have different precedence depending on
whether you
look on the left or right of them. Basically, they gobble up all
things
on their right. For example,
unlink $foo, "bar", @names, "others";
will unlink all those file names. A common mistake is to write:
unlink "a_file" || die "snafu";
The problem is that this gets interpreted as
unlink("a_file" || die "snafu");
To avoid this problem, you can always make them look like function
or use an extra level of parentheses:
unlink("a_file") || die "snafu";
(unlink "a_file") || die "snafu";
In perl5, there are low precedence "and", "or", and "not"
operators,
which bind les tightly than comma. This alllows you to write:
unlink $foo, "bar", @names, "others" or die "snafu";
Sometimes you actually do care about the return value:
unless ($io_ok = print("some", "list")) { }
Yes, print() returns I/O success. That means
$io_ok = print(2+4) * 5;
returns 5 times whether printing (2+4) succeeded, and
returns the same 5*io_success value and tosses it.
See the perlop(1) man page's section on Precedence for more gory
details,
and be sure to use the -w flag to catch things like this.
4.3) What's the difference between dynamic and static (lexical)
scoping?
What are my() and local()?
[NOTE: This question refers to perl5 only. There is no my() in
Scoping refers to visibility of variables. A dynamic variable is
created via local() and is just a local value for a global
variable,
whereas a lexical variable created via my() is more what you're
expecting from a C auto. (See also "What's the difference between
deep and shallow binding.") In general, we suggest you use
lexical
variables wherever possible, as they're faster to access and
easier to
understand. The "use strict vars" pragma will enforce that all
variables are either lexical, or full classified by package name.
strongly suggest that you develop your code with "use strict;" and
-w flag. (When using formats, however, you will still have to use
dynamic variables.) Here's an example of the difference:
$scount = 1; $lcount = 2;
sub foo {
my $scount = 10;
local $lcount = 20;
sub bar {
print "scount is $scount\en";
print "lcount is $lcount\en";
This prints:
scount is 1
lcount is 20
Notice that the variables declared with my() are visible only
within
the scope of the block which names them. They are not visible
outside
of this block, not even in routines or blocks that it calls.
variables, on the other hand, are visible to routines that are
called
from the block where they are declared. Neither is visible after
end (the final closing curly brace) of the block at all.
Oh, lexical variables are only available in perl5. Have we
mentioned yet that you might consider upgrading? :-)
4.4) What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?
This only matters when you're making subroutines yourself, at
so far. This will give you shallow binding:
my $x = time;
$coderef = sub { $x };
When you call &$coderef(), it will get whatever dynamic $x happens
to be around when invoked. However, you can get the other
behaviour
this way:
my $x = time;
$coderef = eval "sub { \$x }";
Now you'll access the lexical variable $x which is set to the
time the subroutine was created. Note that the difference in
two behaviours can be considered a bug, not a feature, so you
should
in particular not rely upon shallow binding, as it will likely go
away in the future. See perlref(1).
4.5) How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
The most efficient way is using pack and unpack. This is faster
using substr. Here is a sample chunk of code to break up and put
together again some fixed-format input lines, in this case, from
# sample input line:
# 15158 p5 T 0:00 perl /mnt/tchrist/scripts/now-what
$ps_t = 'A6 A4 A7 A5 A*';
open(PS, "ps|");
$_ = ; print;
while () {
($pid, $tt, $stat, $time, $command) = unpack($ps_t, $_);
for $var ('pid', 'tt', 'stat', 'time', 'command' ) {
print "$var: <", eval "\$$var", ">\n";
print 'line=', pack($ps_t, $pid, $tt, $stat, $time, $command),
4.6) How can I make a file handle local to a subroutine?
You must use the type-globbing *VAR notation. Here is some code
cat an include file, calling itself recursively on nested local
include files (i.e. those with #include "file", not #include
sub cat_include {
local($name) = @_;
local(*FILE);
warn "\n";
if (!open (FILE, $name)) {
warn "can't open $name: $!\n";
return;
while () {
if (/^#\s*include "([^"]*)"/) {
&cat_include($1);
close FILE;
4.7) How can I call alarm() or usleep() from Perl?
If you want finer granularity than 1 second (as usleep() provides)
have itimers and syscall() on your system, you can use the
following.
You could also use select().
It takes a floating-point number representing how long to delay
you get the SIGALRM, and returns a floating- point number
representing
how much time was left in the old timer, if any. Note that the C
function uses integers, but this one doesn't mind fractional
numbers.
# alarm; send me a SIGALRM in this many seconds (fractions ok)
# tom christiansen
sub alarm {
require 'syscall.ph';
require 'sys/time.ph';
local($ticks) = @_;
local($in_timer,$out_timer);
local($isecs, $iusecs, $secs, $usecs);
local($itimer_t) = 'L4'; # should be &itimer'typedef()
$secs = int($ticks);
$usecs = ($ticks - $secs) * 1e6;
$out_timer = pack($itimer_t,0,0,0,0);
$in_timer = pack($itimer_t,0,0,$secs,$usecs);
syscall(&SYS_setitimer, &ITIMER_REAL, $in_timer, $out_timer)
&& die "alarm: setitimer syscall failed: $!";
($isecs, $iusecs, $secs, $usecs) = unpack($itimer_t,$out_timer);
return $secs + ($usecs/1e6);
4.8) How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp() in Perl?
(Exception
handling)
Perl's exception-handling mechanism is its eval operator. You
can use eval as setjmp and die as longjmp. Here's an example
of Larry's for timed-out input, which in C is often implemented
using setjmp and longjmp:
$SIG{ALRM} = TIMEOUT;
sub TIMEOUT { die "restart input\n" }
do { eval { &realcode } } while $@ =~ /^restart input/;
sub realcode {
$ans = ;
Here's an example of Tom's for doing atexit() handling:
sub atexit { push(@_exit_subs, @_) }
sub _cleanup { unlink $tmp }
&atexit('_cleanup');
eval <<'End_Of_Eval'; $here = __LINE__;
# as much code here as you want
End_Of_Eval
$oops = $@; # save error message
# now call his stuff
for (@_exit_subs) { &$_() }
$oops && ($oops =~ s/\(eval\) line (\d+)/$0 .
" line " . ($1+$here)/e, die $oops);
You can register your own routines via the &atexit function now.
might also want to use the &realcode method of Larry's rather than
embedding all your code in the here-is document. Make sure to
via die rather than exit, or write your own &exit routine and call
that instead. In general, it's better for nested routines to
via die rather than exit for just this reason.
In Perl5, it is easy to set this up because of the automatic
processing
of per-package END functions.
Eval is also quite useful for testing for system dependent
features,
like symlinks, or using a user-input regexp that might otherwise
blowup on you.
4.9) How do I catch signals in perl?
Perl allows you to trap signals using the %SIG associative array.
Using the signals you want to trap as the key, you can assign a
subroutine to that signal. The %SIG array will only contain those
values which the programmer defines. Therefore, you do not have
assign all signals. For example, to exit cleanly from a ^C:
$SIG{'INT'} = 'CLEANUP';
sub CLEANUP {
print "\n\nCaught Interrupt (^C), Aborting\n";
There are two special "routines" for signals called DEFAULT and
IGNORE.
DEFAULT erases the current assignment, restoring the default value
the signal. IGNORE causes the signal to be ignored. In general,
don't need to remember these as you can emulate their
functionality
with standard programming features. DEFAULT can be emulated by
deleting the signal from the array and IGNORE can be emulated by
undeclared subroutine.
4.10) Why doesn't Perl interpret my octal data octally?
Perl only understands octal and hex numbers as such when they
as literals in your program. If they are read in from somewhere
assigned, then no automatic conversion takes place. You must
explicitly use oct() or hex() if you want this kind of thing to
happen.
Actually, oct() knows to interpret both hex and octal numbers,
hex only converts hexadecimal ones. For example:
print "What mode would you like? ";
$mode = ;
$mode = oct($mode);
unless ($mode) {
print "You can't really want mode 0!\n";
chmod $mode, $file;
Without the octal conversion, a requested mode of 755 would turn
into 01363, yielding bizarre file permissions of --wxrw--wt.
If you want something that handles decimal, octal and hex input,
you could follow the suggestion in the man page and use:
$val = oct($val) if $val =~ /^0/;
4.11) How can I compare two date strings?
If the dates are in an easily parsed, predetermined format, then
can break them up into their component parts and call &timelocal
the distributed perl library. If the date strings are in
arbitrary
formats, however, it's probably easier to use the getdate program
the Cnews distribution, since it accepts a wide variety of dates.
that in either case the return values you will really be comparing
be the total time in seconds as returned by time().
Here's a getdate function for perl that's not very efficient; you
do better than this by sending it many dates at once or modifying
getdate to behave better on a pipe. Beware the hardcoded
pathname.
sub getdate {
local($_) = shift;
# getdate has broken timezone sign reversal!
$_ = `/usr/local/lib/news/newsbin/getdate '$_'`;
Richard Ohnemus actually has a
getdate.y for
use with the Perl yacc. You can get this from ftp.sterling.com
[192.124.9.1] in /local/perl-byacc1.8.1.tar.Z, or send the author
for details.
You might also consider using these:
date.pl - print dates how you want with the sysv +FORMAT
method
date.shar - routines to manipulate and calculate dates
ftp-chat2.shar - updated version of ftpget. includes library and
programs
getdate.shar - returns number of seconds since epoch for any
ptime.shar - print dates how you want with the sysv +FORMAT
method
You probably want 'getdate.shar'... these and other files can be
from the /pub/perl/scripts directory on ftp.cis.ufl.edu. See the
README
file in the /pub/perl directory for time and the European mirror
details.
4.12) How can I find the Julian Day?
Here's an example of a Julian Date function provided by Thomas R.
Kimpton*.
#!/usr/local/bin/perl
@theJulianDate = ( 0, 31, 59, 90, 120, 151, 181, 212, 243, 273,
#**** Return 1 if we are after the leap day in a leap year.
sub leapDay
my($year,$month,$day) = @_;
if (year % 4) {
return(0);
if (!(year % 100)) { # years that are multiples of
# are not leap years
if (year % 400) { # unless they are multiples of 400
return(0);
if (month < 2) {
return(0);
} elsif ((month == 2) && (day < 29)) {
return(0);
return(1);
#**** Pass in the date, in seconds, of the day you want the
#**** julian date for. If your localtime() returns the year day
#**** return that, otherwise figure out the julian date.
sub julianDate
my($dateInSeconds) = @_;
my($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year, $wday, $yday);
($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year, $wday, $yday) =
localtime($dateInSeconds);
if (defined($yday)) {
return($yday+1);
return($theJulianDate[$mon] + $mday +
&leapDay($year,$mon,$mday));
print "Today's julian date is: ",&julianDate(time),"\n";
4.13) What's the fastest way to code up a given task in perl?
Post it to comp.lang.perl and ask Tom or Randal a question about
Because Perl so lends itself to a variety of different approaches
any given task, a common question is which is the fastest way to
given task. Since some approaches can be dramatically more
efficient
that others, it's sometimes worth knowing which is best.
Unfortunately, the implementation that first comes to mind,
perhaps as
a direct translation from C or the shell, often yields suboptimal
performance. Not all approaches have the same results across
different
hardware and software platforms. Furthermore, legibility must
sometimes be sacrificed for speed.
While an experienced perl programmer can sometimes eye-ball the
and make an educated guess regarding which way would be fastest,
surprises can still occur. So, in the spirit of perl programming
being an empirical science, the best way to find out which of
several
different methods runs the fastest is simply to code them all up
time them. For example:
print "method 1: ";
($u, $s) = times;
for ($i = 0; $i < $COUNT; $i++) {
# code for method 1
($nu, $ns) = times;
printf "%8.4fu %8.4fs\n", ($nu - $u), ($ns - $s);
print "method 2: ";
($u, $s) = times;
for ($i = 0; $i < $COUNT; $i++) {
# code for method 2
($nu, $ns) = times;
printf "%8.4fu %8.4fs\n", ($nu - $u), ($ns - $s);
Perl5 includes a new module called Benchmark.pm. You can now
simplify
the code to use the Benchmarking, like so:
use Benchmark;
timethese($count, {
Name1 => '...code for method 1...',
Name2 => '...code for method 2...',
It will output something that looks similar to this:
Benchmark: timing 100 iterations of Name1, Name2...
Name1: 2 secs (0.50 usr 0.00 sys = 0.50 cpu)
Name2: 1 secs (0.48 usr 0.00 sys = 0.48 cpu)
For example, the following code will show the time difference
between
three different ways of assigning the first character of a string
a variable:
use Benchmark;
timethese(100000, {
'regex1' => '$str="ABCD"; $str =~ s/^(.)//; $ch = $1',
'regex2' => '$str="ABCD"; $str =~ s/^.//; $ch = $&',
'substr' => '$str="ABCD"; $ch=substr($str,0,1);
substr($str,0,1)="",
The results will be returned like this:
Benchmark: timing 100000 iterations of regex1, regex2, substr...
regex1: 11 secs (10.80 usr 0.00 sys = 10.80 cpu)
regex2: 10 secs (10.23 usr 0.00 sys = 10.23 cpu)
substr: 7 secs ( 5.62 usr 0.00 sys = 5.62 cpu)
For more specific tips, see the section on Efficiency in the
``Other Oddments'' chapter at the end of the Camel Book.
4.14) Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons?
You don't have to quote strings that can't mean anything else in
language, like identifiers with any upper-case letters in them.
Therefore, it's fine to do this:
$SIG{INT} = Timeout_Routine;
@Days = (Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun);
but you can't get away with this:
$foo{while} = until;
in place of
$foo{'while'} = 'until';
The requirements on semicolons have been increasingly relaxed.
longer need one at the end of a block, but stylistically, you're
better
to use them if you don't put the curly brace on the same line:
for (1..10) { print }
is ok, as is
@nlist = sort { $a <=> $b } @olist;
but you probably shouldn't do this:
for ($i = 0; $i < @a; $i++) {
print "i is $i\n" # <-- oops!
because you might want to add lines later, and anyway, it looks
4.15) What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
Variable suicide is a nasty side effect of dynamic scoping and the
variables are passed by reference. If you say
&munge($x);
sub munge {
local($x);
local($myvar) = $_[0];
Then you have just clobbered $_[0]! Why this is occurring is
pretty
heavy wizardry: the reference to $x stored in $_[0] was
temporarily
occluded by the previous local($x) statement (which, you're
recall,
occurs at run-time, not compile-time). The work around is simple,
however: declare your formal parameters first:
sub munge {
local($myvar) = $_[0];
local($x);
That doesn't help you if you're going to be trying to access @_
directly after the local()s. In this case, careful use of the
package
facility is your only recourse.
Another manifestation of this problem occurs due to the magical
nature
of the index variable in a foreach() loop.
print "num begin @num\n";
foreach $m (@num) { &ug }
print "num finish @num\n";
local($m) = 42;
print "m=$m $num[0],$num[1],$num[2],$num[3]\n";
Which prints out the mysterious:
num begin 0 1 2 3 4
num finish 0 1 2 3 4
What's happening here is that $m is an alias for each element of
Inside &ug, you temporarily change $m. Well, that means that
also temporarily changed whatever $m is an alias to!! The only
workaround is to be careful with global variables, using packages,
and/or just be aware of this potential in foreach() loops.
The perl5 static autos via "my" will not have this problem.
4.16) What does "Malformed command links" mean?
This is a bug in 4.035. While in general it's merely a cosmetic
problem, it often comanifests with a highly undesirable
coredumping
problem. Programs known to be affected by the fatal coredump
include
plum and pcops. This bug has been fixed since 4.036. It did not
resurface in 5.000.
4.17) How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
While the $^ variable contains the name of the current header
format,
there is no corresponding mechanism to automatically do the same
for a footer. Not knowing how big a format is going to be until
evaluate it is one of the major problems.
If you have a fixed-size footer, you can get footers by checking
line left on page ($-) before each write, and printing the footer
yourself if necessary.
Another strategy is to open a pipe to yourself, using open(KID, "|-
and always write()ing to the KID, who then postprocesses its STDIN
rearrange headers and footers however you like. Not very
convenient,
but doable.
4.18) Why does my Perl program keep growing in size?
This is caused by a strange occurance that Larry has dubbed
"feeping
creaturism". Larry is always adding one more feature, always
getting
Perl to handle one more problem. Hence, it keeps growing. Once
worked with perl long enough, you will probably start to do the
thing. You will then notice this problem as you see your scripts
becoming larger and larger.
Oh, wait... you meant a currently running program and it's stack
Mea culpa, I misunderstood you. ;) While there may be a real
memory
leak in the Perl source code or even whichever malloc() you're
common causes are incomplete eval()s or local()s in loops.
An eval() which terminates in error due to a failed parsing will
a bit of memory unusable.
A local() inside a loop:
local(@array);
will build up 100 versions of @array before the loop is done. The
work-around is:
local(@array);
undef @array;
Larry reports that this behavior is fixed for perl5.
4.19) Can I do RPC in Perl?
Yes, you can, since Perl has access to sockets. An example of the
program written in Perl can be found in the script ruptime.pl at
scripts archive on ftp.cis.ufl.edu. I warn you, however, that
it's not
a pretty sight, as it's used nothing from h2ph or c2ph, so
everything is
utterly hard-wired.
4.20) How can I quote a variable to use in a regexp?
From the manual:
$pattern =~ s/(\W)/\\$1/g;
Now you can freely use /$pattern/ without fear of any unexpected
characters in it throwing off the search. If you don't know
whether a
pattern is valid or not, enclose it in an eval to avoid a fatal
time error.
Perl5 provides a vastly improved way of doing this. Simply use
new quotemeta character (\Q) within your variable.
4.21) How can I change the first N letters of a string?
Remember that the substr() function produces an lvalue, that is,
be assigned to. Therefore, to change the first character to an S,
could do this:
substr($var,0,1) = 'S';
This assumes that $[ is 0; for a library routine where you can't
$[, you should use this instead:
substr($var,$[,1) = 'S';
While it would be slower, you could in this case use a substitute:
But this won't work if the string is empty or its first character
newline, which "." will never match. So you could use this
instead:
To do things like translation of the first part of a string, use
substr, as in:
substr($var, $[, 10) =~ tr/a-z/A-Z/;
If you don't know the length of what to translate, something like
/^(\S+)/ && substr($_,$[,length($1)) =~ tr/a-z/A-Z/;
For some things it's convenient to use the /e switch of the
substitute
operator:
s/^(\S+)/($tmp = $1) =~ tr#a-z#A-Z#, $tmp/e
although in this case, it runs more slowly than does the previous
example.
4.22) Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
No, or at least, not by the themselves.
Regexps just aren't powerful enough. Although Perl's patterns
strictly regular because they do backreferencing (the \1
notation), you
still can't do it. You need to employ auxiliary logic. A simple
approach would involve keeping a bit of state around, something
vaguely like this (although we don't handle patterns on the same
if ($inpat++ > 0) { warn "already saw pat1" }
if (--$inpat < 0) { warn "never saw pat1" }
A rather more elaborate subroutine to pull out balanced and
possibly
nested single chars, like ` and ', { and }, or ( and ) can be
on convex.com in /pub/perl/scripts/pull_quotes.
4.23) What does it mean that regexps are greedy? How can I get around
The basic idea behind regexps being greedy is that they will match
maximum amount of data that they can, sometimes resulting in
incorrect
or strange answers.
For example, I recently came across something like this:
$_="this (is) an (example) of multiple parens";
while ( m#\((.*)\)#g ) {
print "$1\n";
This code was supposed to match everything between a set of
parentheses. The expected output was:
example
However, the backreference ($1) ended up containing "is) an
(example",
clearly not what was intended.
In perl4, the way to stop this from happening is to use a negated
group. If the above example is rewritten as follows, the results
correct:
while ( m#\(([^)]*)\)#g ) {
In perl5 there is a new minimal matching metacharacter, '?'. This
character is added to the normal metacharacters to modify their
behaviour, such as "*?", "+?", or even "??". The example would
written in the following style:
while (m#\((.*?)\)#g )
Hint: This new operator leads to a very elegant method of
stripping
comments from C code:
4.24) How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from
Since we're talking about how to strip comments under perl5, now
good time to talk about doing it in perl4. The easiest way to
comments in perl4 is to transform the comment close (*/) into
something
that can't be in the string, or is at least extremely unlikely to
the string. I find \256 (the registered or reserved sign, an R
inside
a circle) is fairly unlikely to be used and is easy to remember.
our code looks something like this:
s:\*/:\256:g; # Change all */ to circled R
s:/\*[^\256]*\256::g; # Remove everything from \* to circled R
To ensure that you correctly handle multi-line comments, don't
forget
to set $* to 1, informing perl that it should do multi-line
pattern
matching.
[Untested changes. If it's wrong or you don't understand it,
with Jeff. If it's wrong, let me know so I can change it. ]
Jeff Friedl* suggests that the above solution is incorrect. He
says it
will fail on imbedded comments and function proto-typing as well
comments that are part of strings. The following regexp should
handle
everything:
4.25) Why doesn't "local($foo) = ;" work right?
Well, it does. The thing to remember is that local() provides an
context, and that the syntax in an array context will read
all the
lines in a file. To work around this, use:
local($foo);
$foo = ;
You can use the scalar() operator to cast the expression into a
scalar
context:
local($foo) = scalar();
4.26) How can I detect keyboard input without reading it?
You should check out the Frequently Asked Questions list in
comp.unix.* for things like this: the answer is essentially the
It's very system dependent. Here's one solution that works on BSD
systems:
sub key_ready {
local($rin, $nfd);
vec($rin, fileno(STDIN), 1) = 1;
return $nfd = select($rin,undef,undef,0);
4.27) How can I read a single character from the keyboard under UNIX
and DOS?
A closely related question to the no-echo question below is how to
input a single character from the keyboard. Again, this is a
system
dependent operation. The following code may or may not help you.
should work on both SysV and BSD flavors of UNIX:
$BSD = -f '/vmunix';
system "stty cbreak /dev/tty 2>&1";
system "stty", '-icanon',
system "stty", 'eol', "\001";
$key = getc(STDIN);
system "stty -cbreak /dev/tty 2>&1";
system "stty", 'icanon';
system "stty", 'eol', '^@'; # ascii null
print "\n";
You could also handle the stty operations yourself for speed if
going to be doing a lot of them. This code works to toggle cbreak
and echo modes on a BSD system:
sub set_cbreak { # &set_cbreak(1) or &set_cbreak(0)
local($on) = $_[0];
local($sgttyb,@ary);
require 'sys/ioctl.ph';
$sgttyb_t = 'C4 S' unless $sgttyb_t; # c2ph: &sgttyb'typedef()
ioctl(STDIN,&TIOCGETP,$sgttyb) || die "Can't ioctl TIOCGETP: $!";
@ary = unpack($sgttyb_t,$sgttyb);
$ary[4] |= &CBREAK;
$ary[4] &= ~&ECHO;
$ary[4] &= ~&CBREAK;
$ary[4] |= &ECHO;
$sgttyb = pack($sgttyb_t,@ary);
ioctl(STDIN,&TIOCSETP,$sgttyb) || die "Can't ioctl TIOCSETP: $!";
Note that this is one of the few times you actually want to use
getc() function; it's in general way too expensive to call for
normal
I/O. Normally, you just use the syntax, or perhaps the
or sysread() functions.
For perspectives on more portable solutions, use anon ftp to
retrieve
the file /pub/perl/info/keypress from convex.com.
For DOS systems, Dan Carson reports:
To put the PC in "raw" mode, use ioctl with some magic numbers
gleaned
from msdos.c (Perl source file) and Ralf Brown's interrupt list
across the net every so often):
$old_ioctl = ioctl(STDIN,0,0); # Gets device info
$old_ioctl &= 0xff;
ioctl(STDIN,1,$old_ioctl | 32); # Writes it back, setting bit 5
Then to read a single character:
sysread(STDIN,$c,1); # Read a single character
And to put the PC back to "cooked" mode:
ioctl(STDIN,1,$old_ioctl); # Sets it back to cooked mode.
So now you have $c. If ord($c) == 0, you have a two byte code,
means you hit a special key. Read another byte
(sysread(STDIN,$c,1)),
and that value tells you what combination it was according to this
# PC 2-byte keycodes = ^@ + the following:
# HEX KEYS
# 0F SHF TAB
# 10-19 ALT QWERTYUIOP
# 1E-26 ALT ASDFGHJKL
# 2C-32 ALT ZXCVBNM
# 47-49 HOME,UP,PgUp
# 4D RIGHT
# 4F-53 END,DOWN,PgDn,Ins,Del
# 54-5D SHF F1-F10
# 5E-67 CTR F1-F10
# 73-77 CTR LEFT,RIGHT,END,PgDn,HOME
# 84 CTR PgUp
This is all trial and error I did a long time ago, I hope I'm
reading the
file that worked.
4.28) How can I get input from the keyboard without it echoing to the
screen?
Terminal echoing is generally handled directly by the shell.
Therefore, there is no direct way in perl to turn echoing on and
However, you can call the command "stty [-]echo". The following
allow you to accept input without it being echoed to the screen,
example as a way to accept passwords (error checking deleted for
brevity):
print "Please enter your password: ";
system("stty -echo");
chop($password=);
print "\n";
system("stty echo");
4.29) Is there any easy way to strip blank space from the
beginning/end of
a string?
Yes, there is. Using the substitution command, you can match the
blanks and replace it with nothing. For example, if you have the
string " String " you can use this:
$_ = " String ";
print ":$_:\n"; # OUTPUT: ": String :"
print ":$_:\n"; # OUTPUT: ":String :"
print ":$_:\n"; # OUTPUT: ":String:"
Unfortunately, there is no simple single statement that will strip
whitespace from both the front and the back in perl4. However, in
perl5 you should be able to say:
Stephen P Potter spp@vx.com Varimetrix Corporation
2350 Commerce Park Drive, Suite 4 Palm Bay, FL 32905
(407) 676-3222 CAD/CAM/CAE/Software
@SUBJECT:comp.lang.perl FAQ 5/5 - External Program Interaction
 (Continued from last message)
grep ($_ eq 'a', keys %ary) is FALSE
See, the whole entry is gone!
5.9) Why don't backticks work as they do in shells?
Several reason. One is because backticks do not interpolate
within
double quotes in Perl as they do in shells.
Let's look at two common mistakes:
$foo = "$bar is `wc $file`"; # WRONG
This should have been:
$foo = "$bar is " . `wc $file`;
But you'll have an extra newline you might not expect. This
does not work as expected:
$back = `pwd`; chdir($somewhere); chdir($back); # WRONG
Because backticks do not automatically eat trailing or embedded
newlines. The chop() function will remove the last character from
a string. This should have been:
chop($back = `pwd`); chdir($somewhere); chdir($back);
You should also be aware that while in the shells, embedding
single quotes will protect variables, in Perl, you'll need
to escape the dollar signs.
Shell: foo=`cmd 'safe $dollar'`
Perl: $foo=`cmd 'safe \$dollar'`;
5.10) How come my converted awk/sed/sh script runs more slowly in
The natural way to program in those languages may not make for the
fastest
Perl code. Notably, the awk-to-perl translator produces sub-
optimal code;
see the a2p man page for tweaks you can make.
Two of Perl's strongest points are its associative arrays and its
regular
expressions. They can dramatically speed up your code when
applied
properly. Recasting your code to use them can help a lot.
How complex are your regexps? Deeply nested sub-expressions with
* operators can take a very long time to compute. Don't use ()'s
unless
you really need them. Anchor your string to the front if you can.
Something like this:
next unless /^.*%.*$/;
runs more slowly than the equivalent:
next unless /%/;
Note that this:
next if /Mon/;
next if /Tue/;
next if /Wed/;
next if /Thu/;
next if /Fri/;
runs faster than this:
next if /Mon/ || /Tue/ || /Wed/ || /Thu/ || /Fri/;
which in turn runs faster than this:
next if /Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri/;
which runs *much* faster than:
next if /(Mon|Tue|Wed|Thu|Fri)/;
There's no need to use /^.*foo.*$/ when /foo/ will do.
Remember that a printf costs more than a simple print.
Don't split() every line if you don't have to.
Another thing to look at is your loops. Are you iterating through
indexed arrays rather than just putting everything into a hashed
array? For example,
@list = ('abc', 'def', 'ghi', 'jkl', 'mno', 'pqr', 'stv');
for $i ($[ .. $#list) {
if ($pattern eq $list[$i]) { $found++; }
First of all, it would be faster to use Perl's foreach mechanism
instead of using subscripts:
foreach $elt (@list) {
if ($pattern eq $elt) { $found++; }
Better yet, this could be sped up dramatically by placing the
thing in an associative array like this:
%list = ('abc', 1, 'def', 1, 'ghi', 1, 'jkl', 1,
'mno', 1, 'pqr', 1, 'stv', 1 );
$found += $list{$pattern};
(but put the %list assignment outside of your input loop.)
You should also look at variables in regular expressions, which is
expensive. If the variable to be interpolated doesn't change over
life of the process, use the /o modifier to tell Perl to compile
regexp only once, like this:
if (/$foo/o) {
&some_func($i);
Finally, if you have a bunch of patterns in a list that you'd like
compare against, instead of doing this:
@pats = ('_get.*', 'bogus', '_read', '.*exit', '_write');
foreach $pat (@pats) {
if ( $name =~ /^$pat$/ ) {
&some_func();
If you build your code and then eval it, it will be much faster.
For example:
@pats = ('_get.*', 'bogus', '_read', '.*exit', '_write');
$code = < foreach $pat (@pats) {
$code .= < &some_func();
print $code if $debugging;
eval $code;
5.11) How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?
If these are system calls and you have the syscall() function,
you're probably in luck -- see the next question. If you're using
POSIX function, and are running perl5, you're also in luck: see
POSIX(3m). For arbitrary library functions, however, it's not
quite so
straight-forward. See "Where can I learn about linking C with
5.12) Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
[Note: as of perl5, you probably want to just use h2xs instead, at
least, if your system supports dynamic loading.]
These are generated from your system's C include files using the
script (once called makelib) from the Perl source directory. This
make files containing subroutine definitions, like &SYS_getitimer,
you can use as arguments to your function.
You might also look at the h2pl subdirectory in the Perl source
for how to
convert these to forms like $SYS_getitimer; there are both
advantages and
disadvantages to this. Read the notes in that directory for
details.
In both cases, you may well have to fiddle with it to make these
work; it
depends how funny-looking your system's C include files happen to
If you're trying to get at C structures, then you should take a
at using c2ph, which uses debugger "stab" entries generated by
BSD or GNU C compiler to produce machine-independent perl
definitions
for the data structures. This allows to you avoid hardcoding
structure layouts, types, padding, or sizes, greatly enhancing
portability. c2ph comes with the perl distribution. On an SCO
system, GCC only has COFF debugging support by default, so you'll
to build GCC 2.1 with DBX_DEBUGGING_INFO defined, and use -gstabs
get c2ph to work there.
See the file /pub/perl/info/ch2ph on convex.com via anon ftp
for more traps and tips on this process.
5.13) Why do setuid Perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
This message:
YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
FIX YOUR KERNEL, PUT A C WRAPPER AROUND THIS SCRIPT, OR USE -u AND
UNDUMP!
is triggered because setuid scripts are inherently insecure due to
kernel bug. If your system has fixed this bug, you can compile
so that it knows this. Otherwise, create a setuid C program that
execs Perl with the full name of the script. Here's what the
perldiag(1) man page says about this message:
YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
(F) And you probably never will, since you probably don't have
the sources to your kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't
give a rip about what you want. Your best bet is to use the
wrapsuid script in the eg directory to put a setuid C
wrapper
around your script.
5.14) How do I open a pipe both to and from a command?
In general, this is a dangerous move because you can find yourself
deadlock situation. It's better to put one end of the pipe to a
For example:
# first write some_cmd's input into a_file, then
open(CMD, "some_cmd its_args < a_file |");
while () {
# or else the other way; run the cmd
open(CMD, "| some_cmd its_args > a_file");
while ($condition) {
print CMD "some output\n";
# other code deleted
close CMD || warn "cmd exited $?";
# now read the file
open(FILE,"a_file");
while () {
If you have ptys, you could arrange to run the command on a pty
avoid the deadlock problem. See the chat2.pl package in the
distributed library for ways to do this.
At the risk of deadlock, it is theoretically possible to use a
fork, two pipe calls, and an exec to manually set up the two-way
pipe. (BSD system may use socketpair() in place of the two pipes,
but this is not as portable.) The open2 library function
distributed
with the current perl release will do this for you.
It assumes it's going to talk to something like adb, both writing
it and reading from it. This is presumably safe because you
that commands like adb will read a line at a time and output a
line at
a time. Programs like sort that read their entire input stream
however, are quite apt to cause deadlock.
There's also an open3.pl library that handles this for stderr as
5.15) How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
There are three basic ways of running external commands:
system $cmd;
$output = `$cmd`;
open (PIPE, "cmd |");
In the first case, both STDOUT and STDERR will go the same place
the script's versions of these, unless redirected. You can always
them where you want them and then read them back when the system
returns. In the second and third cases, you are reading the
STDOUT
*only* of your command. If you would like to have merged STDOUT
STDERR, you can use shell file-descriptor redirection to dup
STDERR to
STDOUT:
$output = `$cmd 2>&1`;
open (PIPE, "cmd 2>&1 |");
Another possibility is to run STDERR into a file and read the file
later, as in
$output = `$cmd 2>some_file`;
open (PIPE, "cmd 2>some_file |");
Here's a way to read from both of them and know which descriptor
you got each line from. The trick is to pipe only STDERR through
sed, which then marks each of its lines, and then sends that
back into a merged STDOUT/STDERR stream, from which your Perl
program
then reads a line at a time:
open (CMD,
"cmd args | sed 's/^/STDOUT:/' |");
while () {
if (s/^STDOUT://) {
print "line from stdout: ", $_;
print "line from stdeff: ", $_;
Be apprised that you *must* use Bourne shell redirection syntax in
backticks, not csh! For details on how lucky you are that perl's
system() and backtick and pipe opens all use Bourne shell, fetch
file from convex.com called /pub/csh.whynot -- and you'll be glad
perl's shell interface is the Bourne shell.
There's an &open3 routine out there which was merged with &open2
perl5 production.
5.16) Why doesn't open return an error when a pipe open fails?
These statements:
open(TOPIPE, "|bogus_command") || die ...
open(FROMPIPE, "bogus_command|") || die ...
will not fail just for lack of the bogus_command. They'll only
fail if the fork to run them fails, which is seldom the problem.
If you're writing to the TOPIPE, you'll get a SIGPIPE if the child
exits prematurely or doesn't run. If you are reading from the
FROMPIPE, you need to check the close() to see what happened.
If you want an answer sooner than pipe buffering might otherwise
afford you, you can do something like this:
$kid = open (PIPE, "bogus_command |"); # XXX: check defined($kid)
(kill 0, $kid) || die "bogus_command failed";
This works fine if bogus_command doesn't have shell metas in it,
if it does, the shell may well not have exited before the kill 0.
could always introduce a delay:
$kid = open (PIPE, "bogus_command (kill 0, $kid) || die "bogus_command failed";
but this is sometimes undesirable, and in any event does not
guarantee
correct behavior. But it seems slightly better than nothing.
Similar tricks can be played with writable pipes if you don't wish
catch the SIGPIPE.
5.17) Why can't my perl program read from STDIN after I gave it ^D
Because some stdio's set error and eof flags that need clearing.
Try keeping around the seekpointer and go there, like this:
$where = tell(LOG);
seek(LOG, $where, 0);
If that doesn't work, try seeking to a different part of the file
then back. If that doesn't work, try seeking to a different part
the file, reading something, and then seeking back. If that
doesn't
work, give up on your stdio package and use sysread. You can't
stdio's clearerr() from Perl, so if you get EINTR from a signal
handler, you're out of luck. Best to just use sysread() from the
start for the tty.
5.18) How can I translate tildes in a filename?
Perl doesn't expand tildes -- the shell (ok, some shells) do.
The classic request is to be able to do something like:
open(FILE, "~/dir1/file1");
open(FILE, "~tchrist/dir1/file1");
which doesn't work. (And you don't know it, because you
did a system call without an "|| die" clause! :-)
If you *know* you're on a system with the csh, and you *know*
that Larry hasn't internalized file globbing, then you could
get away with
$filename = <~tchrist/dir1/file1>;
but that's pretty iffy.
A better way is to do the translation yourself, as in:
$filename =~ s#^~(\w+)(/.*)?$#(getpwnam($1))[7].$2#e;
More robust and efficient versions that checked for error
conditions,
handed simple ~/blah notation, and cached lookups are all
reasonable
enhancements.
5.19) How can I convert my shell script to Perl?
Larry's standard answer is to send it through the shell to perl
filter,
otherwise known at tchrist@perl.com. Contrary to popular belief,
Christiansen isn't a real person. He is actually a highly
advanced
artificial intelligence experiment written by a graduate student
University of Colorado. Some of the earlier tasks he was
programmed to
perform included:
* monitor comp.lang.perl and collect statistics on which questions
were asked with which frequency and to respond to them with stock
answers. Tom's programming has since outgrown this paltry task,
and it has been assigned to an undergraduate student from the
University of Florida. After all, we all know that student from
UF aren't able to do much more than documentation anyway. ;-)
* convert shell programs to perl programs
Actually, there is no automatic machine translator. Even if there
were, you wouldn't gain a lot, as most of the external programs
still get called. It's the same problem as blind translation into
you're still apt to be bogged down by exec()s. You have to
analyze
the dataflow and algorithm and rethink it for optimal speedup.
not uncommon to see one, two, or even three orders of magnitude of
speed difference between the brute-force and the recoded
approaches.
5.20) Can I use Perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
Sure, you can connect directly to them using sockets, or you can
session on a pty. In either case, Randal's chat2 package, which
distributed with the perl source, will come in handly. It address
much the same problem space as Don Libes's expect package does.
examples of using managing an ftp session using chat2 can be found
convex.com in /pub/perl/scripts/ftp-chat2.shar .
Caveat lector: chat2 is documented only by example, may not run on
System V systems, and is subtly machine dependent both in its
of networking and in pseudottys.
Randal also has code showing an example socket session for
handling the
telnet protocol. You might nudge him for a copy.
Gene Spafford* has a nice ftp library package that will help with
5.21) Why do I somestimes get an "Arguments too long" when I use <*>?
As of perl4.036, there is a certain amount of globbing that is
passed
out to the shell and not handled internally. The following code
will, roughly, emulate "chmod 0644 *")
is the equivalent of
open(FOO, "echo * | tr -s ' \t\r\f' '\\012\\012\\012\\012'|");
while () {
Until globbing is built into Perl, you will need to use some form
non-globbing work around.
Something like the following will work:
opendir(DIR,'.');
chmod 0644, grep(/\.c$/, readdir(DIR));
closedir(DIR);
This example is taken directly from "Programming Perl" page 78.
If you've installed tcsh as /bin/csh, you'll never have this
problem.
5.22) How do I do a "tail -f" in Perl?
Larry says that the solution is to put a call to seek in yourself.
First try
seek(GWFILE, 0, 1);
If that doesn't work (depends on your stdio implementation), then
you need something more like this:
for ($curpos = tell(GWFILE); $_ = ; $curpos = tell(GWFILE)) {
# search for some stuff and put it into files
sleep for a while
seek(GWFILE, $curpos, 0);
5.23) Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as
Generally speaking, if you need to do this you're either using
programming practices or are far too paranoid for your own good.
need to do this to hide a password being entered on the command
recode the program to read the password from a file or to prompt
it. (see question 4.24) Typing a password on the command line is
inherently insecure as anyone can look over your shoulder to see
If you feel you really must overwrite the command line and hide
can assign to the variable "$0". For example:
#!/usr/local/bin/perl
$0 = "Hidden from prying eyes";
open(PS, "ps") || die "Can't PS: $!";
while () {
next unless m/$$/;
It should be noted that some OSes, like Solaris 2.X, read directly
the kernel information, instead of from the program's stack, and
don't allow you to change the command line.
Stephen P Potter spp@vx.com Varimetrix Corporation
2350 Commerce Park Drive, Suite 4 Palm Bay, FL 32905
(407) 676-3222 CAD/CAM/CAE/Software
@SUBJECT:comp.lang.perl FAQ 5/5 - External Program Interaction
Message-ID:
ns.channel1.com!wizard.pn.com!Germany.EU.net!howland.reston.ans.net
spool.mu.edu!bloom-beacon.mit.edu!senator-bedfellow.mit.edu!faqserv
From: spp@vx.com
Newsgroups: comp.lang.perl,comp.answers,news.answers
Subject: comp.lang.perl FAQ 5/5 - External Program Interaction
Supersedes:
Followup-To: poster
Date: 30 Nov 1994 09:40:48 GMT
Organization: none
Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU
Distribution: world
Message-ID:
References:
NNTP-Posting-Host: bloom-picayune.mit.edu
X-Last-Updated: 1994/11/14
Originator: faqserv@bloom-picayune.MIT.EDU
Xref: ns.channel1.com comp.lang.perl:39240 comp.answers:8357
news.answers:32284
Archive-name: perl-faq/part5
Version: $Id: part5,v 2.2 1994/11/07 18:06:59 spp Exp spp $
Posting-Frequency: bi-weekly
This posting contains answers to the following questions about Array,
and External Program Interactions with Perl:
5.1) What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
Always make sure to use a $ for single values and @ for multiple
Thus element 2 of the @foo array is accessed as $foo[2], not
which is a list of length one (not a scalar), and is a fairly
common
novice mistake. Sometimes you can get by with @foo[2], but it's
not really doing what you think it's doing for the reason you
it's doing it, which means one of these days, you'll shoot
yourself
in the foot; ponder for a moment what these will really do:
@foo[0] = `cmd args`;
@foo[2] = ;
Just always say $foo[2] and you'll be happier.
This may seem confusing, but try to think of it this way: you use
character of the type which you *want back*. You could use
@foo[1..3] for
a slice of three elements of @foo, or even @foo{A,B,C} for a slice
of %foo. This is the same as using ($foo[1], $foo[2], $foo[3])
($foo{A}, $foo{B}, $foo{C}) respectively. In fact, you can even
lists to subscript arrays and pull out more lists, like @foo[@bar]
@foo{@bar}, where @bar is in both cases presumably a list of
subscripts.
5.2) How can I make an array of arrays or other recursive data types?
In Perl5, it's quite easy to declare these things. For example
And now reference $A[2]->[0] to pull out "yy". These may also
and mix with tables:
key0, { k0, v0, k1, v1 },
key1, { k2, v2, k3, v3 },
key2, { k2, v2, k3, [ 0, 'a' .. 'z' ] },
Allowing you to reference $T{key2}->{k3}->[3] to pull out 'c'.
Perl4 is infinitely more difficult. Remember that Perl[0..4]
about nested data structures. It's about flat ones, so if you're
trying to do this, you may be going about it the wrong way or
using the
wrong tools. You might try parallel arrays with common
subscripts.
But if you're bound and determined, you can use the multi-
dimensional
array emulation of $a{'x','y','z'}, or you can make an array of
of arrays and eval it.
For example, if @name contains a list of names of arrays, you can
at a the j-th element of the i-th array like so:
$ary = $name[$i];
$val = eval "\$$ary[$j]";
or in one line
$val = eval "\$$name[$i][\$j]";
You could also use the type-globbing syntax to make an array of
values, which will be more efficient than eval. Here @name hold a
of pointers, which we'll have to dereference through a temporary
variable.
For example:
{ local(*ary) = $name[$i]; $val = $ary[$j]; }
In fact, you can use this method to make arbitrarily nested data
structures. You really have to want to do this kind of thing
badly to
go this far, however, as it is notationally cumbersome.
Let's assume you just simply *have* to have an array of arrays of
arrays. What you do is make an array of pointers to arrays of
pointers, where pointers are *name values described above. You
initialize the outermost array normally, and then you build up
pointers from there. For example:
@z = ( 'zz' .. 'zzz' );
@ww = reverse @w;
@xx = reverse @x;
@yy = reverse @y;
@zz = reverse @z;
Now make a couple of arrays of pointers to these:
@B = ( *ww, *xx, *yy, *zz );
And finally make an array of pointers to these arrays:
To access an element, such as AAA[i][j][k], you must do this:
local(*foo) = $AAA[$i];
local(*bar) = $foo[$j];
$answer = $bar[$k];
Similar manipulations on associative arrays are also feasible.
You could take a look at recurse.pl package posted by Felix Lee*,
lets you simulate vectors and tables (lists and associative
arrays) by
using type glob references and some pretty serious wizardry.
In C, you're used to creating recursive datatypes for operations
recursive decent parsing or tree traversal. In Perl, these
algorithms
are best implemented using associative arrays. Take an array
called
%parent, and build up pointers such that $parent{$person} is the
of that person's parent. Make sure you remember that
$parent{'adam'}
is 'adam'. :-) With a little care, this approach can be used to
implement general graph traversal algorithms as well.
5.3) How do I make an array of structures containing various data
The best way to do this is to use an associative array to model
structure, then either a regular array (AKA list) or another
associative array (AKA hash, table, or hash table) to store it.
'field1' => "value1",
'field2' => "value2",
'field3' => "value3",
@all = ( \%foo, \%bar, ... );
print $all[0]{'field1'};
Or even
'field1' => "value1",
'field2' => "value2",
'field3' => "value3",
'field1' => "value1",
'field2' => "value2",
'field3' => "value3",
See perlref(1).
5.4) How can I extract just the unique elements of an array?
There are several possible ways, depending on whether the
array is ordered and you wish to preserve the ordering.
a) If @in is sorted, and you want @out to be sorted:
$prev = 'nonesuch';
@out = grep($_ ne $prev && (($prev) = $_), @in);
This is nice in that it doesn't use much extra memory,
simulating uniq's behavior of removing only adjacent
duplicates.
b) If you don't know whether @in is sorted:
undef %saw;
@out = grep(!$saw{$_}++, @in);
c) Like (b), but @in contains only small integers:
@out = grep(!$saw[$_]++, @in);
d) A way to do (b) without any loops or greps:
undef %saw;
@out = sort keys %saw; # remove sort if undesired
e) Like (d), but @in contains only small positive integers:
undef @ary;
@ary[@in] = @in;
@out = sort @ary;
5.5) How can I tell whether an array contains a certain element?
There are several ways to approach this. If you are going to make
this query many times and the values are arbitrary strings, the
fastest way is probably to invert the original array and keep an
associative array lying about whose keys are the first array's
values.
@blues = ('turquoise', 'teal', 'lapis lazuli');
undef %is_blue;
for (@blues) { $is_blue{$_} = 1; }
Now you can check whether $is_blue{$some_color}. It might have
a good idea to keep the blues all in an assoc array in the first
If the values are all small integers, you could use a simple
indexed array. This kind of an array will take up less space:
@primes = (2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31);
undef @is_tiny_prime;
for (@primes) { $is_tiny_prime[$_] = 1; }
Now you check whether $is_tiny_prime[$some_number].
If the values in question are integers instead of strings, you can
quite a lot of space by using bit strings instead:
@articles = ( 1..10, 150..2000, 2017 );
undef $read;
grep (vec($read,$_,1) = 1, @articles);
Now check whether vec($read,$n,1) is true for some $n.
5.6) How do I sort an associative array by value instead of by key?
You have to declare a sort subroutine to do this, or use an inline
function. Let's assume you want an ASCII sort on the values of
associative array %ary. You could do so this way:
foreach $key (sort by_value keys %ary) {
print $key, '=', $ary{$key}, "\n";
sub by_value { $ary{$a} cmp $ary{$b}; }
If you wanted a descending numeric sort, you could do this:
sub by_value { $ary{$b} <=> $ary{$a}; }
You can also inline your sort function, like this, at least if
you have a relatively recent patchlevel of perl4 or are running
foreach $key ( sort { $ary{$b} <=> $ary{$a} } keys %ary ) {
print $key, '=', $ary{$key}, "\n";
If you wanted a function that didn't have the array name hard-
into it, you could so this:
foreach $key (&sort_by_value(*ary)) {
print $key, '=', $ary{$key}, "\n";
sub sort_by_value {
local(*x) = @_;
sub _by_value { $x{$a} cmp $x{$b}; }
sort _by_value keys %x;
If you want neither an alphabetic nor a numeric sort, then you'll
have to code in your own logic instead of relying on the built-in
signed comparison operators "cmp" and "<=>".
Note that if you're sorting on just a part of the value, such as a
piece you might extract via split, unpack, pattern-matching, or
substr, then rather than performing that operation inside your
routine on each call to it, it is significantly more efficient to
build a parallel array of just those portions you're sorting on,
the indices of this parallel array, and then to subscript your
original
array using the newly sorted indices. This method works on both
regular and associative arrays, since both @ary[@idx] and
@ary{@idx}
make sense. See page 245 in the Camel Book on "Sorting an Array
Computable Field" for a simple example of this.
5.7) How can I know how many entries are in an associative array?
While the number of elements in a @foobar array is simply @foobar
used in a scalar, you can't figure out how many elements are in an
associative array in an analogous fashion. That's because %foobar
a scalar context returns the ratio (as a string) of number of
buckets
filled versus the number allocated. For example, scalar(%ENV)
return "20/32". While perl could in theory keep a count, this
break down on associative arrays that have been bound to dbm
However, while you can't get a count this way, one thing you *can*
it for is to determine whether there are any elements whatsoever
the array, since "if (%table)" is guaranteed to be false if
nothing
has ever been stored in it.
As of perl4.035, you can says
$count = keys %ARRAY;
keys() when used in a scalar context will return the number of
rather than the keys themselves.
5.8) What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with %arrays?
Pictures help... here's the %ary table:
keys values
And these conditions hold
$ary{'a'} is true
$ary{'d'} is false
defined $ary{'d'} is true
defined $ary{'a'} is true
exists $ary{'a'} is true (perl5 only)
grep ($_ eq 'a', keys %ary) is true
If you now say
undef $ary{'a'}
your table now reads:
keys values
| a | undef|
and these conditions now hold; changes in caps:
$ary{'a'} is FALSE
$ary{'d'} is false
defined $ary{'d'} is true
defined $ary{'a'} is FALSE
exists $ary{'a'} is true (perl5 only)
grep ($_ eq 'a', keys %ary) is true
Notice the last two: you have an undef value, but a defined key!
Now, consider this:
delete $ary{'a'}
your table now reads:
keys values
and these conditions now hold; changes in caps:
$ary{'a'} is false
$ary{'d'} is false
defined $ary{'d'} is true
defined $ary{'a'} is false
exists $ary{'a'} is FALSE (perl5 only)
PGPBLUE is an interface program, which interfaces PGP with The Bluewave
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Archive-name: powerpc-faq
Last-modified: 10-November-94
PowerPC FAQ
10 November 1994
The PowerPC FAQ is maintained by Derek Noonburg (derekn@ece.cmu.edu).
Please send me any and all additions, corrections, clarfications, and
suggestions.
Changes since last version (10-October-94):
- changed: 0-5, 0-6, 1-3, 1-5, 2-1, 2-2, 3-1, 3-2, 3-4, 3-5
[0] Introduction
[0-1] Where can a current copy of this FAQ be obtained?
[0-2] Can I convert this FAQ to a different format and/or
redistribute it?
[0-3] What newsgroups are appropriate for PowerPC discussions?
[0-4] What other FAQs contain PowerPC information?
[0-5] What other net sources (ftp, gopher, etc.) contain PowerPC
information?
[0-6] Bibliography: where can I get more information on the
PowerPC?
[0-7] Contributors.
[1] Processor
[1-1] What is a PowerPC?
[1-2] How does PowerPC relate to POWER and POWER2?
[1-3] What processors have been announced? What are their specs?
When will they be available? How much will they cost?
[1-4] What embedded controllers will be available?
[1-5] How fast is a PowerPC?
[1-6] Is there special hardware for emulating 68k or x86
processors?
[1-7] What is the PowerPC 615?
[2] Hardware
[2-1] What PowerPC-based computers are/will be available? When
they be available? How much will they cost?
[2-2] What is PReP and how can I get a copy?
[2-3] What is the Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP)?
[2-4] Can PowerPC 601-based computers be upgraded to, e.g., a 604
when they become available?
[2-5] Where can I get the specifications for the PCI bus?
[3] Software
[3-1] What operating systems will run on PowerPC-based computers?
When will they be available?
[3-2] What is PowerOpen?
[3-3] What is Taligent / Pink?
[3-4] Will NeXTStep be ported to the PowerPC?
[3-5] What is WorkplaceOS? Will OS/2 be available on
PowerPC-based computers?
[3-6] Can IBM-PC / Macintosh software be run on PowerPC-based
computers?
[4] Comparisons
[4-1] Should I buy a PowerPC system rather than a Pentium or 68k
system?
[4-2] What will be the differences between the various
PowerPC-based personal computers?
[5-1] What's the deal with Ford and the PowerPC?
[5-2] What's the deal with 3DO and the PowerPC?
[0] Introduction
[0-1] Where can a current copy of this FAQ be obtained?
This FAQ is posted monthly on comp.sys.powerpc, comp.answers, and
news.answers. It is also archived on the news.answers archives,
available for anonymous ftp from rtfm.mit.edu as
pub/usenet/news.answers/powerpc-faq. For other archive sites, see the
"news.answers Introduction" post. An automatically generated HTML
version of the FAQ is available on the WWW as:
http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/
powerpc-faq/faq.html
[0-2] Can I convert this FAQ to a different format and/or
redistribute it?
This FAQ may be redistributed as long as the following guidelines are
(a) You notify me by email that you are redistributing the FAQ.
(b) The attribution notice ("The PowerPC FAQ is maintained by ...") is
left intact.
(c) The instructions for obtaining current copies of the FAQ (question
[0-1]) are left intact.
(d) You use the latest version of the FAQ you can get.
(e) Any modifications (other than formatting) that you make are
clearly marked as such.
If you convert the FAQ to a different format, please email me a copy.
If it is impossible to email it, contact me for other arrangements.
If you are redistributing the FAQ and would like to get an up-to-date
copy each month via email, let me know, and I will add you to my
mailing
[0-3] What newsgroups are appropriate for PowerPC discussions?
Comp.sys.powerpc is the primary newsgroup for PowerPC discussion.
From the charter: "comp.sys.powerpc (unmoderated) will be a newsgroup
which will provide a common forum to users and developers of products
based on the PowerPC architecture."
The comp.sys.mac.* groups are appropriate for discussions of
PowerPC-based Macintoshes.
[0-4] What other FAQs contain PowerPC information?
The Macintosh PowerPC FAQ has been discontinued.
[0-5] What other net sources (ftp, gopher, etc.) contain PowerPC
information?
This section uses uniform resource locators (URLs) to refer to net
resources. For more information, see the World Wide Web (WWW) FAQ.
In general, for a URL of the form:
ftp://foo.bar.com/someDirectory/someFile
you should anonymous ftp to foo.bar.com, cd into someDirectory, and
get someFile. For a URL of the form:
gopher://foo.bar.com/path
you should gopher to foo.bar.com, and follow the path. URLs of the
http://foo.bar.com/path
indicate a hypertext document, which require a WWW viewer (such as
Mosaic) to read.
gopher://info.hed.apple.com/
Press releases and product information.
http://www.apple.com/
New WWW server -- still mostly empty.
http://www.info.apple.com/
The Apple Support and Information Web.
gopher://ocf.berkeley.edu/hh/gopherspace/Computer/Systems/
Macintosh/PowerMac_Products
A list of companies and products supporting the Power Macintosh.
(Maintained by Alan Coopersmith (alanc@ocf.berkeley.edu).)
http://www.ibm.com/
Press releases and product information (with lots of flashy
graphics).
gopher://gopher.ibmlink.ibm.com/
Press releases and the "IBM Announces" newsletter.
gopher://top.gopher.ibm.com/
IBM's main gopher server. You can get to the ike.engr site from
here by selecting "Other IBM Gopher Servers" and then "IBM Kiosk
for Education".
http://www.austin.ibm.com/
Technical and product information on the PowerPC and the RS/6000
gopher://ike.engr.washington.edu/
Press releases and product information.
http://ibm.tc.cornell.edu/
The IBM POWER Parallel Systems WWW server.
-- Taligent
http://www.taligent.com/
Taligent's WWW server. Overview of company objectives, products,
-- Miscellaneous
(mail server: library@poweropen.org)
The PowerOpen Association's mail server. For information, send
email with the word "help" in the body.
(mail server: add@power.globalnews.com)
http://power.globalnews.com/
PowerPC News is a Internet-based free magazine, publishing news
for both users and developers of PowerPC systems. To subscribe,
send email (no subject or body necessary). A table of contents
will be sent to you for each issue; you can request specific
articles via a mail server. Current and back issues are also
available at the WWW site.
There are two PowerPC roundtables on GEnie: PowerPC (PPC) on page
1435 and PowerPC programmers' on page 1440.
(CompuServe)
There is a PowerPC forum on Compuserve.
(America Online)
There is a Power Macintosh Forum (part of the Mac Hardware Forum).
(Fidonet)
There is a PowerPC echo (Area: POWERPC) for discussions about
"PowerPC hardware, software issues, availablity, RISC technology,
developers, and more. Covers both PC and Mac versions."
[0-6] Bibliography: where can I get more information on the PowerPC?
-- Manuals, databooks, etc.
Motorola publishes several brochures and manuals (free unless prices
specified):
PowerPC Brochure (BR1135/D)
PowerPC Software Overview (compilers, assemblers, simulators,
loaders & debuggers) (SDP/D)
PowerPC C Compiler System, Product Review (CCOMPSTM/D)
PowerPC Fortran compilation System, Product Review
(FTRANCOMPSTM/D)
PowerPC Architectural Simulator, Product Review (PPCARCH32/D)
PowerPC Microprocessor Family: The Programming Environments
(MPCFPE/AD) -- $3.70
PowerPC 601 RISC Microprocessor Technical Summary (MPC601/D)
PowerPC 601, User's Manual (MPC601UM/AD) -- $6.50
PowerPC 601 Hardware Specification (MPC601EC/D)
PowerPC 601 Programmer's Reference Guide (MPC601PRG/D)
(I've heard reports that this is no longer available.)
PowerPC Development Tools Catalog (MPCTOOLBK/AD) -- $4.50
PowerPC 603 RISC Microprocessor Technical Summary (MPC603/D)
PowerPC 603 RISC Microprocessor User's Manual (MPC603UM/AD)
PowerPC 604 RISC Microprocessor Technical Summary (MPC604/D)
All are available from Motorola's Literature Distribution Centers:
USA: Motorola Literature Distribution
Phoenix, AZ, 85036
Europe: Motorola Ltd.
European Literature Center
88 Tanners Drive
Blakelands, Milton Keynes, MK14 5BP, England
Japan: Nippon Motorola Ltd.
4-32-1, Nishi-Gotanda, Shinagawa-ku
Tokyo 141 Japan
Asia-Pacific: Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd.
Silicon Harbour Center
No. 2 Dai King Street
Tai Po Industrial Estate
Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong
PowerPC manuals and databooks are also available from IBM:
1-800-POWERPC
A PowerMac-specific manual, from APDA:
Programmer's Introduction to RISC and PowerPC (R0172LL/A) -- $150
{ Most of this info has been culled from the net. I haven't }
{ actually read all of these books :-) If you've read one of them }
{ and are willing to write a very short review (5-6 lines), let me }
{ know. - Derek (derekn@ece.cmu.edu) }
Jeff Duntemann and Ron Pronk, _Inside the PowerPC Revolution_;
Coriolis
Group Books; April 30, 1994; ISBN 1-883577-04-7.
Steve Heath, _NEWNES Power PC Programming Pocket Book_;
Butterworth-Heinemann; Nov. 1994; ISBN 0-7506-2111-7; $22.95.
[Similar information to the 601 user's manual.]
IBM, _IBM RISC System/6000 Technology_.
[Describes the POWER architecture and the POWER-based RS/6000
workstations.]
IBM, _PowerPC and POWER2: Technical Aspects of the New IBM Risc
System/6000_; Apr., 1994; IBM book number SA23-2737-00.
[Describes the PowerPC and POWER2 architectures and the workstations
based on these processors, including I/O, graphics, and system
software. (This was _RS/6000 Tech Vol. II_.) Available for around
$40 from IBM: 1-800-879-2755. Selected papers from this book are
available via the WWW at http://www.austin.ibm.com/tech.]
IBM, _PowerPC Architecture_; Oct., 1993; IBM book number SR28-5124-00.
[The official manual for the PowerPC architecture. Three parts:
instruction set architecture, virtual environment architecture, and
operating environment architecture.]
IBM, _The PowerPC Architecture, A Specification for a New Family
of RISC Processors_; Morgan Kaufmann Publishers; Aug. 1994; ISBN
["This is the official technical description of the PowerPC
architecture and its hardware conventions, developed jointly by IBM,
Motorola, and Apple."]
Dan Sydow, _Programming the Power PC_; M&T Books; Aug. 1994; ISBN
[Covers 601, 603, 604, as well as x86-to-PPC migration.]
Shlomo Weiss and James E Smith, _IBM Power and PowerPC: Architecture
Implementation_; Morgan Kaufmann Publishers; May 1994; ISBN
["Writtten from the perspective of developers and teachers of high
performance computing, this book provides a wealth of information
IBM's important contributions to the development and evolution of RISC
technology."]
???, _PowerPC Concepts, Architecture, and Design_; McGraw-Hill; 1994;
-- Papers, articles, etc.
Michael S. Allen, Michael C. Becker, "Multiprocessing Aspects of the
PowerPC 601 Microprocessor", Proc. COMPCON 1993, 117-126.
Michael C. Becker et al., "The PowerPC 601 Microprocessor", IEEE
Brad Burgess et al., "The PowerPC 603 Micrporocessor: A High
Performance, Low Power, Superscalar RISC Microprocessor", Proc.
COMPCON 1994, 300-306.
Linley Gwennap, "Prep Standardizes PowerPC Systems", Microprocessor
Report, Dec. 27, 1993.
Charles R. Moore, "The PowerPC 601 Microprocessor", Proc. COMPCON
E. Silha, G. Paap, "PowerPC: A Performance Architecture", Proc.
COMPCON
Ryan, Thompson, "PowerPC 604 Weighs In", Byte, June, 1994.
Michael Slater, "Motorola and IBM Unveil PowerPC 603", Microprocessor
Report, Oct. 25, 1993.
"The Making of the PowerPC" (special issue), CACM, June, 1994.
[0-7] Contributors.
The following people have contributed to this FAQ. (Please do not
contact them with questions about the FAQ.)
Alan Coopersmith (alanc@ocf.Berkeley.EDU)
Stuart Schechter
Robert Sprick (asrs@acad2.alaska.edu)
Yoshio Turner (yoshio@CS.UCLA.EDU)
[1] Processor
[1-1] What is a PowerPC?
A PowerPC is a microprocessor designed to meet a standard which was
jointly designed by Motorola, IBM, and Apple. The PowerPC standard
specifies a common instruction set architecture (ISA), allowing
anyone to design and fabricate PowerPC processors, which will run the
same code. The PowerPC architecture is based on the IBM POWER
architecture, used in IBM's RS/6000 workstations. Currently IBM and
Motorola are working on PowerPC chips.
The PowerPC architecture specifies both 32-bit and 64-bit data paths.
Early implementations will be 32-bit; future higher-performance
implementations will be 64-bit. A PowerPC has 32 general purpose
(integer) registers (32- or 64-bit) and 32 floating point (IEEE
standard 64-bit) registers.
NB: A PowerPC is not a computer, any more than an 80486 is a computer.
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@SUBJECT:PowerPC Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
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[1-2] How does PowerPC relate to POWER and POWER2?
As mentioned above, PowerPC is a direct descendant of POWER. POWER2
also a descendant of POWER, developed by IBM for use in their
workstations and other systems. POWER2 was released at roughly the
time as the first PowerPC chip. POWER2 is an eight-chip multi-chip
module (MCM) (four of these chips are cache) and is substantially
faster
than PowerPC, as well as substantially more expensive.
[1-3] What processors have been announced? What are their specs? When
will they be available?
PowerPC 601: The very first PowerPC. It was designed as bridge
between
the POWER architecture and the PowerPC architecture. For this reason,
it incorporates the user-level POWER instructions which were
eliminated
from the PowerPC specification.
PowerPC 601+: This is a 601, implemented in a 0.5u CMOS process. This
effectively means that it runs faster and draws less power.
PowerPC 603: A low-power processor, intended for portable
applications,
e.g., notebook computers. Performance is roughly comparable to the
(see below for benchmarks).
PowerPC 604: A higher-performance processor, intended for high-end
desktop systems.
PowerPC 620: An even higher-performance processor, aimed at high-end
systems and multiprocessors. The 620 is the first 64-bit PowerPC
implementation.
PowerPC 630: No details available on this chip yet. (Previously
referred to as the POWER 3 architecture.)
The 601 is manufactured by IBM and sold by both IBM and Motorola. The
603 is manufactured by both IBM and Motorola.
Processor Clk(MHz) Power(W) Price(US$)
Data Bus Func units Si Ship
Proc width width (I/FP/BP/LS) Cache Trans Process date date
MPC601 32 64 1/1/1/0 32 2.8 0.6u CMOS Oct92 Apr
MPC601+ 32 64 1/1/1/0 32 2.8 0.5u CMOS 2Q 94 Nov
MPC603 32 32/64 1/1/1/1 8/8 1.6 0.5u CMOS Oct93 Nov
MPC604 32 64 3/1/1/1 16/16 3.6 0.5u CMOS Apr94 Dec
MPC620 64 64/128 3/1/1/1 32/32 7 0.5u CMOS Oct94 2H
* Data width: width of the general purpose (integer/address)
registers and integer ALU(s), in bits
* Bus width: external memory data bus width, in bits -- the memory
bus can be, and often is, wider than the internal data path
* Functional units: I = integer unit
FP = floating point unit
BP = branch processing unit
LS = load/store unit
* Cache: On-chip cache in kilobytes - two numbers means
instruction/data; one number means unified
* Price: in US dollars, for large quantities
* Trans: number of transistors, in millions
* Si date: first silicon date
[1-4] What embedded controllers will be available?
IBM has announced the PowerPC 4xx embedded controller family. These
will be available as general purpose microcontrollers, application-
specific processors, and ASIC cores. The 4xx family will integrate
caches and other system-level logic to facilitate simpler and cheaper
designs. Performance or cost information is not yet available. One
chip, the PPC 403GA, has been announced.
Motorola has announced the RMCU500 family of microcontrollers. These
microprocessors will be "100% compatible" with the MPC600 series. The
first chip in this family, the RMCU505, will run at 25 MHz. Samples
of the 25 MHz chip are expected in 4Q 1994, with 40 MHz parts expected
by 4Q 1995. The RMCU505 consists of a PowerPC core, a 4 kB SRAM
module, and a multi-functional system integration unit (SIU) (similar
to the 68300 family).
[1-5] How fast is a PowerPC?
This table lists SPEC results for PowerPC machines, as well as a few
others, for comparison purposes. (SPEC is a benchmark suite designed
test system performance. The SPECint portion uses integer-only code,
e.g., compilers; the SPECfp program uses floating point code, e.g.,
circuit simulation.)
Processor Clock Cache int fp System
MPC601 50 MHz 0/32k 41.7 51.0 IBM RS/6000 N40
66 MHz 0/32k 62.6 72.2 IBM RS/6000 250
66 MHz 0/32k 63.7 67.8 IBM RS/6000 40P
66 MHz 256k/32k 75.1 77.0 IBM RS/6000 40P
80 MHz 0/32k 78.8 90.4 IBM RS/6000 250
80 Mhz 0.5M/32k 88.1 98.7 IBM RS/6000 41T &
80 Mhz 1M/32k 90.5 100.8 IBM RS/6000 C10
MPC601+ 100 MHz ?/32k 105 125 ? estimate
MPC603 66 MHz 1M/8k/8k 60 70 Motorola estimate
80 MHz 1M/8k/8k 75 85 Motorola estimate
MPC604 100 MHz ?/16k/16k 160 165 Motorola estimate
MPC620 133 MHz ?/32k/32k 225 300 estimate
i486DX2 66 MHz 256k/8k 32.2 16.0 Compaq Deskpro
i486DX4 100 MHz 256k/16k 51.4 26.6 Micronics M4P PCI
Pentium 66 MHz 256k/8k/8k 65.1 63.6 Compaq Systempro/XL
Pentium 90 MHz 512k/8k/8k 90.1 72.7 Intel XPRESS
Pentium 100 MHz 512k/8k/8k 100.0 80.6 Intel XPRESS
68040 33 MHz ? 18 13 Mac Q950
{ I'd like to list one or two more 040-based Macs here -- If anyone }
{ has Mac SPEC data, please let me know. }
* SPEC does not allow estimated figures. The lines which are marked
"estimate" are not officially SPEC numbers, and are likely to be
proven inaccurate when real machines are released.
* Cache numbers are in kB or MB: format is external/instruction/data
external/unified.
More information on the SPEC benchmark, including numbers for other
systems, is available in the newsgroup comp.benchmarks.
[1-6] Is there special hardware for emulating 68k or x86
processors?
All currently announced emulators are purely software. The PowerPC
architecture has a group of byte-reversing load and store instructions
which might be useful for emulating little-endian x86 processors on a
big-endian PowerPC system (such as an RS/6000 or a Power Macintosh).
There are no PowerPC processors with additional special hardware for
translating instructions from other processor families (but see the
question). In addition, because software emulation has been
reasonably
successful, it seems very unlikely that there will ever be hardware of
this type.
[1-7] What is the PowerPC 615?
The 615 was originally rumored to be a PowerPC processor, being
designed by IBM, which would contain special x86 processor emulation
hardware. IBM has denied that this project exists, and it seems
unlikely, given the work being put into software emulators.
The latest version of the rumor suggests that the 615 is being
designed
to fit into Intel OverDrive slots. This means that it could be
dropped
into an x86 motherboard, turning it into a PowerPC system. It will,
however, be a standard PowerPC processor, i.e., there will not be any
special emulation hardware.
[2] Hardware
[2-1] What PowerPC-based computers are/will be available? When will
they be available? How much will they cost?
-- Workstations
IBM offers a line of RS/6000 workstations and servers, based on
PowerPC processors. These all run AIX (IBM's UNIX), and are binary
compatible with all other RS/6000s, including POWER-based systems.
SPEC benchmark figures for some of these are listed in the table
model proc clk L2 RAM price date notes
- Desktop
250 601 66 - 16-256 5445 Oct 93 obsolete
- Notebook
- Server
* proc: number and type of processors
* clk: clock speed (MHz)
* L2: second-level cache (MB)
* RAM: memory configuration (MB)
* price: base price in US dollars
* date: ship date
Groupe Bull has announced three 66 Mhz 601 workstations, running BOS/X
(an AIX-compatible UNIX) Prices start at $5445.
Motorola has announced its PowerStack line of workstations and
servers. These are based on the PCI bus and run AIX. The 601-based
systems are built by Bull for Motorola; the others are built by
Motorola. Apparently, Motorola Computer Group is selling motherboards
only to OEMs, not to individuals. Contact Motorola at 1-800-759-1107
for info on these systems.
model proc clk L2 RAM price date notes
- Desktop
- Server
-- Personal computers: IBM / PReP
IBM has announced a line of Power Personal Systems (PPS). Three
models
have been demonstrated: a desktop system (601, PCI and ISA slots), a
small footprint desktop system (603, PCMCIA slots), and a laptop
system
(603). OS/2, Personal AIX, and Windows NT are exepcted to be
available
when these machines are released. They will also run Solaris and
Taligent when available. The originally announced release date for
PPSs was the second half of 1994, but in September, 1994, IBM
announced
that they were waiting for more native software to be ready, and the
systems wouldn't ship until sometime (various rumors say February or
first half) in 1995. No prices have been announced, but IBM has said
that they will be comparable to Pentium systems. Machines are
available
to developers through the IBM Power Personal Developer's Toolbox
Program
(call 1-800 627-8363, Ext. 25).
The Taiwan New PC Consortium (TNPC) demonstrated a 601-based
PReP-compliant personal computer, running OS/2 and Windows NT, at
in Germany (March 1994). Planned models will feature 50-80 MHz 601's
and 75 MHz 603's. The expected release date for the first models was
1994, but this seems to have slipped.
-- Personal computers: Apple
The first Apple Power Macintosh models were released on March 14,
All PowerMacs run System 7, just like the 68k Macs. They come with an
emulator which will allow them to run 68k Mac applications. Critical
parts of the Toolbox ROM code have been ported and run natively; the
remainder is emulated.
model proc clk L2 RAM price date notes
6100/60 601 60 opt 8-72 1800 Mar 94 1 NB
7100/66 601 66 opt 8-136 2900 Mar 94 3 NB
Performa 61xxCD 601 60 ? 8-? 2600 Oct 94
* NB slot = NuBus slot
Configurations are available with different RAM and hard disk sizes.
Some configurations are bundled with a CD ROM drive and/or SoftWindows
and/or various other software.
Server configurations, called the 6150, 8150, and 9150, are also
available. These currently run AppleShare 4.0.1. They will be able
run Novell's Processor Independent NetWare (PIN) 4 when it becomes
available.
Three types of upgrade from 68k Macs to the 601 are available from
Apple: a replacement logic board at 60, 66, or 80 MHz (prices range
approximately $1500 to $2000); a PDS board at double the clock speed
the original 68040 (for around $600); and a daughterboard which
replaces
the 68040 in low-end Macs with a double-speed (50 or 66 Mhz) 601
DayStar also offers various upgrade options.
Portable Power Macs are expected in early 1995.
-- Personal computers: other
Canon has announced that it will work with IBM on the PReP
specification. In particular, they plan to work on extensions to PReP
for PDA's and office products.
-- Controllers
Cetia (a subsidiary of Thomson-CSF) is selling VME single board
computers using 50-66 MHz 601's. Available OS's are UNI/XT (AIX) and
UNI/RT5 (LynxOS). The 50 MHz version sells for around $13000.
The Motorola Computer Group is planning to release a family of VME
boards sometime in 1994.
-- Supercomputers / parallel processors
Parsytec has announced that it will be combining PowerPC processors
Transputer communication processors in its multiprocessor systems.
These include:
- the MPP supercomputer series GC/PowerPlus (32-1024 601's, 2.5-80
GFLOPS)
- the desktop MPP series PowerXplorer (4-64 601's, 5 GFLOPS peak,
$70,000 per GFLOPS)
- the modular real-time product series MC-3
For more information, contact
Carsten Rietbrock
Parsytec GmbH
Product Marketing
Juelicherstrasse 338
52070 Aachen GERMANY
Tel.: +49-241-166000; Fax: +49-241-16600-50
ISG Technologies has announced a line of parallel processor-based
accelerators. The entry-level Pulsus uses 8 601's (clock speed
unspecified). The expected ship date is 4Q 1994.
-- Other systems
3DO has announced that its second generation game machine will use a
PowerPC processor. See "What's the deal with 3DO and the PowerPC?",
[2-2] What is PReP and how can I get a copy?
The PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) is a system standard, designed
IBM, intended to ensure compatibility among PowerPC-based systems
by different companies. The PReP standard specifies the PCI bus, but
will also support ISA, MicroChannel, and PCMCIA.
According to IBM, PReP-compliant systems will be able to run
WorkplaceOS, AIX, Solaris, Taligent, and Windows NT. IBM systems will
(of course) be PReP-compliant. Apple's first PowerPC Macs are not
compliant, but future Macs may be.
Version 1.1 of the PReP spec is available.
To obtain a copy of PReP specification (freely available to all
requesters), contact:
John Terwilliger
email: johntt@ausvm6.vnet.ibm.com
Include the following information:
Company, Division (if appropriate)
Address
Telephone number
Fax number
Internet address, if any
Type of business
Alternate contact
Alternate telephone number
Reason for request
Indicate you learned about this method via the comp.sys.powerpc
newsgroup
The PReP spec is also available on CompuServe (PowerPC forum, PReP
section) or by anonymous ftp (eight compressed PostScript files) in
ftp://ftp.austin.ibm.com/pub/technology/spec.
[2-3] What is the Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP)?
The CHRP is an open platform agreed on by Apple, IBM, and Motorola.
All CHRP systems will be able to run MacOS, OS/2-PPC, Windows NT, AIX,
and possibly others. CHRP machines will be compatible with PReP
machines and PowerMacs -- applications for PReP OS's (OS/2-PPC, AIX,
Windows NT) and the PowerMac (MacOS) will run (if you have the right
OS) on CHRP machines. More technical information will be available in
Prototype systems are supposed to arrive in 1995, and the first real
machines in 1996.
[2-3] Can PowerPC 601-based computers be upgraded to, e.g., a 604
when they become available?
The currently available 601-based systems (IBM RS/6000-250, Apple
PowerMac) are apparently not upgradeable. According to rumors, the
processors in some future PowerMacs may be on a replacable
daughterboard. Of course, motherboard upgrades will likely be
available for many of these machines.
IBM Power Personal Systems will have a 200-pin slot on the
motherboard,
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@SUBJECT:PowerPC Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
@PACKOUT:11-11-94
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apparently intended for a level-2 cache or a processor upgrade.
[2-4] Where can I get the specifications for the PCI bus?
The following documents:
PCI Spec Rev 2.0
PCI BIOS Spec Rev 2.0
PCI Sys Design Guide 1.0
PCI Local Bus Product Guide
are available for $25 each or $50 for the first three from:
PCI Special Interest Group
5200 N.E. Elam Young Parkway
Hillsboro, Oregon 97124-6497
[3] Software
[3-1] What operating systems will run on PowerPC-based computers?
When will they be available?
Several flavors of UNIX have been (or will be) ported to the PowerPC.
IBM's AIX has been available since October 1993. AIX 4.1, available
in August, 1994 is PowerOpen-compliant. There will also be a version
called Personal AIX, which will come without certain utilities and
development tools, for IBM's PC's.
Apple may or may not ship A/UX for the PowerPC.
Linux is currently being ported to the PowerMac. Note that this will
*not* be binary compatible with Intel x86 Linux. In October 1994, the
students doing the port announced that there would be a delay in the
porting effort due to lack of time, and trouble getting I/O specs from
IBM and SunSoft have signed an agreement which says that SunSoft will
port Solaris for PReP-compliant systems and IBM will distribute it. A
beta release was demonstrated at the Sydney Solaris Forum in August
1994. The PowerPC version of Solaris will have the same API as the
SPARC and x86 versions; most applications will run on the PowerPC with
only a recompile. SunSoft expects to release Solaris for PowerPC,
x86, and SPARC platforms before mid-1995.
Ports of NeXTStep and Novell UnixWare are rumored to be underway.
-- System 7
Power Macintoshes ship with System 7, just like 68k Macs. Critical
parts of the Toolbox (system code in ROM) has been ported to the
PowerPC; the remainder is emulated. Apple analyzed existing code to
determine the most frequently used Toolbox routines, and ported those
first. Presumably, all of the code will eventually be native.
Apple has begun licensing its Toolbox to other computer manufacturers.
This will be available as MAS and MAE (see the section on emulators
-- Windows
Windows NT has been ported to the PowerPC. The expected release date
-- Workplace and OS/2
(See "What is WorkplaceOS?" below.)
-- Others
Taligent (see "What is Taligent" below).
LynxOS is a real-time UNIX-like operating system, which has been
ported to Cetia's VME boards and IBM's forthcoming PReP systems.
Contact Lynx Real Time Systems at 408-354-7770.
name company base OS GUI endian avail
AIX 3.x IBM UNIX SysVR3 X+Motif big Oct 93
A/UX Apple UNIX SysVR2 X? ? ?
NeXTStep NeXT Mach2 + BSD4.3 DPS ? ?
Solaris 2.x SunSoft SysVR4 X+Motif little mid 95
System 7 Apple custom custom big Mar 94
Windows NT Microsoft custom custom little 1Q 95
OS/2 - PPC IBM Mach3 + custom custom little 95
Taligent Taligent custom custom? ? 95
UnixWare Novell SysVR4 X+Motif ? ?
Linux Gnu Pub Lic ? ? ? ?
LynxOS Lynx ? ? ? ?
[3-2] What is PowerOpen?
The PowerOpen Association defines and promotes the PowerOpen
Environment (POE). The POE is a standard for UNIX-like operating
systems running on PowerPC processors. The POE is not an operating
system, it is a definition containing an application program interface
(API) specification as well as an application binary interface (ABI)
specification. The presence of the ABI specification in the POE is a
factor distinguishing PowerOpen from other open systems (POSIX, XPG4,
etc.) since it allows achievement of platform independent binary
compatibility. Any POE-compliant operating system will be able to run
all POE software. Outside of the POE, binary compatibility is
typically limited to a particular hardware platform.
The POE is an open standard, derived from AIX and conforming to
industry open standards including POSIX, XPG4, Motif, etc. The POE
specification will be publicly available to anyone wishing to produce
either applications or hardware platforms. The PowerOpen Association
will provide the necessary conformance testing and POE branding.
The key features of the POE follow:
* Based on the PowerPC architecture
* Hardware bus independence
* System implementations can range from laptops to supercomputers
* Requires a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system
* Networking support
* X windows extension
* Macintosh Application Services extension
* Conformance tested and certified by an independent party
(PowerOpen Association)
The POE specification is targeted for availability in the first
quarter
of 1994. The PowerOpen association has some information available
online, including membership information; for retrieval instructions,
send mail containing the word "help" to:
library@poweropen.org
NB: PowerOpen is not itself an operating system -- it is only a
*standard* for operating systems.
The PowerOpen Association consists of IBM, Motorola, Apple, Bull,
Thomson-CSF, Harris, TadPole Technology, and others.
The PowerOpen specification applies to UNIX-like operating systems.
AIX 4.1, available in August, 1994 is PowerOpen-compliant. Apple's
System 7 will not be PowerOpen-compliant.
For more information contact Gordon Kass (g.kass@poweropen.org) or
Chris Adams (c.adams@poweropen.org).
[3-3] What is Taligent / Pink?
Taligent is a company founded jointly by Apple and IBM in March 1992.
HP announced in January, 1994 that it would buy a 15% stake in
Taligent.
They are working on an "object-oriented operating system", due to be
finished sometime in 1995.
The first software due to be released by taligent is the Taligent
Application Environment (TalAE). TalAE is "a portable application
system consisting of a comprehensive set of reusable object-oriented
software frameworks". According to reports, TalAE will be available
HP-UX, AIX, OS/2, and later versions of System 7.
Pink is an older name for Taligent, dating back to work that Apple did
before the formation of Taligent.
[3-4] Will NeXTStep be ported to the PowerPC?
NeXTStep has been ported to the RS/6000 (POWER architecture), but is
commercially available. According to rumors, NeXTStep has been seen
running on PowerPC machines. No official announcement has been made
NeXT as to availability.
Sun has announced that it will incorporate OpenStep, a version of
NeXTStep, in Solaris. SunSoft has announced that they are porting
Solaris for PReP-compliant systems, so OpenStep will presumably be
available. The OpenStep API specification is available in
ftp://ftp.next.com/pub/OpenStepSpec.
[3-5] What is WorkplaceOS? Will OS/2 be available on
PowerPC-based computers?
Workplace is a microkernel-based architecture (based on Mach 3)
developed by IBM. Workplace will be used as the foundation for
several different operating systems.
The first of these will be OS/2 for the PowerPC. (The development
name for this system was WorkplaceOS or WPOS.) OS/2-PPC will be
source code compatible with OS/2-x86 for 32-bit applications, i.e.,
32-bit OS/2 applications will run natively after recompiling. 16-bit
OS/2 applications will have to be ported to 32-bit before
reompilation. OS/2-PPC will provide an emulator for MS-DOS and
Windows code (see below), however it will not emulate OS/2-x86 code.
The first alpha release of OS/2-PPC was sent to developers in Nov.,
1994. The release version is expected some time in 1995.
"If you're an IHV or OEM, and plan to support OS/2 For PowerPC, do we
have a deal for you. You can fill out an application for the OS/2 For
PowerPC beta program, and if you qualify, we will train you and send
you your own free PowerPC loaner (for one year) preloaded with OS/2
For PowerPC. You can fill out an application at Comdex, or download it
from the DUDE, at (407) 982-3217, N81. Stop by and see us at Comdex
for more information on the IHV/OEM OS/2 For PowerPC loaner program.
--Steve, OS/2 For PowerPC IHV/OEM Support, Boca Raton"
[from CompuServe]
[3-6] Can IBM-PC / Macintosh software be run on PowerPC-based
computers?
Several emulators have been announced. Generally, these are intended
run Macintosh or MS-DOS/Windows applications under the various native
operating systems.
-- Macintosh
Macintosh Application Services (MAS), supported by Apple, allows
PowerOpen-compliant OS's to run Mac applications. MAS includes a
emulator and a PowerPC port of the Mac toolbox, so it will run both
and PowerPC Mac binaries. MAS has been demonstrated on IBM's PowerPC
personal systems.
Apple, in cooperation with Sun and HP, has released the Macintosh
Application Environment (MAE). MAE allows Mac applications to run on
Sun SPARCstations and HP 9000 series 700 workstations. MAE emulates a
68LC040, but critical parts of the Toolbox run natively. MAE is
similar
to MAS, but will only be able to run 68k binaries. More information,
well as a demo version for Solaris and HP-UX machines, is available in
ftp://abs.apple.com/pub/abs/mae.
Executor, produced by ARDI, is currently available for NeXTStep and
NeXTStep/Intel, and will soon be available for MS-DOS, and Sun and
workstations. Executor emulates a 68040-based monochrome Macintosh
running System 6. Version 2.0 is supposed to offer 8-bit color and
System 7 features. ARDI uses reverse-engineered Toolbox code, i.e.,
was written from scratch from the interface specs. For this reason,
it easily portable -- expect to see it ported to other platforms
(including the PowerPC) in the near future.
Power Macintoshes have the built-in capability to run 68k Mac
software.
The 68k application code will be emulated, but critical parts of the
system code have been ported. The emulator emulates a 68LC040 without
the FPU.
-- MS-DOS/Windows
Wabi, produced by Sun, runs under UNIX/X. It emulates x86 code, and
translates Windows calls to X calls. IBM is working on an 80386
translator. Support has been announced for Solaris and AIX. Wabi is
based on the public specs for the Windows ABI. (Wabi originally stood
for "Windows Application Binary Interface" -- it's spelled "Wabi", not
"WABI", for trademark reasons.) This has been demonstrated on IBM's
PowerPC personal systems.
SoftPC and SoftWindows, produced by Insignia, run under several OS's:
Mac OS, Windows NT, NeXTStep, and various other UNIX flavors. It
emulates 80286/80287 code and Windows calls. Insignia has licensed
the Windows source code from Microsoft. SoftWindows 2.0, which will
provide 486 emulation, is expected in early 1995.
OS/2 for the PowerPC (which was also known as WorkplaceOS) will run
MS-DOS and Windows code via the Instruction Set Translator (IST), an
instruction-caching x86 emulator. OS/2-PPC will not directly run
OS/2-x86 code.
[4] Comparisons
[4-1] Should I buy a PowerPC system rather than a Pentium or 68k
system?
Apple is committed to making their Power Macintoshes feel just like
the 68k Macs, but faster. It looks like they will eventually switch
the entire Mac line over to the PowerPC. If you plan to buy a new
Mac, this is probably the way to go.
A Pentium system will run existing x86 code faster than a 601 will
emulate it. If you need to run x86 code as fast as possible, buy a
Pentium box.
On the other hand, many x86 applications will probably be ported to
the PowerPC. The extent of this porting will likely determine the
success of the PowerPC in the personal computer market.
In terms of pure performance (whatever that is), it looks like there
will be a fairly close race between the PowerPC family and the Intel
x86 family. The Intel-HP agreement promises to make things even more
interesting. Only the future will tell whose chips and whose systems
will be the fastest.
[4-2] What will be the differences between the various
PowerPC-based personal computers?
It looks like there will be two major types of PowerPC-based personal
computers (note, this is not counting workstations): the Apple
Macintosh
line, and PReP-compliant machines. The basic hardware will not be
fundamentally different -- the real difference will be in the
supported
operating systems for each class.
It is still unclear whether Apple is going to produce Macs which will
conform to the PReP standard, and whether the Mac OS will run on PReP
machines. The potential exists for a standard which would allow any
PowerPC-based machine to run any PowerPC operating system; whether
will happen remains to be seen.
[5-1] What's the deal with Ford and the PowerPC?
Ford and Motorola have signed an agreement resulting in a custom
PowerPC
to be used by Ford as a powertrain controller. Details on this chip
not available.
[5-2] What's the deal with 3DO and the PowerPC?
3DO, the video game company, is working with Motorola and IBM to
develop a custom PowerPC chip for their game machines. An upgrade
board, including this new processor, will be avaiable some time in
1995. 3DO will get the first crack at the chip, but it will also be
made available to other customers.
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Archive-name: quotations/part1
Version: 2.0.2
Original-author: jgm@cs.brown.edu (Jonathan Monsarrat)
Maintainers: dok@fwi.uva.nl (Sir Hans) and jrnewquist@ucdavis.edu
Newquist)
Last-change: 1994.10.14 by dok@fwi.uva.nl (Sir Hans)
Changes-posted-to: alt.quotations,alt.answers,news.answers
The All New alt.quotations FAQ
by Sir Hans and Jason Newquist
I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.
Rudyard Kipling (1865-
_Just So Stories_ (1902) ``The Elephant's
0. Metastuff, credits and some other standard FAQfare
0.1 What's this?
0.2 Who are the creators of this FAQ?
0.3 Who's to thank for those additional bits and corrections?
0.4 Where can I get the latest version?
0.5 What will happen with the FAQ in the future?
1. Getting started
1.1 What is a quotation?
1.2 What is a great quotation?
1.3 What is not a quotation?
1.4 What are the standards for good quotation citation?
2. alt.quotations newsgroup
2.1 What is it?
2.2 What is netiquette?
2.3 What is appropriate to post to a.q?
2.4 How do I compose a good subject header for my post?
2.5 What is an OBQuote?
3. FTP sites
3.1 What are FTP sites?
3.2 Where are they, and what is on them?
3.3 How can I contribute to these sites?
3.4 What is the Bibliophiles project?
4. The Quotations Listserver at UC Davis
4.1 What is it?
4.2 How do I join and participate?
4.3 How do I unsubscribe?
5. loQtus: the WWW Quotations Page at UC Davis
5.1 What is it?
5.2 What is the WWW (World Wide Web)?
5.3 How do I access loQtus?
5.4 What is available on loQtus?
5.5 How can I contribute to loQtus?
6. Textual resources
6.1 What are DoQs (Dictionaries of Quotations)?
6.2 What DoQs exist?
6.3 Are there other resources?
7. Programs [section under construction]
7.1 What programs are available for the Macintosh?
7.2 What programs are available for IBM-compatibles?
8. Frequently Asked Quotations
8.1 Who said ``...''?
0. Metastuff, credits and some other standard FAQfare
----0.1 What's this?
Whence and what art thou, execrable shape?
John Milton (1608-
_Paradise Lost_ (1667) bk. 2,
The alt.quotations FAQ. It gives answers to frequently asked
questions (that's what FAQ stands for), sums up some frequently
(and posted) quotations, and is a small guide to quotations and
related
subjects in general--or at least it tries to be all this. If you
new to this group and want to post here, or merely wish to peruse
for any length of time, you should definitely read through this
carefully. If you have a question about a quotation, look
carefully
through section 8 to see whether the answer may not be there.
----0.2 Who are the creators of this FAQ?
Little Lamb who made thee?
Dost thou know who made thee?
William Blake (1757-
_Songs of innocence_ (1789) ``The
Sir Hans (dok@fwi.uva.nl) and Jason Newquist
(jrnewquist@ucdavis.edu). Jason did the ``techie'' bits: sections
4, and 5. Sir Hans admits to having written the rest, though all
good bits in section 8 have been written by intelligent, nice, and
omniscient people, most of whom are mentioned in the next answer.
Also, the old alt.quotation FAQ was a little bit more than just an
inspiration for this one.
----0.3 Who's to thank for those additional bits and corrections?
A joyful and pleasant thing it is to be
thankful.
Book of Common Prayer
In no particular order:
Jonathan Monsarrat and Michael Moncur (creators of the original
Alfred M. Kriman
Col. G. L. Sicherman
William C. Waterhouse
Dwayne Day
Douglas Zongker
Jeff Shepherd
Lars Jorgen Aas
Patrick Faricy
Michael Binder
If you think you should be mentioned, but aren't, tell us so.
----0.4 Where can I get the latest version?
This strange disease of modern life,
With its sick hurry.
Matthew Arnold (1822-
``The Scholar-Gipsy'' (1853)
The FAQ will posted every two weeks to alt.quotations,
alt.answers
and news.answers, and on Jason Newquist's WWW Quotation Page
loQtus
(see section 5).
----0.5 What will happen with the FAQ in the future?
I have been over into the future, and it works.
Lincoln Steffens (1866-
in _Letters_ (1938) vol. 1,
The FAQ is quite large; it will probably be split up, as some
``canonical'' lists of quotations by perennial favorites like Yogi
Berra and Groucho Marx that are requested rather often and very
rarely
surprise, except perchance by gross inaccuracy or malevolent
stupidity,
will be added as well.
1. Getting started
----1.1 What is a quotation?
Quotation, n. The act of repeating erroneously
words of another. The words erroneously repeated.
Ambrose Bierce (1842-
_The Devil's Dictionary_
According to Tony Augarde in his preface to _The Oxford
Dictionary
of Modern Quotations_ a quotation is ``a saying or piece of
writing
that strikes people as so true that they quote it (or allude to
speech or writing'', to which I would add ``or add it to their
personal
collection''--at least this is the case with many readers of
alt.quotations. Quotations are either famous in their own right
utterances by (generally speaking) someone famous. Quotations can
maxims, aphorisms, striking fragments of poetry, humorous or
impressive
prose and remarks, coinages of new phrases or ideas, remarks at
historical events, putdowns of others, famous last words or
anything
else which is worth repeating on its own, possibly with some
comment on
when, where, and on who.
----1.2 What is a great quotation?
A good aphorism is too hard for the tooth of time,
is not worn away by all the centuries, although it
serves
as food for every epoch.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-
_Miscellaneous Maxims and Opinions_ (1879)
A great quotation is one that makes you want to chime in with
Wilde and say ``I wish I had said that.''[1]
A great quotation is one that highlights a point about the
condition or of reality with style and in such a way as to present
in a new light. This tentative definition of mine obliterates any
chance that two people will agree on what is a great quotation,
that's realistic. It's all up to you. If you can read a
particular
quotation over and over again, each time deriving pleasure and
knowledge from the words--chances are, that's a great quotation.
quotations should be shared. Post them, write them in .sigs, get
out there. It is my opinion that there are precious few great
quotations and that they should be shared whenever possible.
----1.3 What is not a quotation?
Fun is a good thing but only when it spoils
nothing
better.
George Santayana (1863-
_The Sense of Beauty_ (1896) ``The
Basically, anything not covered by 1.1, but specifically
(as in variation on Murphy's Law, the Peter Principle[2]--those
attained ``quotation'' status, due to their well-knownness and the
fact that they're attributable (and more or less original) are not
appreciated, as are other humorous variations on real quotations.
Jokes and fulldeckisms belong in rec.humor. Fragments from movies
television series are often not appropriate, only being able to be
appreciated by fans of the series (but check out 2.3). Of course
always there are exceptions--_Casablanca_ has now a few firmly
entombed
entries in _Oxford_, for example, but this is--and should, in _my_
arrogant opinion, remain--an exception.
----1.4 What are the standards for good quotation citation?
I distrust all systematisers, and avoid them. The
to a system shows a lack of honesty.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-
_G\"otzen-D\"ammerung [The Twilight of the Idols]_
``Maxims and Missiles''
A quotation really must have an author, unless it's a very
known ``anonymous'' statement, such as the one describing
television
programs as ``chewing gum for the eyes.''[3] If you know birth
death years of the author, give those as well, and if the author
only a person of minor fame, telling us who she or he is would be
There is always great interest in as complete sources, so if
know the book, play, or whatever else your quotations come from,
them as well.
If you quote from the Koran or the Bible or another large,
well-known ``anonymous'' work, you can give the title of the work
the ``author'', and give the book, chapter, verse, etc. in the
reference line.
We here at the Institute for Experimental Quotology have
developed
a special format to keep one's quotations in. The advantages are
manifold and will become apparent upon inspection. Unfortunately
there are also one or two minor disadvantages, such as the fact
you practically have to be either a rocket scientist or me to
understand it. Anyhow, adherence to this standard _would_ be nice
appreciated. If you do have comments, ideas or whatever to
improve it,
or to radically reorganize it, do not hesitate to e-mail me (Sir
at dok@fwi.uva.nl.
The system:
``@A: '' author and birth/death information. Giving the last name
the author first will allow for easy sorting. When you are sure
quotation is exact, append an asterisk (``*'') to this line.
``@Q: '' the quotation come directly after this. If verse is
quoted,
indicate empty lines with a ``.''
``@T: '' if the original quotation is from a foreign language, and
happen to know the original as well, the original appears after
``@Q: '', and the translation in this field. If you don't know
original, put the translation in the ``@Q: '' field.
``@D: '' this is the field to give particulars with regard to the
quotation that do not actually comment on the quotation itself,
including date, and whether it is an ``attributed'' remark.
``@R: '' the reference for the quotation; i.e. not ``Letter to
Smith'' or ``Speech at the MIT'' (these should go into the ``@D:''
field) but a work where the quotation can be found. Titles of
are given in Italic type (here represented by starting and ending
an underscore ``_''). Titles of pieces appearing as part of a
published volume appear inside double inverted commas (``''). An
``in'' means that the line is quoted in that work. A default
line looks like this:
@R: _Name of Publication_ (date) ``name of piece'' place in
publication
Standard abbreviations used are:
bk. book
ch. chapter
no. number
para. paragraph
pt. part
sc. scene
sect. section
st. stanza
subsect. subsection
v. verse
vol. volume
The book, part, chapter etc. numbers can always appear in arabic.
What's the use of old-fashioned roman numerals?
``@%: '' possibly needed comment on the quotation, e.g. explaining
the quotation is about, or giving some useful info (``She died
minutes
``@K: '' keywords; you shouldn't place the complete set of nouns
but something descriptive of the idea behind the quotation, or the
subject. There are also extended keywords: a sort of higher level
keyword to allow subjects to be grouped together, like literature
famous people. A possible keyword line would look like this:
@K: literature:poetry; people:Milton, John
The keyword line is often neglected by people who do not want to
their days being bored to death.
On indentation: for prose, start the first line on the same line
``@Q:'' in the ninth column, and any subsequent lines in the fifth
column. Left-align poetry, and start in the ninth column; an
exception
could be made in cases where the poem depends on its shape--though
would usually take us outside the quotation range and into the
copyright-infringment range, size-wise speaking. If you have
thought
of a way to quote from Mary Ellen Solt's ``semiotic poems'' in
ASCII, I
don't want to hear from you. You're probably scary.
Some examples:
@A: Acheson, Dean (1893-1971) *
@Q: Great Britain has lost an Empire and has not yet found a
@D: [1962.12.05] Speech at the Military Academy, West Point
@R: in _Vital Speeches_ 1 January 1963, p. 163
Note the format on the ``@D: '' line: it allows for easy sorting
date. The asterisk behind the name indicates exactness.
@A: Anne, Princess (1950-)
@Q: It's a very boring time. I am not particularly maternal--
an occupational hazard of being a wife.
@D: [1981] TV interview
@%: On pregnancy.
@K: pregnancy
Here the use of the ``@%: '' field becomes apparent. The keyword
seem redundant, but the as-yet-hypothetical archive will be the
better
for it, allowing easy retrieval of quotations on a subject. This
quotation is from somewhere on the net, and I am therefore less
sure of the exactness, hence no asterisk.
@A: Li Yeh (fl. 8th cent.) *
@Q: It is good to get drunk once in a while.
What else is there to do?
@R: ``A Greeting to Lu Hung-Chien'' in Kenneth Rexroth and Ling
(ed. and tr.) _The Orchid Boat, Women Poets of China_ (1972)
A rather different ``@R:'' line here. That's what you get when
quote from obscure people.
2. alt.quotations newsgroup
----2.1 What is it?
News is what a chap who doesn't care much about
anything wants to read. And it's only news until he's
it. After that it's dead.
Evelyn Waugh (1903-
_Scoop_ (1938) bk. 1,
alt.quotations is a newsgroup for everything related to
quotations;
it is read, and contributed to by people from all over the world.
you have questions regarding the author of a quotation, or want to
share your favorites, have a question about the meaning or
background
of a quotation, or simply want to read some quotations posted by
various contributors, this is the place to be. You can also
discuss
software and books on quotations here, or anything else, as long
somehow has to do with quotations.
----2.2 What is netiquette?
Good manners are the settled medium of social, as
specie is of commercial, life; returns are equally
expected
for both.
Lord Chesterfield (1694-
_Letters to his Son_ (1774) 25 December
If you are new to the net, it is recommended that you spend
time reading the documents from the group news.announce.newusers.
These will explain everything you need to know. In short,
netiquette
is the usenet equivalent of good manners, and like in real life,
people
who do not conform to them are not likely to be appriciated much
community. Remember that you are far more likely to receive an
answer
to a request if it is in written in proper English, well formatted
if you don't ask people to reply by e-mail (bear in mind that your
fellow readers may well be interested in seeing the quotations as
----2.3 What is appropriate to post to a.q?
The inappropriate cannot be beautiful.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-
_The Future of Architecture_
Anything mentioned in 2.1. One-liners, ``laws'', funny
limericks
about people from Nantucket and so on belong in rec.humor (see
1.3). If you have a request for quotes from a television series
movies, you are probably better off asking in groups on that
subject.
A good list of movie quotes, maintained by Lars Jorgen Aas can be
on the following two FTP sites:
cathouse.org in pub/cathouse/movies/database
ftp.funet.fi in pub/culture/tv+film/lists
If you want to have the lyrics for a particular
pop/rock/whatever-
these-youngsters-listen-to-today-song, your best bet is to check
the following FTP site:
ftp.uwp.edu in pub/music/lyrics
There are quite a few different lyrics there. Alternatively, ask
around on one of the many music groups--there's bound to be one on
favorite kind of music.
----2.4 How do I compose a good subject header for my post?
Our inventions mirror our secret wishes.
Lawrence Durrell (1912-
_Mountolive_
Stay to the point, indicate if you are requesting something,
you follow-up to something, check whether the header is still
relevant.
If it isn't you should edit the header so that it has your
subject, but
keep the old one there in square brackets.
Many people type the kind of post in caps, followed by a colon and
a brief explanation. For example:
REQUEST: Shakespeare
ANNOUNCE: quotations web page
QUOTES: Tom Stoppard
more colorfully...
**IDENTIFY**: mystery quote on bananas
You get the idea. Bad subjects include ``quotations'' or
``help'', as
this doesn't tell the public much of anything. If you are
specific,
odds are you will garner more responses then just a general cry in
dark bleakness of cyberspace.
----2.5 What is an OBQuote?
Noblesse oblige. [Nobility has its
obligations.]
Gaston Pierre Marc, Duc de L\'evis (1764-
_Maximes et Reflexions_ (1812
``Morale: Maximes et Prceptes''
Whenever you feel the need to post to alt.quotations, and your
posting does not already include a quote added by you in the
course of
posting or answering, it is considered good manners to supply a
anyway--this is, after all, alt.quotations. This quote is known,
usually announced accordingly, as an ``obligatory quote''--an
OBQuote for short. In alt.quotations, your wittiness is judged by
relevancy of your OBQuotes.
3. FTP sites
----3.1 What are FTP sites?
The night sky over the planet Krikkit is the least
interesting sight in the entire Universe.
Douglas Adams
_Life, the Universe, and Everything_
FTP is ``file transfer protocol''. It is a very commonly used
of moving information from one computer on the internet to
another. An
``FTP site'' is a computer that accomodates file transfer
protocol. In
one way of thinking, there are two kinds of FTP sites. The less
useful
of the two requires that you have an account set up with the
facility
which manages the site. The more useful allows anyone to gain
access
to a region of the computer. These are referred to by the term
``anonymous FTP sites'' and, in internet parlance, things which a
can gain access to on these sites are said to be ``available via
anonymous FTP''.
How does one gain access? I could go into rigorous detail,
that will take too much space. I refer you to one of the several
line guides to the internet which explain these matters in depth.
----3.2 Where are they?
I can't say I've ever been lost, but I was
bewildered
once for three days.
Daniel Boone (1734-
Attributed
The largest place I know is at:
wilma.cs.brown.edu
If you want a wide array of stuff, that's the place. FTP over
login as ``anonymous'' and include your e-mail address as your
password. Go into the ``pub'' directory and thence to
``alt.quotations''. You will need to know how to decompress the
so I heartily recommend taking the time to read the on-line info
discussed in question 3.1. Another place is known warmly as the
``Yoyo''. The address is:
yoyo.cc.monash.edu.au
There you can find Tim MacKenzie's fortunes and other items. Go
pub/quotes once there. See also 2.3 for the location of the movie
quotes list.
We know of no other FTP sites.
----3.3 How can I contribute to these sites?
It is more blessed to give than to receive.
``Acts of the Apostles'' ch. 20,
You need to contact the persons in charge of the sites.
Normally,
they readily accept items. Here are the e-mail addresses of the
current persons in charge:
FTP at Brown: Jonathan Monsarrat
FTP at Yoyo: Tim MacKenzie
tym@dibbler.cs.monash.edu.au
----3.4 What is the Bibliophiles project?
He had been eight years upon a project for
extracting
sunbeams out of cucumbers, which were to be put in
hermetically sealed, and let out to warm the air in
inclement summers.
Jonathan Swift (1667-
_Gulliver's Travels_ (1726) ``A Voyage to Laputa, etc.''
It is a project based at Brown designed to get a large number
quotations in a uniform format so that programs can be written to
advantage of, manipulate, and add to them. There is a bit of a
division over exactly what format is best, but the one in this FAQ
probably eclipse the current, more limited, one used at Brown.
idea is to gather a group of people together who will process
quotations by hand, making them readable in the new format. This
time-intensive project, to be sure, and requires lots of effort.
can help relieve the bibliophiles of this effort by posting
quotations,
when possible, in the suggested format given above. If you'd like
volunteer to be a bibliophile, contact Jason.
4. The Quotations Listserver at UC Davis
----4.1 What is it?
He must be heard--and also seen; for if he played
behind the scenes a great deal of the poetry of his
playing
would be lost.
Robert Schumann (1810-
Zeitschrift_
On Franz
The Quotations Listserver is designed for people who want to
occasional and periodic quotations in their mailbox. These
postings
range from single quotations-of-the-day to weekly quotations to
monthly
batches and other, less-frequently (often topical) batches. The
listserver is a place to distribute to a large number of people
instantly. At last count, the listserv goes out to about 200
subscribers.
The listserv encourages contributions, but asks that you limit
traffic to quotations dissemination--limiting discussion to the
alt.quotations newsgroup and through private e-mail means. The QL
administered by Jason Newquist.
----4.2 How do I join and participate?
Silentium, stultorum virtus. [Silence is the
virtue of
Francis Bacon (1561-
_De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum_ (1623) bk. 6, ch. 3,
``The Antitheta of Things'' no. 30 {tr. Gilbert Watts,
The first thing you should do if you want more information is
get the ``infofile'' from the UCD listprocessor. To do that, you
to send an e-mail message. Here are the details:
Send to: listproc@ucdavis.edu
Subject: >>LEAVE BLANK<<
Body: info quotations
You will get probably all the information you will ever want to
about the QL from this file. But since we are all about
information
here on the net, let's get down to brass tacks. Here is the brief
to subscribe:
Send to: listproc@ucdavis.edu
Subject: >>LEAVE BLANK<<
Body: subscribe quotations

Once you do this, you should get an immediate reply processed by
UCD listserver program. It is a ``welcome file'' which mentions
contribute and unsubscribe etc.
To contribute, you send mail to a _different_ address. Everything
mailed to this address will reach all the subscribers so it is
intended
for quotations only:
Send to: quotations@ucdavis.edu
Subject: >>WHATEVER YOU WANT<<
Body: >>WHATEVER YOU WANT<<
E-mail me (jrnewquist@ucdavis.edu) with problems and questions, Do
_not_ mail listproc@... or quotations@... with questions! I
welcome
your questions, so please do not hesitate to mail away!
----4.3 How do I unsubscribe?
What is there more of in the world than anything
Carl Sandburg (1878-
_The People, Yes_
Easy. Send an e-mail message:
Send to: listproc@ucdavis.edu
Subject: >>LEAVE BLANK<<
Body: unsubscribe quotations
That will do it! You will get a confirmation notice.
5. loQtus: the WWW Quotations Page at UC Davis
----5.1 What is it?
I wrote my name at the top of the page. I wrote
the number of the question ``1''. After much
reflection I
put a bracket round it thus ``(1)''. But thereafter I
could not think of anything connected with it that was
either relevant or true.
Sir Winston Churchill (1874-
_My Early Life_ (1930)
loQtus is the ``latticed on-line Quotations user service''.
a hub for all things quotable on the World Wide Web. loQtus is
located
in the Center for Advanced Information Technology at the
university of
California, Davis. It is comprised of several web pages. Its'
http://pubweb.ucdavis.edu/Documents/Quotations/homepage.html
----5.2 What is the WWW (World Wide Web)?
Man did not weave the web of life;
he is merely a strand in it.
Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself.
Seattle (c.1786-
Remember back in the FTP section when I referred you to some
on-line or published paper documents which explain the internet?
get them back out. If you want a comprehensive explanation of the
I suggest that you look there! If you don't know what it is, you
should find out about it, because you can access everything that
available via FTP, gopher, telnet through the WWW--as well as
special
``pages'' that are WWW-readable only. loQtus is accessible only
through the WWW.
Suffice it to say that the WWW is able to arrange text in
different
fonts and sizes, display graphics and animations, and play sounds
(depending of course on your computer set-up).
----5.3 How do I access loQtus?
Lasciate ogni speranza voi ch'entrate! [Abandon
hope, you who enter!]
Dante Alighieri (1265-
_La Divina Commedia [The Divine Comedy]_ (1310-
``Inferno'' canto 3,
You need a machine that is directly on the internet, or a slip
TCP/IP connection with a machine that is directly on the internet.
With such a set-up, you should be able to use the popular Mosaic
browsing'' software. You need Mosaic (or something similar like
fine Macintosh program MacWeb) to access the WWW on these
machines.
Winweb and Cello are two alternative programs for the PC. Both
much easier to set up than Mosaic.
If you have an account on a Unix machine, you may be able to
program called ``lynx'' which offers a text-only version of the
For more information, see your local information technology
people, or
just try to type ``lynx'' at your unix prompt.
----5.4 What is available on loQtus?
As I was walking among the fires of Hell,
delighted
with the enjoyments of Genius; which to Angels look
torment and insanity. I collected some of their
Proverbs.
William Blake (1757-
_The Marriage of Heaven and Hell_ (1790-
loQtus has a host of archives (almost 2 megabytes worth) of
undiluted quotations. These clearly make up the centerpiece of
loQtus. loQtus also features a list of quotations resources on
internet, including links to all the sites mentioned in this
document.
loQtus is an archival site for ``back issues'' of popular daily
weekly quotations which appear on the Quotations Listserver and on
alt.quotations. A more detailed list is in progress and will
appear in
the next version of this FAQ.
----5.5 How can I contribute to loQtus?
It is rather to be chosen than great riches,
unless I
have omitted something from the quotation.
Robert Benchley (1889-
``We're just a phone call away.'' Well, an e-mail message.
loQtus
is maintained by Jason Newquist (jrnewquist@ucdavis.edu). e-mail
with any ideas that you have. If you collect quotations, please
contact me! I am very interested in any sorts of collections that
might have (especially if sorted by author or subject, but
anything
6. Textual resources
----6.1 What are DoQs (Dictionaries of Quotations)?
It is a good thing for an uneducated man to read
of quotations.
Sir Winston Churchill (1874-
_My Early Life_ (1930)
Dictionaries of quotations. There are several types: some are
intended mainly to allow the user to find out the who, what, and
regarding well-known quotations (these are normally arranged by
author), some are there to help the speaker or writer to find
sayings'' to support her or him (often subject-based), and others
meant more to be read through and enjoyed by the reader (you'll be
lucky if you can detect any order at all). In practice these
distinctions are not that sharp--even the major DoQs for
referential
use have their share of the more obscure and interesting, and some
the latter type are actually useful if you want to find a source
something. Some DoQs are subject-based as well, and whether
interested in love, war, or music, you'll be able to find one
about it.
If you're seriously interested In quotations you will definitely
to have at least either _Bartlett's Familiar Quotations_ or _The
Oxford
Dictionary of Quotations_; see below for details.
----6.2 What DoQs exist?
Il buono, il bruto, il cattivo. [The good, the
and the ugly.]
Scarpelli,
Luciano Vincenzoni
and Sergio Leone
Title of film
This is a bibliography of the DoQs in our possession. Entries
marked with [Michael] have been written by the former FAQ
maintainer
Michael Moncur, with some merely ornamental editing by me (Sir
[SH] should be obvious. If you have a favorite DoQ, or any at
all, and
can add to this list, please send e-mail to dok@fwi.uva.nl (Sir
or jrnewquist@ucdavis.edu (Jason Newquist). See below for more
specific instructions.
[MM] Michael Moncur (mgm@xmission.com)
[PF] Patrick Faricy (patrick@usa.net)
[SH] Sir Hans
21st Century Dictionary of Quotations
Published: 1993
Publisher: Laurel Books
Editor: ``The Princeton Language Institute''
Scope: Subject-based quotations
Number of quotations: 6000
Well. If there's any DoQ which can lay a claim on being a worthy
contender in the ``Big Two'' class, this is it. Not.
This DoQ must surely rank as one of the most shockingly bad yet
produced. For starters, there are no sources at all,
misquotations
abound, and once more it is demonstrated that ``experts comprising
linguists, lexicographers, writers, teachers, and businesspeople''
have the utmost trouble discerning Samuel Butler and Samuel Butler
Thomas Fuller and Thomas Fuller, besides having looked a little
extensively in _The International Thesaurus of Quotations_. Also
a mention is the debilitating ``unique conceptual index to
facilitate
access to related ideas.'' If this is truly the level of ``21st
century reference'' I think I'll go and kill myself on December
2000. Sigh. Not recommended. [SH]
The 637 Best Things Anybody Ever Said
Published: 1982
Publisher: Fawcett Crest / Ballantine (Random House)
Editor: Robert Byrne
Scope: Chosen by author.
Robert Byrne has compiled a volume of quotations which he finds to
possess ``insight, surprise, wit, pith, or punch.'' No attempt is
to be comprehensive. The quotations are arranged in
``sequential''
order, meaning that they vaguely relate to the ones around them.
does include an index by author and subject, though. This book,
its sequels, are my personal favorite collections. [MM]
The Other 637 Best Things Anybody Ever Said
Published: 1984
Publisher: Ballantine (Random House)
Editor: Robert Byrne
Scope: Chosen by author
Sequel to the above work. Same concept, new quotations. [MM]
The Third-and Possibly the Best-637 Best Things Anybody Ever Said
Published: 1986
Publisher: Ballantine (Random House)
Editor: Robert Byrne
Scope: Chosen by author
Yet another 637. [MM]
The Fourth-and by far the Most Recent-637 Best Things Anybody Ever
Published: 1990
Publisher: Atheneum/Macmillan Publishing Company
Editor: Robert Byrne
Scope: Chosen by author
The cover says that Robert Byrne ``Just can't seem to stop'',
seems true. It's been three years, though--Let's hope there's a
volume coming. All four of these are of equal value in my
opinion.
Bartlett's Familiar Quotations (16th edition)
Published: 1992 (1st edition 1855)
Publisher: Little, Brown
Editor: Justin Kaplan
Scope: All quotations, choice based on familiarity.
Number of quotations: 20000
This is the first of the ``Big Two''. It has a few thousand more
quotations, and is more fun to leaf through than _Oxford_,
probably
because the authors are organized on year of birth, making the
slightly more coherent and giving an interesting insight when
comparing
authors. The disadvantage of this approach is of course that it
becomes slightly more difficult to locate a certain person (can
remember off-hand when Antigonus or Archibald MacLeish was born?)
Unfortunately, often only translations are given from foreign
quotations, and the references could have been more exact, just
giving
``Last words'' is not very helpful. The index is very good, and
600 pages (twice as large as the one in _Oxford_). Anyway, it's
looks gorgeous, has the most quotations of any DoQ I know of, and
can spend a lot of money on it (the last has not been universally
recognized as an advantage). [SH]
Bloomsbury Dictionary of Quotations (2nd edition)
Published: 1991 (1st edition 1987)
Publisher: Bloomsbury
Editor: John Daintith et al.
Scope: Quotations, based on interestingness
Number of quotations: 10500
Well, well, well... Don't you all just love _The Little, Brown
Book of
Anecdotes_? So do the Bloomsbury people apparently, for quite a
the quotations in this DoQ have been ripped from that work.
Otherwise
there are good descriptions of the quotees, okay indexes and some
original quotes, though some are rather stupid, and seem to be
included
merely to have more and different authors than anybody else. [SH]
The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations (1st edition)
Published: 1993
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Editor: Robert Andrews
Scope: Subject-based quotations
Number of quotations: 18000
Well. If there's any DoQ which can lay a claim on being a worthy
contender in the ``Big Two'' class, this is it.
This DoQ claims to have more than 11,000 quotations which ``have
before appeared in a general quotation book'', which makes this
less of use for those of us who wish to find the sources of
particular
quotations, but for others, especially freaks who already have all
other DoQs and want to see some new ones (go read a good book,
dammit!), this makes it an interesting purchase--if they're
absolutely
loaded, coz it ain't cheap. [SH]
Concise Dictionary of Quotations
Published: 1992
Publisher: Bloomsbury
Editor: Anne Stibs and John Daintith
Scope: Subject-base and author-based quotations
Number of quotations: 6000
A nice diverse selection of quotations, with a bit more
originality
than ordinarily found in second rank works. Okay index, and good
description of authors, but some quotations appear twice, both
the name of the author and under a subject... cheap, cheap, cheap
don't know if they've been included in the total count twice, but
rather inclined to think so.) [SH]
A Curmudgeon's Garden of Love
Published: 1989
Publisher: NAL Books
Editor: Jon Winokur
Scope: Cynical, mostly humorous, on love.
Number of quotations: 500 (?--it's a _very rough estimate)
Much like _The Portable Curmudgeon_, but a bit more specialized.
sources or anything, and some semi-humorous interviews and
assorted
pieces. People who like this sort of thing will find this the
sort of
thing they like.[4] Oh, it's rather expensive too (I picked it up
about $2, but the cover price is $16.95) [SH]
A Dictionary of Contemporary Quotations
Published: 1982
Publisher: David & Charles
Editor: Jonathon Green
Scope: Post WW2, based on interestingness
Number of quotations: 7000
As Mr Green tells us in ``A note on sources'', he didn't think it
his while to spend too much time finding original citations, and
many occasions none is present at all. The quotes themselves are
reasonably interesting, and there is much here you won't find
somewhere else. The only index is one of names. Oddly, Mr Green
decided it would be useful to place birth and death years of
people in
the index only, and to give their occupation or claim to fame with
quotation itself (incidentally, the giving of the latter is
definitely
a Good Thing). Another disadvantage is the fact that it looks
horrendously ugly. Overal quality: not too high, but if you can
it up cheap, you won't go too far wrong. [SH]
The Dictionary of Humorous Quotations
Published: 1949. Was still in print in 1989.
Publisher: Doubleday (1949), Dorsett Press (1989)
Editor: Evan Esar
Scope: Humorous quotations, chosen by author.
This is one of the many quotation dictionaries that are basically
collected ``favorite quotes'' of the author. It is arranged by
author,
and includes a subject index. [MM]
A Dictionary of Musical Quotations
Published: 1985
Publisher: Routledge
Editors: Ian Crofton and Donald Fraser
Scope: Music
Number of quotations: 3000
If you like classical music and are interested in quotations, you
not go wrong with this one. Lovers of other styles of music are
a disappointment--there are some entries on the Beatles and reggae
such like, but that's about it, while on the other hand some
rather
obscure classical composers do have their own entry. [SH]
Good Advice by Safire and Safire
Published: 1982
Publisher: Times Books, division of Quadrangle/The New York
Book Co. Inc.
Editors: ?
Scope: Quotations of ``good advice''
Number of quotations: 2000
The Safire brothers have compiled a wonderful collection of quotes
alphabetized according to topic. The quotes are culled from
ancient
and modern sources and provide diverse opinions on meaningful ways
living. Unfortunately, only the author is listed, not dates or
further
sources of the quotation. [PF]
The International Thesaurus of Quotations (1st edition)
Published: 1970
Publisher: Harper & Row
Editor: Rhoda Thomas Tripp
Scope: Subject-based quotations
Number of quotations: 16000
If your aim is to find quotations on subjects, this it the one to
Very good indexes for authors, quotes, and keywords, surprisingly
references for each quote (something one doesn't expect in a DoQ
this type), though again no originals of foreign quotations.
Reasonably
cheap and recommended. [NOTE: There is a second edition of this
but I do not have it; from what I have seen it is a sound and
sequel, with a more modern range of subjects.] [SH]
Isaac Asimov's Book of Science and Nature Quotations
Published: 1988
Publisher: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Editor: Isaac Asimov and Jason A. Shulman
Scope: Science and nature (are you surprised?)
Number of quotations: 2000
No sources, no proper index, some incredibly debilitating
platitudes,
many errors. I can't handle it. In short: No. [SH]
Like a Fish Needs a Bicycle
Published: 1992
Publisher: Bloomsbury
Editor: Anne Stibbs
Scope: by and about women
Number of quotations: 3000
Like the _Concise Dictionary of Quotations_ by Bloomsbury,
quotations
are organized by keywords and by author, the first all more or
directly related to women, and from people of both sexes, the
second
all from (and on those) women and on more diverse subjects. If
interested in the subject (and who isn't?) this isn't too bad.
The New International Dictionary of Quotations (1st edition)
Published: 1986
Publisher: Signet
Editor: Hugh Rawson and Margaret Miner
Scope: ``a bias . . . towards the tried and true''
Number of quotations: 3700
Subject based. Weakish sources. Weaker index. Some nice
``backtracking'' of a few quotations, though this has mainly been
borrowed from other DoQs. Nothing special really.
[NOTE: A second edition has recently come out, but I haven't as
taken a good look at it.] [SH]
The New Penguin Dictionary of Quotations
Published: 1992 (original 1960)
Publisher: Penguin
Editors: J. M. Cohen and M. J. Cohen
Scope: All, chosen on familiarity
Number of quotations: 14000
A sort of would-be _Oxford_ this, but not quite as good. Almost
the references lack a date, which is common among the lesser DoQs,
for something on this level of pretentiousness it is a weak point.
The index is good enough. Unfortunately, ``to save space lines of
verse are run on and the divisions between lines are indicated by
oblique strokes.'' This looks ugly. Bit of a bland one, overall,
you should be able to find it quite a bit cheaper than others of
size. [SH]
The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations
Published: 1991
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Editor: Tony Augarde
Scope: Quotations from people alive after 1900, chosen on basis
familiarity.
Number of quotations: 5000
The right stuff! Here at last we find proper references for
everything--no annoying ``Letter to Mrs Wotsit'' as source, but
work in which the quote is to be found. An excellent index,
originals
of non-English quotations but no Oscar Wilde (why did he have to
die in 1900? Boo.) It is very much more a work of reference than
to read through though. [SH]
The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (4th edition)
Published: 1992 (original 1941)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Editor: Oxford University Press
Scope: All quotations, chosen based on familiarity.
Number of quotations: 17000
This is the other of the ``Big Two'' quotation books. Any fan of
quotations should have it available. Like all quotation books, it
by no means comprehensive, but it attempts to be, and is at least
diverse. Not a book to be read cover to cover, but a good
reference
for looking up particular quotes. Quotes are arranged by author.
includes a _large_ (approximately 300 pages) and comprehensive
subject
index. [But see _Bartlett's_ -SH] [MM, ed. by SH]
Qua research this one is the best, as far as I know. There are
complete sources for everything, so that we are not just told that
said something in a speech, but we also get to know where we can
it up for ourselves, should we be thus inclined. Something new in
4th edition (and lacking in, e.g. _Bartlett's_) is a one-line
description of almost all persons quoted. Get it or regret it.
The Pan Dictionary of Famous Quotations (revised edition)
(first published as _The Modern Dictionary of Quotations_ (1962))
Published: 1989
Publisher: Grange Books
Editor: Robin Hyman
Scope: All, chosen on familiarity
Number of quotations: 6000
First of all, ``technical'' details concerning this dictionary are
bit vague, and I have also seen the complete text of it under a
different name (an NTC reference work or something like that)
possibly
the rights for this are very cheap, something which would not
surprise
me, given the lack of quality (amusingly, of the 4 quotes given on
backside of my edition, one is misquote, and another is attributed
incorrectly. Also, there we are told that the _index_ contains
25,000 entries. Who are they trying to fool?) It seems to be
rather
outdated as well, despite the claim that it's a ``revised
edition''.
If you want a nice DoQ, there are many better choices. If you
then why are you reading this? Go away. [SH]
The Portable Curmudgeon
Published: 1987
Publisher: NAL Penguin Inc. (US), New American Library of Canada
Editor: Jon Winokur
Scope: Cynical, mostly humorous.
These are ``outrageously irreverent'' quotations from people the
author
considers Curmudgeons (Cynical, irascible, cantankerous). It is
organized by subject, with additional sections devoted to
frequently-contributing curmudgeons (W.C. Fields, Dorothy Parker,
Lebowitz, and Groucho Marx to name a few). No index. A book
intended
to be read cover-to-cover. [MM]
Respectfully Quoted
Published: 1993
Publisher: Barnes & Nobles
Editor: Suzy Platt
Scope: Mainly political
Number of quotations: 2100
This DoQ contains quotes that have been inquired upon at one time
another by Members of Congress and their staff, and have been very
solidly researched (mostly) by Congressional Research Service of
Library of Congress. For this reason, it claims to be more useful
other DoQs; in my opinion this in only the case of you're a Member
Congress yourself--many quotes are rather specific. It also
contains
somewhat longer pieces (it's the only DoQ with the complete
``Desiderata'' (see below) that I know of), and not infrequently
longer explanations of the history of certain quotations. If
really, really serious about your quotations, you should have this
one--even if your name isn't Oliver North. [SH]
This list is by no means comprehensive, but we'd like it to
you have any books of quotations (any subject or theme), please
send me
the following information so that it can be added to this list:
* Full Title
* Publication date (original printing and most recent, if
possible)
* Publisher (and distributor)
* Editor(s) or Author(s)
* Scope (theme: i.e. Humorous, Military, Feminist, etc.)
* Number of quotations
* Library of Congress and/or ISBN numbers if available
* A brief review
If you disagree with one of the reviews, or simply think you
better, you may want to write a short piece yourself and mail it
and I will add it as well (after all, even _we_ are not entirely
perfect.)
----6.3 Are there other resources?
The resources of civilization against its enemies
not yet exhausted.
William Ewart Gladstone (1809-
Speech at Leeds, 7 October
in H. W. Lucy (ed.) _Speeches of . . . Gladstone_ (1885)
Forbes Magazine: Every issue contains a great list of quotes
organized
according to a pertinent topic on the last page of the magazine
``Thoughts on the Business of Life''.
7. Programs [***SECTION UNDER CONSTRUCTION--SUGGESTIONS
APPRECIATED***]
----7.1 What programs are available for the Macintosh?
Maxims are the condensed good sense of nations.
Sir James Mackintosh (1765-
----7.2 What programs are available for IBM-compatibles?
Software suppliers are trying to make their
software
packages more ``user-friendly''. . . . Their best
approach,
so far, has been to take all the old brochures, and
the words, ``user-friendly'' on the cover.
Bill Gates
8. Frequently Asked Quotations
----8.1 Who said ``...''?
Misquotation is, in fact, the pride and privilege
the learned. A widely-read man never quotes
accurately,
for the rather obvious reason that he has read too
widely.
Hesketh Pearson (1887-
_Common Misquotations_ (1934)
introduction
Lord Acton (1834-1902)
(John Emerich Edward Dahlberg, 1st Baron Acton)
Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
Letter to Bishop Mandell Creighton, 3 April
in Louise Creighton _Life and Letters of Mandell Creighton_
Do note:--
Unlimited power is apt to corrupt the minds of those who
possess
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (1708-
Speech
_Hansard_ (House of Lords) 9 January 1770,
W. H. Auden (1907-1973)
Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone,
Prevent the dog from barking with a juicy bone,
Silence the pianos and with muffled drum
Bring out the coffin, let the mourners come.
Let aeroplanes circle moaning overhead
Scribbling on the sky the message He Is Dead.
Put crepe bows round the white necks of public doves,
Let the traffic policemen wear black cotton gloves.
He was my North, my South, my East and West.
My working week and my Sunday rest,
My noon, my midnight, my talk, my song;
I thought that love would last forever; I was wrong.
The stars are not wanted now: put out every one;
Pack up the moon and dismantle the sun;
Pour away the ocean and sweep up the wood;
For nothing now can ever come to any good.
_Twelve Songs_ (1936) ``Funeral
This one's become very popular on alt.quotations recently,
something we have to blame the movie _Four Weddings and a Funeral_
in which it is recited. Is ``Funeral Blues'' the title Auden gave
the poem?
Gelett Burgess (1866-1951)
I never saw a Purple Cow,
I never hope to see one;
But I can tell you anyhow,
I'd rather see than be one!
_The Burgess Nonsense Book_ (1914) ``The Purple
Ah, yes! I wrote the ``Purple Cow''--
I'm sorry now I wrote it!
But I can tell you anyhow,
I'll kill you if you quote it!
_The Burgess Nonsense Book_ (1914)
``Confessional''
Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good
do nothing.
This has not been found in his works; there is no known source for
and it has been suggested (in _Bartlett's_) that ``it might be a
twentieth-century paraphrase'' of
When bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will
one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle.
_Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents_
which sounds like a good guess to me.
Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965)
After a heated argument on some trivial matter Nancy [Astor] .
shouted, ``If I were your wife I would put poison in your
coffee!''
Whereupon Winston with equal heat and sincerity answered, ``And if
were your husband I would drink it.''
Consuelo Vanderbilt Balsan _Glitter and Gold_ (1952)
Jeff Shepherd remarked that this reference was to be found in _The
Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations_, and it was--under Nancy
From another source I have heard that this conversation was
supposed to
have taken place at around 1912, at Blenheim Palace, so one would
expect an earlier source if this really took place.
The other, even more popular, bit of Churchill lore we've seen
quite a lot of times is the following exchange:
[Braddock:] Mr Churchill, you are drunk.
[Churchill:] And you madam, are ugly. But I shall be sober
tomorrow.
in W. Manchester _The Last
To Elizabeth Margaret (``Bessie'') Braddock, MP, according to
I'm not sure if Braddock is mentioned in the rendering of this
anecdote
in _The Last Lion_. Both of these stories are described as false
George Thayer in a review of a book about Churchill in _The
Washington
Post_ 27 April 1971, p. B6. Thayer spent a year as a research
assistant to Randolph Churchill on the biography of Sir Winston
Churchill.
Arthur C. Clarke (1917-)
When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that
something is
possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that
something
is impossible, he is very probably wrong.
_Profiles of the Future_ (1962; rev.
``Hazards of Prophecy: The Failure of
Imagination''
Clarke's
First Law
On which he commented:
Perhaps the adjective ``elderly'' requires definition. In
physics,
mathematics, and astronautics it means over thirty; in the other
disciplines, senile decay is sometimes postponed to the forties.
are, of course, glorious exceptions; but as every researcher just
of college knows, scientists of over fifty are good for nothing
board meetings, and should at all costs be kept out of the
laboratory!
_Profiles of the Future_ (1962; rev.
``Hazards of Prophecy: The Failure of
Imagination''
But the only way of discovering the limits of the possible is
venture a little way past them into the impossible.
_Profiles of the Future_ (1962; rev.
``Hazards of Prophecy: The Failure of
Imagination''
Clarke's
Second Law
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from
_Profiles of the Future_ (1962; rev.
``Hazards of Prophecy: The Failure of
Imagination''
Clarke's Third
The third one especially has been the unlucky victim of many
alterations. Which we've all seen before in alt.quotations many
Clarke adds: As three laws were good enough for Newton, I have
modestly
decided to stop there.
A post with the ``first law'' invariably gets followed up with one
mentioning this:
When, however, the lay public rallies round an idea that is
denounced by distinguished but elderly scientists and supports
idea with great fervor and emotion--the distinguished but elderly
scientists are then, after all, probably right.
Isaac Asimov (1920-
_Fantasy & Science Fiction_ 1977
[magazine]
In answer to Clarke's
First Law
John Donne (c.1571-1631)
No man is an Island, entire of it self; every man is a piece
Continent, a part of the main; if a clod be washed away by the
Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if
manor of thy friends or of thine own were; any man's death
diminishes
me, because I am involved in Mankind; And therefore never send to
for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee.
_Devotions upon Emergent Occasions_ (1624) ``Meditation
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored
little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a
great soul has simply nothing to do.
_Essays: First Series_ (1841) ``Self-
Reliance''
_Immortality_. I notice that as soon as writers broach this
question they begin to quote. I hate quotation. Tell me what you
_Journals_ May
See also ``Success'', _post_.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)
But when I said that nothing had been done I erred in one
important
matter. We had definitely committed ourselves and were halfway
our ruts. We had put down our passage money--booked a sailing to
Bombay. This may sound too simple, but is great in consequence.
one is committed, there is hesitancy, the chance to draw back,
always
ineffectiveness. Concerning all acts of initiative (and
creation),
there is one elementary truth the ignorance of which kills
countless
ideas and splendid plans: that the moment one definitely commits
oneself, the providence moves too. A whole stream of events
issues
from the decision, raising in one's favor all manner of unforeseen
incidents, meetings and material assistance, which no man could
dreamt would have come his way. I have learned a deep respect for
of Goethe's couplets:
Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it.
Boldness has genius, power and magic in it.
This, starting with ``Until one is . . .'', and in a mutilated
form, is
often attributed to Goethe here on the net. Michael Binder (whose
email address I've lost) has found the origin in William Murray
Scottish Himalayan Expedition_ (1951).
Then indecision brings its own delays,
And days are lost lamenting o'er lost days.
Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute;
What you can do, or dream you can, begin it;
Boldness has genius, power and magic in it.
These lines occur in the 1835 translation of _Faust_ pt. 1 (1808)
John Anster. They're spoken by the Manager in the ``Prelude at
Theatre'', and appear to be a somewhat free translation of the
original.
John Gillespie Magee, Jr. (1922-1941)
Oh! I have slipped the surly bonds of earth,
And danced the skies on laughter-silvered wings;
Sunward I've climbed, and joined the tumbling mirth
Of sun-split clouds,--and done a hundred things
You have not dreamed of--Wheeled and soared and swung
High in the sunlit silence. Hov'ring there
I've chased the shouting wind along, and flung
My eager craft through footless halls of air...
Up, up the long, delirious, burning blue
I've topped the wind-swept heights with easy grace
Where never lark or even eagle flew--
And, while with silent lifting mind I've trod
The high untrespassed sanctity of space,
Put out my hand, and touched the face of God.
``High Flight''
Ogden Nash (1902-1971)
I think that I shall never see
A billboard lovely as a tree.
Indeed, unless the billboards fall,
I'll never see a tree at all.
Ogden Nash (1902-
_Happy Days_ (1933) ``Song of the Open
This poem, by the way, is based on the poem that starts with
I think that I shall never see
A poem lovely as a tree.
Joyce Kilmer (1886-
_Trees and Other Poems_ (1814)
Martin Niem\"oller (1892-1984)
When Hitler attacked the Jews I was not a Jew, therefore, I
was not
concerned. And when Hitler attacked the Catholics, I was not a
Catholic, and therefore, I was not concerned. And when Hitler
attacked
the unions and the industrialists, I was not a member of the
unions and
I was not concerned. Then, Hitler attacked me and the Protestant
church--and there was nobody left to be concerned.
in _Congressional Record_ 14 October 1968, p.
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose.
An evil soul, producing holy witness,
Is like a villain with a smiling cheek,
A goodly apple rotten at the heart.
O, what a goodly outside falsehood hath!
_The Merchant of Venice_ (1596-1598) act 1, sc. 3, l.
Hath not a Jew eyes? hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions,
senses, affections, passions? fed with the same food, hurt with
same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same
warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer, as a Christian
you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh?
you poison us, do we not die? and if you wrong us, shall we not
revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in
_The Merchant of Venice_ (1596-1598) act 3, sc. 1,
George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
You see things; and you say ``Why?'' But I dream things that
were; and I say ``Why not?''
_Back to Methuselah_ (1921) pt. 1,
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)
I met a traveler from an antique land
Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,
Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,
And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read.
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed;
And on the pedestal these words appear:
``My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!''
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare,
The lone and level sands stretch far away.
``Ozymandias''
Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
On his ``last words'': The oft-quoted
Ah, well, then, I suppose that I shall have to die beyond my
in R.H. Sherard _Life of Oscar Wilde_ (1906)
When a huge fee for an operation was
mentioned
as it appears in _TODoMQ_ is not regarded as very accurate by
scholar Richard Ellman; his report in _Oscar Wilde_ (1988) runs
To Willie's widow, Lily, and her new husband, Teixeira de
Mattos,
Wilde said, ``I am dying beyond my means. I will never outlive
century. The English people would not stand for it. I am
responsible
for the failure of the Exhibition: the English went away when they
me there so well-dressed and happy. The English know this too,
they will not stand me any more.'' . . . To Alice Rothenstein
remarked, ``I can't even afford to die.''
Ellman's sources are _St James's Gazette_ 6 My 1905; [Raymonds
Rickets _Oscar Wilde: Recollections_ (1932) 59; A. [Douglas] _St
James's Gazette_ 3 March 1905; Housman _Echo de Paris_ 32; M. Ross
_Friend of Friends_
All this took place around October 1900, at least a full month
before
Wilde's death. Another frequently (mis-)quoted line is
My wallpaper and I are fighting a duel to the death. One or
other of us has to go.
in Frank Harris _Oscar Wilde: His Life and Confessions_ (1930) p.
To Claire de Pratz, 29 October
Which was in fact said a month before his death on 30 November
So, no Famous Last Words for Oscar. In fact, about the last
quotable
thing that Wilde said (excepting the case that your idea of
``quotable'' includes stuff like
``Aaaaaaghaaaaaaaaaaaarhrghhgl''), is
as far as I know
``You ought to be a doctor,'' he said to Turner, ``as you
always
want people to do what they don't want to.''
28 November
Two days before his death, when he was already rather ill. Not
dramatic though.
A small step
That's one small step for [a] man; one giant leap for mankind.
Neil Armstrong
First words spoken by a man walking on the moon, 20 July
He didn't realize he had screwed up the line until after he got to
Earth, according to the book _Chariots for Apollo_ by Charles R.
Pellegrino and Joshua Stoff (not the NASA Technical Memorandum on
same subject and with an identical title). It was when presented
a plaque by the builders of the LM that he pointed out their
mistake in
failing to include the ``a'' at which point he was told that the
was not in the tapes. He insisted (at that time) that he had said
The first words said upon _landing_ on the moon were ``Contact
Okay, engine stop. ACA out of detent. Modes control both auto,
descent engine command override, off. Engine arm off. 413 is
Then from Mission Control: ``We copy you down, Eagle.'' Eagle:
``Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed.'' Source:
Dooling ``L+25: A Quarter Century After the Apollo Landing'' in
Spectrum_ July 1994, p. 25. The words from the Eagle were also
spoken
by Armstrong.
Go placidly amid the noise and haste
Go placidly amid the noise and haste, and remember what peace
may be in silence. As far as possible, without surrender, be on
terms with all persons. Speak your truth quietly and clearly; and
listen to others, even to the dull and ignorant; they too have
story. Avoid loud and aggressive persons, they are vexations to
spirit. If you compare yourself with others, you may become vain
bitter, for always there will be greater and lesser persons than
yourself. Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. Keep
interested in your own career, however humble; it is a real
possession
in the changing fortunes of time. Exercise caution in your
business
affairs, for the world is full of trickery. But let this not
blind you
to what virtue there is; many persons strive for high ideals, and
everywhere life is full of heroism. Be yourself. Especially do
feign affection. Neither be cynical about love; for in the face
aridity and disenchantment it is as perennial as the grass. Take
kindly the counsel of the years, gracefully surrendering the
things of
youth. Nurture strength of spirit to shield you in sudden
misfortune.
But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings. Many fears are
of fatigue and loneliness. Beyond a wholesome discipline, be
gentle
with yourself. You are a child of the universe no less than the
and the stars; you have a right to be here. And whether or not it
clear to you, no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should.
Therefore be at peace with God, whatever you conceive Him to be.
whatever your labors and aspirations, in the noisy confusion of
keep peace with your soul. With all its sham, drudgery and broken
dreams, it is still a beautiful world. Be careful. Strive to be
Max Ehrman (1872-
``Desiderata''
From _Respectfully Quoted_ (see below): ``There has been confusion
about the authorship of this poem. In 1956, the rector of St
Church in Baltimore, Maryland, used the poem in a collection of
mimeographed inspirational material for his congregation. Someone
printing it later said it was found in Old St Paul's Church,
Baltimore,
dated 1692. The year 1692 is the founding date of the church and
nothing to do with the poem, which was written in 1927. It was
widely
distributed with the 1692 date. . . . --Fred D. Cavinder,
``Desiderata'', _TWA Ambassador_, August 1973, pp. 14-15''
It's better to burn out than to fade away
My my, hey hey
Rock and roll is here to stay
It's better to burn out
Than to fade away
My my, hey hey
Neil Young
_Rust Never Sleeps_ (1979
``My My, Hey Hey (Out of the
This is the oldest source I have heard of for this standard
version.
These words are also uttered in the movie _Highlander_, and they
quoted by Kurt Cobain in his suicide letter. As someone on a.q
pointed out, a much older similar line is
It is better to wear out than to rust out.
Richard Cumberland (1631-
in G. Horne _The Duty of Contending for the Faith_ (1786) p.
which may or may not be the original from which it is derived. An
older, similar looking line that more or less expresses the
opposite is
It is better to marry than to burn.
``I Corinthians'' ch. 7,
May the road
May the road rise to meet you.
May the wind be ever at your back
May the Good Lord keep you in the hollow of His hand.
May your heart be as warm as your hearthstone.
And when you come to die
may the wail of the poor
be the only sorrow
you'll leave behind.
May God bless you always.
anonymous
``An Irish
in Ralph L. Woods _A Third Treasury of the Familiar_ (1970)
Another version--which is the version most often mentioned in
alt.quotations--runs thus:--
May the road rise up to meet you.
May the wind be always at your back,
May the sun shine warm upon your face,
And the rains fall soft upon your fields,
And, until we meet again
May God hold you in the palm of His hand.
Every once in a while, somebody wants to know about the full text
this ``Irish blessing''. The origin of the fascination remains a
mystery to me.
Success
He has achieved success who has lived well, laughed often and
much; who has enjoyed the trust of pure women, the respect of
intelligent men and the love of little children; who has filled
niche and accomplished his task; who has left the world better
than he
found it, whether by an improved poppy, a perfect poem, or a
rescued
soul; who has never lacked appreciation of earth's beauty or
failed to
express it; who has always looked for the best in others and given
the best he had; whose life was an inspiration; whose memory is a
benediction.
Bessie A. Stanley
in _Notes and Queries_ July
This quotation was tracked down for certain by Anthony W. Shipps
_Notes and Queries_ for July, 1976. It was written in 1905 by
Bessie
A. Stanley and was the first-prize winner in a contest sponsored
the magazine _Modern Women_. Shipps notes that _It is still
quoted
from time to time in American magazines and newspapers, but it is
often attributed to Emerson. Shipps says that ``The versions
printed
in the two local newspapers in 1905 do not agree, and in the many
appearances in print which I have seen, the wording has varied
somewhat. However, the essayist's son, Judge Arthur J. Stanley,
of Leavenworth, writes me that the correct text is the one given
eleventh edition (1937) of _Bartlett's Familiar Quotations_.''
the one that is here also, folks, thanks to William C. Waterhouse
wrote practically all of this).
Three kinds of lies
On the remark ``There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned
and statistics.'':
The following information comes from Ralph Keyes _Nice Guys
Finish
Seventh_ (HarperCollins, 1992) pp. 49-50.
``In his autobiography, Mark Twain attributed the remark . . . to
Disraeli. . . . [It] has also been attributed to Henry
Labouch\`ere,
Abraham Hewitt, and others. No one other than Twain is known to
credited Disraeli with making the comment. British statistician
Bibby once appealed to his colleagues for a reliable source of the
saying. The best anyone could come up with was this 1896 comment
member of the Royal Statistical Society: ``We may quote to one
another
with a chuckle the words of the Wise Statesman, lies, damned lies,
statistics...'' After consulting a Disraeli biographer, Bibby
concluded that he probably wasn't this Wise Statesman. Bibby is
trying to determine who was.''
In the notes, Keyes gives the Twain source as _Mark Twain's
Autobiography_, Madison, WI 1924, 1990, p.185.
The 1896 source is _Journal of the Royal Statistical Society_
59:38-118, on page 87.
Bibby's work was privately published in Edinburgh (1983, 1986)
under the title _Quotes, Damned Quotes, and..._
_Respectfully Quoted_ mentions an attribution to Holloway H.
next to some of the those mentioned above, and has the following
amusing piece on the quotation:--
The quotation, or a variation, seems to be known
internationally.
When a Russian citizen was interviewed, following the death of
Chernenko, he began by saying, ``As one of your writers said,
are three kinds of lie: a small lie, a big lie and politics.''' --
_Time_, March 23, 1985, p. 21.
The shoulders of giants
If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of
giants.
Isaac Newton (1642-
Letter to Robert Hooke, 5 February
in H. W. Turnbull (ed.) _Correspondence of Isaac
Newton_
Earlier uses are well known:--
A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther
giant himself.
Robert Burton (1577-
_The Anatomy of Melancholy_ (1621-
``Democritus to the
Reader''
A dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two.
George Herbert (1593-
_Jacula Prudentum_
It was proverbial by then. _Oxford_ gives something earlier yet:--
Bernard of Chartres used to say that we are like dwarfs on the
shoulders of giants, so that we can see more than they, and things
greater distance, not by virtue of any sharpness on sight on our
or any physical distinction, but because we are carried high and
raised
up by their giant size.
Bernard of Chartres (d.
John of Salisbury _Metalogicon_ (1159) bk. 3,
@A: Whistler, James (1834-1903) *
@Q: [Oscar Wilde:] I wish I had said that.
[Whistler:] You will, Oscar, you will.
@R: in L. C. Ingleby _Oscar Wilde_ p. 67
@A: Murphy, Edward A. (1918-) *
@Q: I was project manager at Edwards Airforce Base during Colonel
P. Stapp's experimental crash research testing on the track at
Base. The law's namesake was Captain Ed Murphy--a development
engineer
from Wright aircraft lab. Frustration with a strap transducer
was malfunctioning due to an error by a lab technician in the
wiring of
the strain gauge bridges caused Murphy to remark: ``If there's
way to do it wrong, he will!'' I assigned Murphy's Law to the
statement and the associated variations.
@R: George E. Nichols in _The Listener_ 16 February 1984
@A: Peter, Laurence J. (1919-1990) and Hull, Raymond (1919-) *
@Q: My analysis . . . led me to formulate _The Peter Principle_:
Hierarchy Every Employee Tends to Rise to His Level of
Incompetence.
@R: _The Peter Principle_ (1969) ch. 1
@A: anonymous *
@Q: So much chewing gum for the eyes.
@R: in James Beasley Simpson _Best Quotes of '50, '55, '56 _ (1957) p.
@%: A small boy's definition of certain television programmes.
Commonly
attributed in a different form to Frank Lloyd Wright and others.
@A: Lincoln, Abraham (1809-1865) *
@Q: People who like this sort of thing will find this the sort of
they like.
@R: in G. W. E. Russell _Collections and Recollections_ (1898) ch. 30
@%: Judgement on a book.
Sir Hans 'Tis hard if all is false that I advance
dok@fwi.uva.nl A fool must now and then be right, by chance.
William Cowper ``Conversation'' (1782) l. 95

TCP/IP Services for Microsoft Windows NT
Version 3.988
QPC Software is pleased to announce the release of version 3.988 of WinQVT/Net, a suite of TCP/IP client and server applications for Windows NT.
Services provided include:
Network Virtual Terminal
WinQVT/Net will support up to 15 simultaneous virtual terminal (telnet or rlogin) sessions. Each session resides in its own window, which can be moved, sized, and iconified according to standard Windows procedures. If you have a color display, you can use color (both foreground and background) to help differentiate visually between sessions; fonts can also be used to distinguish
sessions.
You can select sessions quickly using either the mouse or the keyboard (with a single keystroke).
Like all QPC emulation products, the present one offers exceptionally complete and accurate emulation of the DEC 'VT' series of terminals, including the VT220, VT102, and VT52. The graphical capabilities of the Windows environment are used to provide support for features such as 132 columns, multi-national characters, and double-size characters.
With WinQVT/Net's FTP client application, you can transfer files to and from your PC. The FTP application runs in its own window, concurrently with any terminal sessions that may be running. Commands can be entered from the keyboard in the traditional manner, or by using the mouse.
Electronic Mail
Electronic mail is supported in the form of a POP3/SMTP client module, which allows you to receive and send Internet mail from the PC. In situations where there is no POP3 server, the WinQVT/Net's SMTP server can be used to receive mail.
Usenet News
For users with access to an NNTP server, WinQVT/Net includes a news reading and posting facility.
Network Printing
Using WinQVT/Net's lpr module, you can print PC files (text and binary) on printers and plotters which are attached to remote network hosts.
Servers
WinQVT/Net includes three server applications, supporting FTP, SMTP, and rcp. The FTP server allows remote users to log on to your PC and transfer files, using the FTP protocol. The SMTP server allows you to receive electronic mail directly at your PC. The rcp server allows files to be copied to and from the PC from the remote user's Unix command line.
Packing List
This shareware distribution for WinQVT/Net 3.98 contains the following items:
QVTNET32.EXE32-bit program executable for Windows 3.1
QVTDLL32.DLLThe accompanying DLL
TNSTART.EXERemote application launcher
MSVCRT20.DLLC Runtime Library DLL (Microsoft redistributable)
QVTNET.INI The main configuration file
VT220.FON The DEC VTxxx fonts
WNQVTNET.HLPThe on-line Help file
PASSWD.EXE FTP login security database maintenance
README.WRI This file
RELNOTES.WRINotes on recent changes
TERMCAP A sample VT220 'termcap' entry
VTFKEYS.TXTDEC keyboard escape sequences
Documentation
This README file is one of five sources of information on how to set up and use WinQVT/Net. The other four (all in this distribution) are:
* RELNOTES.WRI, which contains a list of recent changes and enhancements
* The sample QVTNET.INI file, which includes capsule descriptions of each of WinQVT/Net's setup parameters
* The on-line help file WNQVTNET.HLP, which can be accessed from the WinQVT/Net Console, or from any of the interactive applications.
We recommend that you print out and read RELNOTES.WRI and QVTNET.INI, in addition to this file, before you attempt to run WinQVT/Net.
A full 70+ page user manual is provided to registered users of WinQVT/Net.
System Requirements
WinQVT/Net 3.98 for Windows NT will run only on Intel-based systems running Microsoft Windows NT (3.1 or higher). You may use the built-in Windows Sockets transport, or a third-party Windows Sockets implementation if present.
At QPC, our test environment consists of Windows NT 3.5, and Windows 95 Beta 2.
SLIP and PPP
WinQVT/Net will run over SLIP and PPP connections. Since these types of dialup connections often involve dynamic IP address assignment, it is important that you postpone launching WinQVT/Net until after an IP address has been obtained from the dialup host.
Installing WinQVT/Net
WinQVT/Net should be installed from the command-shell prompt. You will also have to make changes to the user environment, using the 'System' Control Panel module.
1. Create a home directory
The very first thing you should do is create a 'home' directory for WinQVT/Net on your hard drive:
C>mkdir qvtnet
All of the files in this archive should be moved into the home directory except for VT220.FON, which should be moved to \WINNT\SYSTEM32:
C>move vt220.fon \winnt\system32
2. Create a Program Manager icon
You should now choose or create a Program Group for the WinQVT/Net icon. Having done this, you should now use the Program Manager 'New' menuitem to create an icon for WinQVT/Net.
The two critical fields that you must fill in are 'command line' and 'working directory'. The 'command line' field should be filled in with the complete pathname of the WinQVT/Net executable:
Command Line: c:\qvtnet\qvtnet32.exe
The 'working directory' field should be filled in with the name of the WinQVT/Net home directory:
Working Directory: c:\qvtnet
Note: If the 'Working Directory' field is left blank, it's possible that WinQVT/Net will not be able to find its support files, in which case it probably won't run correctly.
3. Start WinQVT/Net
When launched for the first time, WinQVT/Net will begin by presenting a dialog box that you should now use to enter the location of your 'hosts' file. This is shown on the dialog box as 'Hosts Directory'. For the built-in Windows NT TCP/IP, the correct value is 'c:\winnt\system32\drivers\etc'. Note that this is the directory portion only; WinQVT/Net will always assume that the name of the hosts file is 'hosts'. The configuration dialog cannot be completed until a valid hosts directory has been entered!
After this initial dialog is concluded, WinQVT/Net will then present its 'Console' window, which is the 'home base' from which applications are launched. Once the console startup routine has been completed, you will be asked to specify a default printer for use by WinQVT/Net applications. This printer selection only has to be done once, and it is accomplished using the standard Windows printer-selection dialog. Note that if you do not select a printer at this time, you may have problems using any of the WinQVT/Net local print functions. You can, however, select a printer at any time, using the 'Setup - Printer' menuitem, which is available from the Console window.
WinQVT/Net Support Files
WinQVT/Net uses an assortment of external configuration files:
QVTNET.INI Main configuration for all applications
QVTNET.RC Alternate 'Terminal' configurations
QVTMBOX.RC A list of logical 'mailboxes'
QVTALIAS.RCList of aliases for mail recipients
QVTMAIL.SIGDefault 'signature' file for mail messages
NEWS.RC List of subscribed Usenet newsgroups
QVTNEWS.KILKillfile for news reader
QVTNEWS.SIGDefault 'signature' for news articles
QVTNET.ACL Access control lists for FTP and rcp servers
FTPSERV.HLOWelcome message for FTP server
The QVTNET.INI file is represented by a sample file in this distribution. The others contain local data which will be unique to each installation. With the exception of NEWS.RC, which is created and maintained by the News Reader application, all of these files will be created by you, using an ASCII text editor.
See the Release Notes for descriptions of the file formats used by each file.
All configuration files should reside in the same directory. This should be the 'Working Directory', as specified by Program Manager 'Properties' dialog.
QVTNET.INI
WinQVT/Net reads its basic setup information from the QVTNET.INI file. This is a standard ASCII text file that can be read and modified using any ASCII text editor.
The construction of a valid QVTNET.INI file is critical to the proper functioning of WinQVT/Net. See the sample file for an explanation of the required setup parameters, as well as the optional ones that you can use to customize your environment.
The first section, '[net]', contains the 'hostdir=' statement, which tells where the Winsock 'hosts' file is located. The [console] and [localio] sections contain statements which refer to the WinQVT/Net 'Console' window, and to the locally-connected I/O devices (keyboard and printer).
Note: Pay particular attention to the 'dispatch=' statement, which appears in the [console] section. The default value is 'async', but there are situations where a value of 'sync' is preferable. This is strictly trial and error, so we suggest trying both.
The remaining sections are for each of the main application modules, including [terminal], [ftp], [nntp], [pop], [lpr], and [servers]. These sections provide critical information to the applications. For example, the [nntp] and [pop] sections contain a 'host=' directive, which specifies the name of the host machine on which the news server and mail server, respectively, are running. Much of the information in QVTNET.INI can be entered from within WinQVT/Net, using the various dialogs which are accessed from the 'Setup' menu.
For more detailed information on each of the QVTNET.INI directives, see the sample file included in this package. Each statement is accompanied by a brief description of its meaning and uses.
QVTNET.RC
Setup instructions for a 'default' terminal configuration are contained in the [terminal] section of QVTNET.INI. You can, however, greatly increase the convenience of using the Terminal module by creating additional configurations. These will be placed in the file QVTNET.RC.
Each QVTNET.RC configuration entry consists of a number of lines of text. The first line must be structured as follows:
name=
Configuration names can include embedded spaces, as long as the entire name is enclosed in double quotes. For example,
name="White on Blue 24x80"
might refer to a configuration which uses white characters on a blue background, in a 24x80 window. Configuration names can be up to 80 characters long.
The remaining lines will be of the form =, where is one of the configurable items listed in the [terminal] section of QVTNET.INI, and is the value that should be assigned to that item in the current configuration. All of the items contained in the [terminal] section of QVTNET.INI can be used in QVTNET.RC as well.
There is one important item that you can use in QVTNET.RC that is not found in QVTNET.INI. This is the 'host=' directive. By using this directive, you can associate a configuration with a host. The effect of this association is to reduce the number of mouse-clicks (or keystrokes) needed to start a terminal session. You won't have to select both a host and a configuration. Instead, just select the configuration, and the associated host will automatically be selected. Note that this is only a default selection; you can still select a different host for any particular session.
A configuration entry in QVTNET.RC does not have to include specifications for all of the items found in QVTNET.INI. Instead, you can assign new values only when you want values different from those given in QVTNET.INI. In all other cases, the configuration will 'inherit' the values from QVTNET.INI. This feature allows you to quickly set up a series of configurations that are visually quite different from the default, without having to repeatedly set values which already have acceptable defaults.
QVTALIAS.RC
WinQVT/Net's email module will use this file as a list of aliases for mail recipients. When sending a mail message, you can select one of these aliases instead of the recipient's actual email address. In addition, the alias can be used to represent not just one person, but a list of people, all of whom will receive the message.
The format of QVTALIAS.RC entries is:
:
[,
,...]
The portion of the entry may contain blanks, but it must be terminated by a colon, followed by a single blank space. If multiple addresses are listed, they should be separated by commas, without blanks.
NEWS.RC
The NEWS.RC file contains the list of subscribed newsgroups. This information is used by the News Reader application. Each line of text in NEWS.RC is of this form:
[]
NEWS.RC is created and maintained by the News Reader.
QVTNET.ACL
WinQVT/Net's FTP and RCP servers allow remote users on the network to access your PC for the purpose of transferring files. The QVTNET.ACL file is used to restrict this access; it allows you to keep certain directories hidden from all but a few authorized users, or from all users. This ACL security is above and beyond the basic logon security, which is managed by the PASSWD.EXE utility.
Each line of QVTNET.ACL is of this form:
[,[,etc]]
The is the fully-qualified pathname of the directory that you want to protect. This is followed by a single blank space, after which comes the comma-separated list of users who are authorized to access files in the specified directory. If the user list is empty, then no one will allowed to access the protected directory.
Sharing WinQVT/Net
In order for WinQVT/Net to use the various configuration and support files, it must be able to find them on the disk. Normally, in a simple single-user installation, all of the support files will be placed in the same directory with the executable files. This directory - the home directory - will be specified as the 'Working Directory' when setting up the Program Manager icon for WinQVT/Net.
This may not be the optimum approach, however, if you want to share a single copy of WinQVT/Net among several users. You will be able share the executable, the on-line help file, and the hosts database file hosts. All of the other support files will have to be private to each user.
To share WinQVT/Net on a file server, you should first identify the directory which will contain the program executable files, and optionally the on-line help file. When creating Program Manager icons for the various users, it will be necessary to provide a complete pathname for the executable:
Command Line: c:\pub\qvtnet32.exe
Each user should then create their own personal directory for storing private copies of the other support files. This directory that should be given as the 'Working Directory' in Program Manager (the 'New' or 'Properties' dialog). It will be treated by WinQVT/Net as the 'home' directory.
Working Directory: c:\mystuff
Each user's QVTNET.INI should contain statements that will point to the 'host' and 'help' directories:
hostdir=
[console]
helpdir=
Terminal Application
To open a terminal (telnet/rlogin) session, simply press the 'Terminal' button, and wait for the 'Start Terminal Session' dialog to appear. All of the hostnames which are defined in hosts will be shown in the left-hand listbox. The right-hand listbox should contain the single entry, 'Default' (unless you have already created a QVTNET.RC file, with some additional configurations).
To start the session, select a host from the 'Hosts' list, and (optionally) a configuration from the 'Configurations' list, then press 'Ok'. WinQVT/Net will dismiss the dialog, and attempt to start a Telnet session on the selected host. As soon as a connection is made, a 24x80 Terminal window will be displayed, containing the remote system 'login' prompt. You can now proceed with your Telnet session.
Opening a New Session
New sessions can be started by returning to the console window and pressing the 'Terminal' button again. This will bring up the same dialog that was presented previously. As before, simply select the host/configuration that you want and click on 'Ok' to start the new session.
A tip: you can quickly 'hot-key' from a 'Terminal' session back to the Console window by pressing . You can also launch a new Terminal session from within the existing session by pressing .
Note that there is nothing preventing you from starting another session using the same host and/or configuration as your first session. Should you do this, you can still distinguish between the first and second session by referring to the session number, which is displayed in the window title bar.
Cycling Between Sessions
If you have a mouse, you can activate a session by moving the mouse cursor to any part of that session's window, then clicking the left mouse button once.
Using the keyboard, you can move from the current session to the next by pressing . This will cause the next session in WinQVT/Net's list to become the current session. The screen image and all operational characteristics of that session will be restored (including the state of the key). If you press while currently working with the last session in the list, WinQVT/Net will 'wrap around' to the first session.
Standard Windows methods for switching the foreground window will also work, such as pressing or .
Changing the Terminal Operating Characteristics
The 'Setup' menu contains items that you can use to change a session's operating characteristics 'on the fly'. The first item, 'Terminal', provides a dialog box that allows you to change values relating to the keyboard and display.
The 'Colors' dialog allows you to select new foreground and/or background colors for a session.
The 'Font' and 'Window' menuitems allow you to change the font size and window size, respectively.
Any and all changes made to the setup of the current session can be saved in QVTNET.RC, under the same - or different - configuration name. This is done using the 'File - Save' menuitem.
WinQVT/Net's terminal module allows you to use one of five distinct fonts: DEC, IBM, ANSI, 'Terminal', and 'Custom'. The 'DEC' font is provided by QPC, and is an exact emulation of the DEC Multinational Character Set, as found in the VT2xx terminals. The next three are standard Windows fixed-pitch fonts, and are used as found in the Windows environment.
You can also use the 'Custom Font' menu option to select from among all of the fixed-pitch fonts in your Windows installation.
If you are running a host application that uses the DEC line-drawing characters, you must use WinQVT/Net's DEC font. Otherwise, the line-drawing characters will not appear!
The DEC font included in this package (VT220.FON) is designed for use with VGA display adapters. It may work on displays whose resolution exceeds the VGA-standard 640x480, but the character size may be smaller or larger than the optimum for those displays. Registered users will receive a complete set of fonts for all PC display systems, including EGA (640x350), Hercules (720x350), and Super-VGA (800x600, 1024x768).
Keyboard Mapping
WinQVT/Net employs a keyboard mapping that is closely tied to the DEC LK201 keyboard:
DEC IBM
PF1 NumLock
PF2 '/' on keypad
PF3 '*' on keypad
PF4 '-' on keypad
- (minus) + '+' on keypad
, (comma) '+' (on keypad)
Enter Enter (on keypad)
HoldScreen Pause
PrintScreen
Data/Talk Not Supported
F11 - F20 Shift-F1 - F10
The numeric keypad is forced into 'NumLock' mode by WinQVT/Net. As a result, only the cursor keys on the separate inverted-T keypad will work as cursor-control keys.
The following keys are located on the separate 'Editing' keypad. Each key is mapped to its physical equivalent on the DEC keyboard:
Find Insert
InsertHere Home
Remove PageUp
Select Delete
PrevScreen End
NextScreen PageDown
The mapping of these keys may be changed to editing the 'keypad=' line in QVTNET.INI to read 'keypad=IBM'. This will create a 'logical' instead of a 'physical' mapping.
The DEC user-defined keys (DECUDK) are accessed by pressing through for the first five, and through for the last ten.
WinQVT/Net also supports the DEC LK250 keyboard. If you are using an LK250, you should set 'keyboard=lk250' in the '[localio]' section of QVTNET.INI.
Key Redefinition
WinQVT/Net's terminal module allows you to arbitrarily redefine almost any key on the keyboard. The exceptions are the modifier keys: , , , and .
The key-redefinition capability is accessed through the 'Keymaps' menu option. Two separate dialogs are presented: one for the 'main' keyboard, and one for the smaller keypads which are located on the right-hand portion of the IBM 101-key keyboard.
To redefine a key, you should:
* Bring up the appropriate keymap (the one that contains the right key)
* Click on the button which represents the key that you want to redefine
* Type in the string that you want to be transmitted when that key is pressed.
Key-redefinition strings may be up to 80 characters in length (in total).
Each key can have up to four separate redefinitions:
* one for when the key is pressed in its unmodified, or 'base' state
* one for when the key is pressed together with the key
* one for when the key is pressed together with the key.
* one for when the key is pressed together with both and
These strings should be entered into to the input field as one continuous string, with each of the substrings separated by the '|' (pipe) character. For example:
test|TEST|Test|tEST
is a key-redefinition string containing four parts, one each for the base state, the shift state, the state, and the state. If you omit one or more of the four states, the default behavior for the key will be used (if one exists).
The caret ('^') character can be used to specify a control character; this notation for the first 32 control characters is supported by WinQVT/Net. For example, the character (0x1b) could be notated as '^['.
Another, more versatile notation for non-printing characters is also available: this is the C-style 'backslash' notation. For example, '\033' could be used to represent the character. If you use this type of notation, you must supply exactly three octal digits, including leading zeros if required.
Key redefinitions will be saved to disk after you exit from the keymap by pressing the 'OK' button.
Starting Terminal Sessions from the Command Line
WinQVT/Net Terminal sessions can be launched at program startup, by specifying configuration names on the command line. A typical WinQVT/Net command line will look something like this:
c:\qvtnet\qvtnet.exe
Now assume that a QVTNET.RC configuration named 'myhost' exists. A terminal session on 'myhost' can be initiated at program startup by creating a command line that looks like this:
c:\qvtnet\qvtnet.exe myhost
Note: configurations that you intend to use in this way must include a 'host=' statement.
Using TNSTART to launch terminal sessions from Program Manager
The WinQVT/Net distribution package includes a program executable named TNSTART.EXE. This program can be used to launch Terminal sessions from the Program Manager panel, after WinQVT/Net has been started. To use TNSTART, you should create a Program Manager icon with a command line of the following structure:
c:\qvtnet\tnstart []
In this command line, the argument is the name or IP address of the target host, and the optional argument is the name of a terminal configuration as defined in QVTNET.RC.
FTP Client
WinQVT/Net allows you to have one FTP session in addition to your terminal sessions. To start an FTP session, go to the Console window and press the 'FTP' button (or select 'FTP' from the Services menu). Once the FTP window has come up, you can use the 'Open' menuitem to begin an FTP session. The FTP 'login' dialog box contains a drop-down list box showing the names of the hosts which are defined in your hosts file, and also provides input fields for your login name and password. All three must be filled in before you can begin the FTP session.
If you cancel the dialog, the login window will disappear, but the FTP window will remain, in a 'closed' state.
When you are ready to close the FTP session, enter the command 'bye' or 'quit' at the 'ftp>' prompt. This will terminate the FTP connection and close the window. You can terminate an FTP session without closing the window by using the 'close' command. All of these commands are also available from the menu bar.
Note that FTP runs concurrently with any terminal sessions that you may have started. You can switch back to one of them at any time.
News Reader
If there is an NNTP server running on your network, you can use WinQVT/Net to download and read Usenet articles directly from the server. There are a few setup steps that you must perform in order to enable the news reading facility:
1. From the Console, select the 'Setup - News' menuitem. Near the top of the ensuing dialog you will find an input field labelled 'Host', or something similar. Enter into this field the name or IP address of the machine that you will be using as News Server.
Next, enter a value into the 'Save Directory'; this is critical, in that all of the news articles that you will be reading are downloaded into this directory. Make sure that the directory that you specify actually exists, or create it if it doesn't.
Finally, you should enter values into the 'From:', 'Organization:', and 'Distribution:' fields. These will be incorporated into the headers of the articles that you post to the Net.
2. Contact your system administrator, and have your PC added to the 'nntp_access' list. Make sure you ask for posting privileges, or you will not be allowed to post articles!
Note: where present, the name of this access control file may be different for different news servers.
3. Use a text editor (e.g. Notepad) to create an initial NEWS.RC file. Simply enter, one per line, the names of a few newsgroups that you want to subscribe to. If you don't know any newsgroup names, you should follow this procedure:
* Start the News Reader
* Select the 'Newsgroups - Subscribe' menu option.
* A dialog box will be displayed, and you will be asked if you want to download a newsgroup list; answer this prompt affirmatively.
* After the download is complete, you should select some newsgroups. You must first select the major newsgroup category that you want to select from. This list is presented in the combo-box list located near the top of the dialog box. Once a category is selected, all of the newsgroups which belong to it will be displayed in the lower listbox.
* Select one or more newsgroups from the displayed list, then click on 'OK'
You can now use the 'File - Open' dialog to download articles belonging to the subscribed newsgroups, then read them.
WinQVT/Net provides electronic mail services (receiving and sending) via the POP3 and SMTP protocols. You can use SMTP to receive and send mail directly to and from your PC; POP3 can be used to access an existing mailbox that you may already have on a Unix (or similar) host.
If security is a concern, we recommend that you use POP3 for receiving mail rather than SMTP. Using POP3 also relieves you of the need to keep your PC running all (or most of) the time. For sending mail, we recommend that you use SMTP, since not all POP3 servers support the sending of mail (the POP3 protocol itself calls for using SMTP for sending mail).
The first thing you should do, before attempting to use Mail, is go to the 'Setup - Mail' dialog, which is available from the Console window, and enter your mail return address. The exact value that you use will depend on whether you are going to use SMTP or POP3, but in any event a valid return address must be present before you can send mail. You should also make sure that a valid 'Save Directory' is present; this is where incoming mail will be stored by the SMTP server.
You should also read the release notes on Version 3.98 (RELNOTES.WRI) and study the section on 'Mailboxes'. WinQVT/Net uses the abstract concept of the 'mailbox' to designate a mail repository, which may be located either locally (a directory on your PC), or remotely (a POP3 server on a remote host). Once you understand mailboxes, you can create them from the 'Open' dialog. Click on the 'New' button, and you can enter the data elements that define mailboxes.
These are:
Mailbox Name:human readable, can contain blanks
Mailbox Type: 'remote' or 'local'
Mailbox Location:server name, for remote, or directory path, for local
Username: login name, for remote mailboxes only
Mailbox definitions are stored in a textfile in the home directory, named QVTMBOX.RC.
Note: though the mailbox name can contain blanks, you will not be able to receive mail into such a mailbox with WinQVT/Net's SMTP server. Mailboxes which are expected to be targets of the SMTP server should not have names which contain blanks. See RFC822 for details.
If you already have a mailbox on a Unix host, and if there is a POP3 server running on that host, you can create a WinQVT/Net mailbox entry for that machine, and proceed directly to logon to that server, using your usual login name and password.
Local mailboxes should be created as subdirectories under the main 'mail' directory, which is the one given as the 'Save Directory' on the 'Setup - Mail' dialog. The first-level subdirectory should be your POP3 username (if any). If you are not using POP3 at all, you should still establish a username for yourself, and make it the name of the first subdirectory under 'mail'. The next level of directories should contain two initial entries, 'mbox' and 'newmail'. The SMTP server will want to place incoming messages into the directory '\mail\\newmail'.
Network printing using lpr
WinQVT/Net includes a small application that allows you to submit files which reside on your PC for printing on a remote printer (i.e., a printer which is attached to a host elsewhere on the network). The lpr module is fairly simply to use. The only setup requirement is that you must have assigned a node name to your PC, and placed it in QVTNET.INI. Of course, WinQVT/Net will not run at all without a node name, so there are effectively no special setup requirements for lpr. All of the remaining required data items can be supplied at runtime.
Host setup: you must ask your system adminstrator to add your PC to the list of hosts which are allowed to communicate with the line printer daemon, 'lpd'. If your PC is not on this list, the daemon will reject your request to establish a TCP connection. There may be separate lists for each host, so you should make sure to contact the administrator of each system that you want to use for printing. Normally, this list is kept in the file /etc/hosts.lpd.
To use lpr, you start by selecting 'lpr' from the Services menu. This brings up a dialog box, which contains the following elements:
* A list box containing a list of all the hosts which are defined in your hosts file. If you have included a 'hostname=' directive in the [lpr] section of QVTNET.INI, that host will already be selected when the lpr window is initially displayed.
* An input field for entering the print queue name. The default queue, as specified by the 'qname' directive, will already be present in this field.
* An input field for entering the username under which your print job will be submitted.
* A set of radio buttons for selecting the file type (text or binary)
* An input field for entering the name of the file to be printed.
* A pushbutton labelled 'Files', that you can use to activate a file-selection dialog.
All of these fields are required in order to start a print job. Only then will the 'Print' button be enabled. After you press 'Print', a series of messages will track the progress of the job, until completion.
Server Applications
WinQVT/Net includes two server applications, FTP and rcp. These applications allow remote users on other systems to access your PC's file system.
FTP Server
WinQVT/Net provides a background FTP server facility. This feature allows remote users to access your PC remotely using FTP. Only one logged-in user at a time is allowed.
There are several QVTNET.INI configuration directives which are associated with the FTP server. These are:
passfilethe file which contains the list of authorized users and their passwords
login_dirthe directory to which authorized users will be attached at login time
anonftp_dirthe directory to which 'anonymous' users will be attached. These users
will not be able to log to any other directories, except for subdirectories
within the same tree.
acl_defaultspecifies whether the default access for unlisted directories is
'allow' or 'deny'.
A small utility program, PASSWD.EXE, is provided for the maintenance of the password file. It is a DOS program which uses a simple TTY interface that is self-explanatory.
FTP server security depends on whether or not you have implemented a password file. If there is no password file, users can login at will; no passwords are required, and there are no access restrictions (other than those indicated in QVTNET.ACL). If you do create a password file, then only users whose names are included in this file will be allowed to log in.
If you provide a value for the 'anonftp_dir' directive, WinQVT/Net will allow 'anonymous' logins. Anonymous users operate under some restrictions:
* Access is restricted to a single directory tree (as specified by 'anonftp_dir')
* Anonymous users are not allowed to delete files, or overwrite existing files.
Authorized users have fewer restrictions, but access control lists can be used to protect certain files and directories from authorized users also. The set of access control lists is stored in the QVTNET.ACL file, which should be placed in the WinQVT/Net home directory. Each access control list occupies a single line in QVTNET.ACL, and is of the form:
[,,...]
The is mandatory, and gives the name of the directory to which the ACL applies. The optional entries give the names of the users who are authorized to access the named directory. Each username should be the name of a valid FTP user as created by PASSWD.EXE. If entries are present in an ACL, they should be separated from the by a single blank space. The 's themselves should be separated by comma's, and there should be no blanks anywhere in the list.
Normally, a specification applies only to that directory, and not to its subdirectories (if any). You can, however, extend access to subdirectories by appending an asterisk ('*') to the directory name.
Access to directories which are not named in QVTNET.ACL is controlled by the QVTNET.INI directive 'acl_default'. The default value of this directive is 'allow', which means that access will be allowed. The alternative is 'acl_default=deny', which means that access will be denied by default, and only the directories named in QVTNET.ACL will be available to users of the FTP server.
In the present release, there is no attempt to distinguish different classes of access (e.g., read-only vs. read/write). This sort of refinement may be added in a future release.
rcp Server
WinQVT/Net also provides a server that allows remote users to copy files to and from the PC using the BSD rcp command. This server makes use of the same security features as does the FTP server, particularly the user-validation facility. Unlike FTP, however, there is no provision for 'anonymous' users; only documented users will be admitted.
SMTP Server
New in WinQVT/Net 3.98 is the SMTP server, which allows you to receive electronic mail directly on your PC. Once you have set up the Mail client application, very little additional setup is required in order to use the SMTP server. In fact, as long as you have created at least one local mailbox, you can use the SMTP server to deposit new mail into that mailbox without additional configuration; all you have to do is make sure that mail is addressed to that mailbox.
Consider the following setup:
* User name 'smith'
* Machine name 'mypc'
* Domain name 'oursys.com'
Mail addressed to 'smith@mypc.oursys.com' will either be placed into the mailbox named 'smith' - if one is defined in QVTMBOX.RC - or will be placed into the directory 'c:\mail\smith\newmail', where 'c:\mail' is the name of the Mail 'save directory'.
Note: mailbox names for use with SMTP should contain only alphanumeric characters, periods, and dashes (no blanks allowed). They should not exceed 63 characters in length. See RFC822 for more information on the allowed format and content.
Registration Information
WinQVT/Net is a shareware product. Should you find it satisfactory and suitable for your needs, we ask that you remit your registration fee to:
QPC Software
Penfield, NY 14526
The registration fee for WinQVT/Net is $40, except for students, who can register for $20. For shipment outside of North America, please add $5.
Institutional customers: purchase orders are welcome! Please be sure to provide the name of an end-user contact for the purpose of receiving updates.
Registered users receive a printed user manual, a complete set of fonts, and free access to upgrades for a period of one year. Please allow one to two weeks for delivery; longer if shipping outside the USA is required.
If possible, please include the name and Internet (or Compuserve) address of a contact person to whom correspondence and updates can be addressed.
If you upload this program to another bulletin board or ftp site, please be sure to include ALL of the original files that are in this package, without modification.
Other QPC Products
QPC Software offers a complete line of asynchronous DEC emulation products for most major personal computing environments, including MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Apple Macintosh, and OS/2. All are of high quality and provide exceptional value. Please write to us for a complete price list, including information on discounts and site licenses.
Contacting QPC
You can contact QPC electronically via Internet mail. Our email addresses are:
robin@robin.qpc.com(sales inquiries)
chloe@qpc.com (technical questions and comments)
Before sending us mail asking about setup or configuration, please read all of the documentation in this distribution first, including the sample QVTNET.INI and the release notes. Most of the information that we have on setting up WinQVT/Net is included in these documents.
Our voice number is:
We can also be contacted via fax:
Thank you for your interest in WinQVT/Net!

TCP/IP Services for Microsoft Windows
Version 3.988
QPC Software is pleased to announce the release of version 3.988 of WinQVT/Net, a suite of TCP/IP client and server applications for Windows 3.1 and Windows for Workgroups 3.1x.
Important Note:
WinQVT/Net 3.988 is strictly a Windows Sockets application. There is no TCP/IP transport included in this package; you must install a Windows Sockets package before you can use WinQVT/Net 3.98.
Services provided include:
Network Virtual Terminal
WinQVT/Net will support up to 15 simultaneous virtual terminal (telnet or rlogin) sessions. Each session resides in its own window, which can be moved, sized, and iconified according to standard Windows procedures. If you have a color display, you can use color (both foreground and background) to help differentiate visually between sessions; fonts can also be used to distinguish sessions.
Like all QPC emulation products, the present one offers exceptionally complete and accurate emulation of the DEC 'VT' series of text terminals, including the VT220, VT102, and VT52. The graphical capabilities of the Windows environment are used to provide support for features such as 132 columns, multi-national characters, and double-size characters.
WinQVT/Net has built-in support for the industry-standard 101-key PC keyboard, and for the DEC LK250 keyboard. Non-standard keyboards, such as those found on many laptop PC's, can also be used, with proper configuration.
With WinQVT/Net's FTP client application, you can transfer files to and from your PC. The FTP application runs in its own window, concurrently with any terminal sessions that may be running. Commands can be entered from the keyboard in the traditional manner, or by using the mouse.
Electronic Mail
Electronic mail is supported in the form of a POP3/SMTP client module, which allows you to receive and send Internet mail from the PC. In situations where there is no POP3 server, the WinQVT/Net's SMTP server can be used to receive mail.
Usenet News
For users with access to an NNTP server, WinQVT/Net includes a news reading and posting facility.
Network Printing
Using WinQVT/Net's lpr module, you can print PC files (text and binary) on printers and plotters which are attached to remote network hosts.
Servers
WinQVT/Net includes three server applications, supporting FTP, SMTP, and rcp. The FTP server allows remote users to log on to your PC and transfer files, using the FTP protocol. The rcp server allows files to be copied to and from the PC from the remote user's Unix command line. The SMTP server allows you to receive email messages directly on your PC.
Packing List
This shareware distribution for WinQVT/Net 3.98 contains the following items:
Top-level Directory:
QVTNET16.EXE16-bit program executable for Windows 3.1
QVTDLL.DLL The accompanying DLL
QVTNET16.SYMSymbol files for use by Dr. Watson
QVTDLL.SYM
QVTNET.INI The main configuration file
VT220.FON The DEC VTxxx fonts
WNQVTNET.HLPThe on-line Help file
PASSWD.EXE FTP login security database maintenance
TNSTART.EXERemote application launcher
NEWS.RC A starter newsgroup file
README16.WRIThis file
RELNOTES.WRINotes on recent changes
TERMCAP A sample VT220 'termcap' entry
VTFKEYS.TXTDEC keyboard escape sequences
Documentation
This README file is one of five sources of information on how to set up and use WinQVT/Net. The other four (all in this distribution) are:
* RELNOTES.WRI, which contains a list of recent changes and enhancements
* The sample QVTNET.INI file, which includes capsule descriptions of each of WinQVT/Net's setup parameters
* The on-line help file WNQVTNET.HLP, which can be accessed from the WinQVT/Net Console, or from any of the interactive applications.
We recommend that you print out and read RELNOTES.WRI and QVTNET.INI, in addition to this file, before you attempt to run WinQVT/Net.
A full 85-page user manual is provided to registered users of WinQVT/Net.
Hardware and Software Requirements
WinQVT/Net 3.98 for Windows Sockets requires a machine with:
* A 386 processor (or higher)
* A minimum of 4MB of memory (8MB recommended)
* An Ethernet or other network card, or SLIP/PPP dialup capability
* Windows 3.1 or Windows for Workgroups 3.1x
* A Windows Sockets TCP/IP protocol stack
* WinQVT/Net will not run under Windows 3.0, or on machines with a 286 processor.
Windows Sockets
Windows Sockets is the industry-standard transport layer for the TCP/IP protocol in the Microsoft Windows environment. 'Winsock' implementations are sold commercially by a number of vendors, including, but not restricted to Microsoft (for Windows for Workgroups), FTP Software, Frontier Technology, Novell, Netmanage, Lanera, Beam & Whiteside, and Sun. Some shareware/freeware implementations are also available.
At QPC, our testing is done mostly with Microsoft MSTCPIP-32.
Windows for Workgroups
If you plan to run WinQVT/Net under Windows for Workgroups, and you do not yet have a TCP/IP package, you should consider downloading Microsoft TCP/IP, which provides Windows Sockets services in the WfWG environment. Microsoft has made its TCP/IP available as a free download from ftp.microsoft.com.
If you do use MS TCP/IP, make sure that you set 'dispatch=sync' in QVTNET.INI. Otherwise, it's possible that WinQVT/Net will crash with a 'stack overflow' error. We aren't sure of the reason for this, since it doesn't seem to happen with Winsock's from other vendors, nor does it occur with Microsoft's Winsock for Windows NT. We have also found that FTP uploads (and downloads from the FTP server) tend to be slower with MS TCP/IP than with most other Winsock's. MS TCP/IP is otherwise a very good performer.
Windows NT
This version of WinQVT/Net can be made to run under Windows NT, using the 16-bit WINSOCK.DLL that ships with the operating system. However, we recommend that you use the 32-bit version instead. This is distributed in the ZIP package 'qvtntXXX.zip'.
SLIP and PPP
WinQVT/Net will run over SLIP and PPP connections, as long as they are supported by your Winsock package. Since these types of dialup connections often involve dynamic IP address assignment, it is important that you postpone launching any WinQVT/Net applications until after an IP address has been obtained from the host. Also, once WinQVT/Net is started, we recommend that you not launch any of the server applications until at least one client connection has been established.
Installing WinQVT/Net
The WinQVT/Net shareware distribution is best installed from the DOS prompt. This can be achieved from within Windows by spawning a DOS shell.
Note: this procedure assumes that you already have Windows Sockets installed. If you do not, you must acquire and install a Windows Sockets package prior to installing WinQVT/Net.
Here are the steps:
1. Create a home directory
The very first thing you should do is create a 'home' directory for WinQVT/Net on your hard drive:
C>mkdir qvtnet
All of the files in this archive should be moved into the home directory except for VT220.FON, which should be moved to \WINDOWS\SYSTEM:
C>move vt220.fon \windows\system
2. Create a Program Manager icon
You should now choose or create a Program Group for the WinQVT/Net icon. Having done this, you can use the Program Manager 'New' menuitem to create an icon for WinQVT/Net.
The two critical fields that you must fill in are 'command line' and 'working directory'. The 'command line' field should be filled in with the complete pathname of the WinQVT/Net executable:
Command Line: c:\qvtnet\qvtnet16.exe
The 'working directory' field should be filled in with the name of the WinQVT/Net home directory:
Working Directory: c:\qvtnet
In this example, the working directory is also the location of the WinQVT/Net executable file. However, this need not be so. For example, if you are sharing a copy of WinQVT/Net over a PC LAN, you will want to keep your config and data files in your own private directory, regardless of where the executable is installed.
Note: If the 'Working Directory' field is left blank, it is possible that WinQVT/Net will not be able to find its support files, in which case it probably won't run very well, if at all.
3. Start WinQVT/Net
When launched for the first time, WinQVT/Net will begin by presenting a dialog box that you should now use to enter the location of your 'hosts' file. This is shown on the dialog box as 'Hosts Directory'. Note that this is the directory portion only; WinQVT/Net will always assume that the name of the hosts file is 'hosts'. The configuration dialog cannot be completed until a valid hosts directory has been entered. If you cancel this dialog, WinQVT/Net will terminate.
After this initial dialog is concluded, WinQVT/Net will then present its 'Console' window, which is the 'home base' from which applications are launched. Once the console startup routine has been completed, you will be asked to specify a default printer for use by WinQVT/Net applications. This printer selection only has to be done once, and it is accomplished using the standard Windows printer-selection dialog. Note that if you do not select a printer at this time, you may have problems using any of the WinQVT/Net local print functions. You can, however, select a printer at any time, using the 'Setup - Printer' menuitem, which is available from the Console window.
WinQVT/Net Support Files
WinQVT/Net uses an assortment of external configuration and data files:
QVTNET.INI Main configuration for all applications
QVTNET.RC List of 'Terminal' configurations
QVTMBOX.RC A list of logical 'mailboxes'
QVTALIAS.RCList of aliases for mail recipients
QVTMAIL.SIGDefault 'signature' file for mail messages
NEWS.RC List of subscribed Usenet newsgroups
QVTNEWS.KILKillfile for news reader
QVTNEWS.SIGDefault 'signature' for news articles
QVTNET.ACL Access control lists for FTP and rcp servers
FTPSERV.HLOWelcome message for FTP server
The QVTNET.INI file is represented by a sample file in this distribution. The others contain local data which will be unique to each installation. The files QVTMBOX.RC, QVTALIAS.RC, NEWS.RC, and QVTNEWS.KIL are maintained by the Mail and News modules of WinQVT/Net. All of the other files must be created outside of WinQVT/Net, using an ASCII text editor. The built-in Windows editor, 'Notepad', is more than adequate for this purpose.
See the Release Notes for descriptions of the file formats used by each file.
All configuration files should reside in the same directory. This should be the WinQVT/Net 'Working Directory', as specified in the Program Manager 'Properties' dialog.
QVTNET.INI
WinQVT/Net reads its basic setup information from the QVTNET.INI file. This is a standard ASCII text file that can be read and modified using any ASCII text editor. However, most of the modifications to QVTNET.INI are performed from within WinQVT/Net, by means of dialog boxes.
The construction of a valid QVTNET.INI file is critical to the proper functioning of WinQVT/Net. See the sample file for an explanation of the required setup parameters, as well as the optional ones that you can use to customize your environment.
The first section, '[net]', contains the 'hostdir=' statement, which tells where the Winsock 'hosts' file is located. The [console] and [localio] sections contain statements which refer to the WinQVT/Net 'Console' window, and to the locally-connected I/O devices (keyboard and printer).
Note: Pay particular attention to the 'dispatch=' statement, which appears in the [console] section. The default value is 'async', but there are situations where a value of 'sync' is preferable. This is strictly trial and error, so we suggest trying both.
The remaining sections are for each of the main application modules, including [terminal], [ftp], [nntp], [pop], [lpr], and [servers]. These sections provide critical information to the applications. For example, the [nntp] section contain a 'host=' directive, which specifies the name of the host machine on which the news server is running.
For more detailed information on each of the QVTNET.INI directives, see the sample file included in this package. Each statement is accompanied by a brief description of its meaning and uses.
QVTNET.RC
Setup instructions for a 'default' terminal configuration are contained in the [terminal] section of QVTNET.INI. You can, however, greatly increase the convenience of using the Terminal module by creating additional configurations. These will be placed in the file QVTNET.RC.
Each QVTNET.RC configuration entry consists of a number of lines of text. The first line must be structured as follows:
name=
Configuration names can include embedded spaces, as long as the entire name is enclosed in double quotes. For example,
name="White on Blue 24x80"
might refer to a configuration which uses white characters on a blue background, in a 24x80 window. Configuration names can be up to 80 characters long.
The remaining lines will be of the form =, where is one of the configurable items listed in the [terminal] section of QVTNET.INI, and is the value that should be assigned to that item in the current configuration. All of the items contained in the [terminal] section of QVTNET.INI can be used in QVTNET.RC as well.
There is one important item that you can use in QVTNET.RC that is not found in QVTNET.INI. This is the 'host=' directive. By using this directive, you can associate a configuration with a host. The effect of this association is to reduce the number of mouse-clicks (or keystrokes) needed to start a terminal session. You won't have to select both a host and a configuration. Instead, just select the configuration, and the associated host will automatically be selected. Note that this is only a default selection; you can still select a different host for any particular session.
A configuration entry in QVTNET.RC does not have to include specifications for all of the items found in QVTNET.INI. Instead, you can assign new values only when you want values different from those given in QVTNET.INI. In all other cases, the configuration will 'inherit' the values from QVTNET.INI. This feature allows you to quickly set up a series of configurations that are visually quite different from the default, without having to repeatedly set values which already have acceptable defaults.
Beginning in version 3.98, you can create QVTNET.RC entries from within WinQVT/Net terminal sessions. This is done by using the interactive configuration dialogs to create the setup that you want, after which you can save it in QVTNET.RC using the 'File - Save' menuitem. This eliminates the need to learn the syntax of QVTNET.RC statements.
QVTALIAS.RC
WinQVT/Net's email module will use this file as a list of aliases for mail recipients. When sending a mail message, you can select one of these aliases instead of the recipient's actual email address. In addition, the alias can be used to represent not just one person, but a list of people, all of whom will receive the message.
The format of QVTALIAS.RC entries is:
:
[,
,...]
The portion of the entry may contain blanks, but it must be terminated by a colon, followed by a single blank space. If multiple addresses are listed, they should be separated by commas, without blanks.
QVTALIAS.RC entries can be created from within WinQVT/Net, using the 'Add Alias' menuitem.
NEWS.RC
The NEWS.RC file contains the list of subscribed newsgroups. This information is used by the News Reader application. Each line of text in NEWS.RC is of this form:
[]
NEWS.RC is created and maintained by the News Reader.
QVTNET.ACL
WinQVT/Net's FTP and RCP servers allow remote users on the network to access your PC for the purpose of transferring files. The QVTNET.ACL file is used to restrict this access; it allows you to keep certain directories hidden from all but a few authorized users, or from all users. This ACL security is above and beyond the basic logon security, which is managed by the PASSWD.EXE utility.
Each line of QVTNET.ACL is of this form:
[,[,etc]]
The is the fully-qualified pathname of the directory that you want to protect. This is followed by a single blank space, after which comes the comma-separated list of users who are authorized to access files in the specified directory. If the user list is empty, then no one will allowed to access the protected directory.
Sharing WinQVT/Net
In order for WinQVT/Net to use the various configuration and support files, it must be able to find them on the disk. Normally, in a simple single-user installation, all of the support files will be placed in the same directory with the executable files. This directory - the home directory - will be specified as the 'Working Directory' when setting up the Program Manager icon for WinQVT/Net.
This may not be the optimum approach, however, if you want to share a single copy of WinQVT/Net among several users. You will be able share the executable, the on-line help file, and the hosts database file hosts. All of the other support files will have to be private to each user.
To share WinQVT/Net on a file server, you should first identify the directory which will contain the program executable files, and optionally the on-line help file. When creating Program Manager icons for the various users, it will be necessary to provide a complete pathname for the executable:
Command Line: c:\pub\qvtnet16.exe
Each user should then create their own personal directory for storing private copies of the other support files, most notably QVTNET.INI. This directory that should be given as the 'Working Directory' in Program Manager (the 'New' or 'Properties' dialog). It will be treated by WinQVT/Net as the 'home' directory.
Working Directory: c:\mystuff
Each user's QVTNET.INI should contain statements that will point to the 'host' and 'help' directories:
hostdir=
[console]
helpdir=
Terminal Application
To open a terminal (telnet/rlogin) session, simply click on the 'Terminal' button, and wait for the 'Start Terminal Session' dialog to appear. All of the hostnames which are defined in hosts will be shown in the left-hand listbox. The right-hand listbox should contain the single entry, 'Default' (unless you have already created a QVTNET.RC file, with some additional configurations).
To start the session, select a host from the 'Hosts' list, and (optionally) a configuration from the 'Configurations' list, then press 'Ok'. WinQVT/Net will dismiss the dialog, and attempt to start a Telnet session on the selected host. As soon as a connection is made, a 24x80 Terminal window will be displayed, containing the remote system 'login' prompt. You can now proceed with your Telnet session. If a connection cannot be established within one minute, the attempt will be abandoned, and an error message will appear on the Console.
Opening a New Session
New sessions can be started by returning to the console window and pressing the 'Terminal' button again. This will bring up the same dialog that was presented previously. As before, simply select the host/configuration that you want and click on 'Ok' to start the new session.
A tip: you can quickly 'hot-key' from a 'Terminal' session back to the Console window by pressing . You can also launch a new Terminal session from within the existing session by pressing .
Note that there is nothing preventing you from starting another session using the same host and/or configuration as your first session. Should you do this, you can still distinguish between the first and second session by referring to the session number, which is displayed in the window title bar.
Cycling Between Sessions
If you have a mouse, you can activate a session by moving the mouse cursor to any part of that session's window, then clicking the left mouse button once.
Using the keyboard, you can move from the current session to the next by pressing . This will cause the next session in WinQVT/Net's list to become the current session. The screen image and all operational characteristics of that session will be restored (including the state of the key). If you press while currently working with the last session in the list, WinQVT/Net will 'wrap around' to the first session.
Standard Windows methods for switching the foreground window will also work, such as pressing or .
Changing the Terminal Operating Characteristics
The 'Setup' menu contains items that you can use to change a session's operating characteristics 'on the fly'. The first item, 'Terminal', provides a dialog box that allows you to change values relating to the keyboard and display.
The 'Colors' dialog allows you to select new foreground and/or background colors for a session.
The 'Font' and 'Window' menuitems allow you to change the font size and window size, respectively.
Any and all changes made to the setup of the current session can be saved in QVTNET.RC, under the same - or different - configuration name. This is done using the 'File - Save' menuitem.
WinQVT/Net's terminal module allows you to use one of five distinct fonts: DEC, IBM, ANSI, 'Terminal', and 'Custom'. The 'DEC' font is provided by QPC, and is an exact emulation of the DEC Multinational Character Set, as found in the VT2xx terminals. The next three are standard Windows fixed-pitch fonts, and are used as found in the Windows environment.
If you are running an application that uses the DEC line-drawing characters, you must use WinQVT/Net's DEC font. If you use one of the built-in fonts, the line-drawing characters will not appear.
You can also use the 'Custom Font' menu option to select from among all of the fixed-pitch fonts in your Windows installation.
The DEC font included in this package (VT220.FON) is designed for use with VGA display adapters. It may also work on displays whose resolution exceeds the VGA-standard 640x480, but the character size may be smaller or larger than the optimum for those displays. Registered users will receive a complete set of fonts for all PC display systems, including EGA (640x350), Hercules (720x350), and Super-VGA (800x600, 1024x768).
Keyboard Mapping
WinQVT/Net employs a keyboard mapping that is closely tied to the DEC LK201 keyboard:
DEC IBM
PF1 NumLock
PF2 '/' on keypad
PF3 '*' on keypad
PF4 '-' on keypad
- (minus) + '+' on keypad
, (comma) '+' (on keypad)
Enter Enter (on keypad)
HoldScreen Pause
PrintScreen
Data/Talk Not Supported
F11 - F20 Shift-F1 - F10
The numeric keypad is forced into 'NumLock' mode by WinQVT/Net. As a result, only the cursor keys on the separate inverted-T keypad will work as cursor-control keys.
The following keys are located on the separate 'Editing' keypad. Each key is mapped to its physical equivalent on the DEC keyboard:
Find Insert
InsertHere Home
Remove PageUp
Select Delete
PrevScreen End
NextScreen PageDown
The mapping of these keys may be changed to editing the 'keypad=' line in QVTNET.INI to read 'keypad=IBM'. This will create a 'logical' instead of a 'physical' mapping.
The DEC user-defined keys (DECUDK) are accessed by pressing through for the first five, and through for the last ten.
WinQVT/Net also supports the DEC LK250 keyboard. If you are using an LK250, you should set 'keyboard=lk250' in the '[localio]' section of QVTNET.INI.
Key Redefinition
WinQVT/Net's terminal module allows you to arbitrarily redefine almost any key on the keyboard. The exceptions are the modifier keys: , , , and .
The key-redefinition capability is accessed through the 'Keymaps' menu option. Two separate dialogs are presented: one for the 'main' keyboard, and one for the smaller keypads which are located on the right-hand portion of the IBM 101-key keyboard.
To redefine a key, you should:
* Bring up the appropriate keymap (the one that contains the right key)
* Click on the button which represents the key that you want to redefine
* Type in the string that you want to be transmitted when that key is pressed.
Key-redefinition strings may be up to 80 characters in length (in total).
Each key can have up to four separate redefinitions:
* one for when the key is pressed in its unmodified, or 'base' state
* one for when the key is pressed together with the key
* one for when the key is pressed together with the key.
* one for when the key is pressed together with both and
These strings should be entered into to the input field as one continuous string, with each of the substrings separated by the '|' (pipe) character. For example:
test|TEST|Test|tEST
is a key-redefinition string containing four parts, one each for the base state, the shift state, the state, and the state. If you omit one or more of the four states, the default behavior for the key will be used (if one exists).
The caret ('^') character can be used to specify a control character; this notation for the first 32 control characters is supported by WinQVT/Net. For example, the character (0x1b) could be notated as '^['.
Another, more versatile notation for non-printing characters is also available: this is the C-style 'backslash' notation. For example, '\033' could be used to represent the character. If you use this type of notation, you must supply exactly three octal digits, including leading zeros if required.
Key redefinitions will be saved to disk after you exit from the keymap by pressing the 'OK' button. If no filename has been given previously, you will prompted for one.
Starting Terminal Sessions from the Command Line
WinQVT/Net Terminal sessions can be launched at program startup, by specifying configuration names on the command line. A typical WinQVT/Net command line will look something like this:
c:\qvtnet\qvtnet.exe
Now assume that a QVTNET.RC configuration named 'myhost' exists. A terminal session on 'myhost' can be initiated at program startup by creating a command line that looks like this:
c:\qvtnet\qvtnet.exe myhost
Note: configurations that you intend to use in this way must include a 'host=' statement.
Using TNSTART to launch terminal sessions from Program Manager
The WinQVT/Net distribution package includes a program executable named TNSTART.EXE. This program can be used to launch Terminal sessions from the Program Manager panel, after WinQVT/Net has been started. To use TNSTART, you should create a Program Manager icon with a command line of the following structure:
c:\qvtnet\tnstart []
In this command line, the argument is the name or IP address of the target host, and the optional argument is the name of a terminal configuration as defined in QVTNET.RC. The argument may also contain the IP port number; this is done by appending a colon, followed by the port number (in decimal), to the IP address.
FTP Client
WinQVT/Net allows you to have one FTP session in addition to your terminal sessions. To start an FTP session, go to the Console window and press the 'FTP' button (or select 'FTP' from the Services menu). Once the FTP window has come up, you can use the 'Open' menuitem to begin an FTP session. The FTP 'login' dialog box contains a drop-down list box showing the names of the hosts which are defined in your hosts file, and also provides input fields for your login name and password. All three must be filled in before you can begin the FTP session.
If you cancel the dialog, the login window will disappear, but the FTP window will remain, in a 'closed' state (i.e., no session).
When you are ready to close the FTP session, enter the command 'bye' or 'quit' at the 'ftp>' prompt. This will terminate the FTP connection and close the window. You can terminate an FTP session without closing the window by using the 'close' command. All of these commands are also available from the menu bar.
Note that FTP runs concurrently with any terminal sessions that you may have started. You can switch back to one of them at any time.
Note: FTP transfer rates, especially uploads, will sometimes depend on the Winsock package that you are using. Within the range of 16-bit Winsocks, we have seen transfer rates vary from 4Kb/Sec to 110Kb/sec, with the same client code.
News Reader
If there is an NNTP server running on your network, you can use WinQVT/Net to download and read Usenet articles. You will also be able to post both new and followup articles, or reply to another Usenet use via email.
There are a few setup steps that you must perform in order to enable the news reading facility:
1. From the Console, select the 'Setup - News' menuitem. Near the top of the ensuing dialog you will find an input field labelled 'Host', or something similar. Enter into this field the name or IP address of your News Server.
Next, enter a value into the 'Save Directory'; this is critical, in that all of the news articles that you will be reading are downloaded into this directory. WinQVT/Net will create this directory if it doesn't already exist.
Finally, you should enter values into the 'From:', 'Organization:', and 'Distribution:' fields. These will be incorporated into the headers of the articles that you post to the Net.
2. Contact your system administrator, and have your PC added to the 'nntp_access' list. Make sure you ask for posting privileges, or you may not be allowed to post articles!
Note: not all news installations employ access control.
3. Subscribe to some newsgroups. To do this, follow these steps:
* Start the News Reader
* Select the 'Newsgroups - Subscribe' menu option.
* A dialog box will be displayed, and you will be asked if you want to download a newsgroup list; answer this prompt affirmatively.
* After the download is complete, you should select some newsgroups. You must first select the major newsgroup category that you want to select from. This list is presented in the combo-box list located near the top of the dialog box. Once a category is selected, all of the newsgroups which belong to it will be displayed in the lower listbox.
* Select one or more newsgroups from the displayed list, then click on 'OK'
You can now use the 'File - Open' dialog to download articles belonging to the subscribed newsgroups, then read them.
WinQVT/Net provides electronic mail services (receiving and sending) via the POP3 and SMTP protocols. You can use SMTP to receive and send mail directly to and from your PC; POP3 can be used to access mailboxes on a remote host.
If security is a concern, we recommend that you use POP3 for receiving mail rather than SMTP. Using POP3 also relieves you of the need to keep your PC running all the time. For sending mail, we recommend that you use SMTP, since not all POP3 servers support the sending of mail (the POP3 protocol itself specifies that SMTP should be used for sending mail).
The first thing you should do, before attempting to use Mail, is go to the 'Setup - Mail' dialog, which is available from the Console window, and enter the following mandatory items:
* The name or IP address of the POP3 host
* The name or IP address of the SMTP host
* Your mail return address. The exact value that you use will depend on whether you are going to use SMTP or POP3, but in any event a valid return address must be present before you can send mail.
* The 'Save Directory' name. This is where incoming mail will be stored by the SMTP server.
You should also read the release notes on Version 3.98 (RELNOTES.WRI) and study the section on 'Mailboxes'. WinQVT/Net uses the abstract concept of the 'mailbox' to refer to a mail repository, which may be located either locally (in a directory on your PC), or remotely (a POP3 server on a remote host). Once you understand mailboxes, you can create them from the 'Open' dialog. Click on the 'New' button, and you can enter the data elements that define mailboxes.
These are:
Mailbox Name:human readable, can contain blanks
Mailbox Type: 'remote' or 'local'
Mailbox Location:server name, for remote, or directory path, for local
Username: login name, for remote mailboxes only
Mailbox definitions are stored in a textfile in the home directory, named QVTMBOX.RC.
Note: though the mailbox name can contain blanks, you will not be able to receive mail into such a mailbox with WinQVT/Net's SMTP server. Mailboxes which are expected to be targets of the SMTP server should not have names which contain blanks. See RFC822 for details.
If you already have a mailbox on a Unix host, and if there is a POP3 server running on that host, you can create a WinQVT/Net mailbox entry for that machine, and proceed directly to logon to that server, using your usual login name and password.
Local mailboxes should be created as subdirectories under the main 'mail' directory, which is the one given as the 'Save Directory' on the 'Setup - Mail' dialog. The first-level subdirectory should be your POP3 username (if any). If you are not using POP3 at all, you should still establish a username for yourself, and make it the name of the first subdirectory under 'mail'. The next level of directories should contain two initial entries, 'mbox' and 'newmail'. The SMTP server will want to place incoming messages into the directory '\mail\\newmail'.
Network printing using lpr
WinQVT/Net includes a small application that allows you to submit files which reside on your PC for printing on a remote printer (i.e., a printer which is attached to a host elsewhere on the network). The lpr module is fairly simply to use. The only setup requirement is that you must have assigned a node name to your PC, and placed it in QVTNET.INI. Of course, WinQVT/Net will not run at all without a node name, so there are effectively no special setup requirements for lpr. All of the remaining required data items can be supplied at runtime.
Host setup: you must ask your system adminstrator to add your PC to the list of hosts which are allowed to communicate with the line printer daemon, 'lpd'. If your PC is not on this list, the daemon will reject your request to establish a TCP connection. There may be separate lists for each host, so you should make sure to contact the administrator of each system that you want to use for printing. Normally, this list is kept in the file /etc/hosts.lpd.
To use lpr, you start by selecting 'lpr' from the Services menu. This brings up a dialog box, which contains the following elements:
* A list box containing a list of all the hosts which are defined in your hosts file. If you have included a 'hostname=' directive in the [lpr] section of QVTNET.INI, that host will already be selected when the lpr window is initially displayed.
* An input field for entering the print queue name. The default queue, as specified by the 'qname' directive, will already be present in this field.
* An input field for entering the username under which your print job will be submitted.
* A set of radio buttons for selecting the file type (text or binary)
* An input field for entering the name of the file to be printed.
* A pushbutton labelled 'Files', that you can use to activate a file-selection dialog.
All of these fields are required in order to start a print job. Only then will the 'Print' button be enabled. After you press 'Print', a series of messages will track the progress of the job, until completion.
Server Applications
WinQVT/Net includes two server applications, FTP and rcp. These applications allow remote users on other systems to access your PC's file system.
FTP Server
WinQVT/Net provides a background FTP server facility. This feature allows remote users to access your PC remotely using FTP. Only one logged-in user at a time is allowed.
There are several QVTNET.INI configuration directives which are associated with the FTP server. These are:
passfilethe file which contains the list of authorized users and their passwords
login_dirthe directory to which authorized users will be attached at login time
anonftp_dirthe directory to which 'anonymous' users will be attached. These users
will not be able to log to any other directories, except for subdirectories
within the same tree.
acl_defaultspecifies whether the default access for unlisted directories is
'allow' or 'deny'.
A small utility program, PASSWD.EXE, is provided for the maintenance of the password file. It is a DOS program which uses a simple TTY interface that is self-explanatory.
FTP server security depends on whether or not you have implemented a password file. If there is no password file, users can login at will; no passwords are required, and there are no access restrictions (other than those indicated in QVTNET.ACL). If you do create a password file, then only users whose names are included in this file will be allowed to log in.
If you provide a value for the 'anonftp_dir' directive, WinQVT/Net will allow 'anonymous' logins. Anonymous users operate under some restrictions:
* Access is restricted to a single directory tree (as specified by 'anonftp_dir')
* Anonymous users are not allowed to delete files, or overwrite existing files.
Note: if you don't specify an anonymous login directory, anonymous logins will not be permitted!
Authorized users have fewer restrictions, but access control lists can be used to protect certain files and directories from authorized users also. The set of access control lists is stored in the QVTNET.ACL file, which should be placed in the WinQVT/Net home directory. Each access control list occupies a single line in QVTNET.ACL, and is of the form:
[,,...]
The is mandatory, and gives the name of the directory to which the ACL applies. The optional entries give the names of the users who are authorized to access the named directory. Each username should be the name of a valid FTP user as created by PASSWD.EXE. If entries are present in an ACL, they should be separated from the by a single blank space. The 's themselves should be separated by comma's, and there should be no blanks anywhere in the list.
Normally, a specification applies only to that directory, and not to its subdirectories (if any). You can, however, extend access to subdirectories by appending an asterisk ('*') to the directory name.
Access to directories which are not named in QVTNET.ACL is controlled by the QVTNET.INI directive 'acl_default'. The default value of this directive is 'allow', which means that access will be allowed. The alternative is 'acl_default=deny', which means that access will be denied by default, and only the directories named in QVTNET.ACL will be available to users of the FTP server.
In the present release, there is no attempt to distinguish different classes of access (e.g., read-only vs. read/write). This sort of refinement may be added in a future release.
rcp Server
WinQVT/Net also provides a server that allows remote users to copy files to and from the PC using the BSD rcp command. This server makes use of the same security features as does the FTP server, particularly the user-validation facility. Unlike FTP, however, there is no provision for 'anonymous' users; only documented users will be admitted.
SMTP Server
New in WinQVT/Net 3.98 is the SMTP server, which allows you to receive electronic mail directly on your PC. Once you have set up the Mail client application, very little additional setup is required in order to use the SMTP server. In fact, as long as you have created at least one local mailbox, you can use the SMTP server to deposit new mail into that mailbox without additional configuration; all you have to do is make sure that mail is addressed to that mailbox.
Consider the following setup:
* User name 'smith'
* Machine name 'mypc'
* Domain name 'oursys.com'
Mail addressed to 'smith@mypc.oursys.com' will either be placed into the mailbox named 'smith' - if one is defined in QVTMBOX.RC - or will be placed into the directory 'c:\mail\smith\newmail', where 'c:\mail' is the name of the Mail 'save directory'.
Note: mailbox names for use with SMTP should contain only alphanumeric characters, periods, and dashes (no blanks allowed). They should not exceed 63 characters in length. Details are specified in RFC822.
Registration Information
WinQVT/Net is a shareware product. Should you find it satisfactory and suitable for your needs, we ask that you remit your registration fee to:
QPC Software
Penfield, NY 14526
The registration fee for WinQVT/Net is $40, except for students, who can register for $20. For shipment outside of North America, please add $5.
Institutional customers: purchase orders are welcome! Please be sure to provide the name of an end-user contact for the purpose of receiving updates.
Registered users receive a printed user manual, a complete set of fonts, and free access to upgrades for a period of one year. Please allow one to two weeks for delivery; longer if shipping outside the USA is required.
If possible, please include the name and Internet (or Compuserve) address of a contact person to whom correspondence and updates can be addressed.
If you upload this program to another bulletin board or ftp site, please be sure to include ALL of the original files that are in this package, without modification.
Other QPC Products
QPC Software offers a complete line of asynchronous DEC emulation products for most major personal computing environments, including MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Apple Macintosh, and OS/2. All are of high quality and provide exceptional value. Please write to us for a complete price list, including information on discounts and site licenses.
Contacting QPC
You can contact QPC electronically via Internet mail. Our email addresses are:
robin@robin.qpc.com(sales inquiries)
chloe@qpc.com (technical questions and comments)
Before sending us mail asking about setup or configuration, please read all of the documentation in this distribution first, including the sample QVTNET.INI and the release notes. Most of the information that we have on setting up WinQVT/Net is included in these documents.
Our voice number is:
We can also be contacted via fax:
Thank you for your interest in WinQVT/Net!
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Archive-name: music/reggae/part1
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Contents
[0]. Is there a Reggae Archives on the Internet?
[1]. Dub Recommendations
[2]. Can anyone recommend some books on reggae?
[3]. What is "Dub" music anyway?
[4]. Can anyone recommend some roots reggae?
[5]. Live reggae recording recommendations
[6]. Who was Marcus Garvey?
[7]. Can you recommend some Dancehall?
[8]. Is there a newsgroup that caters to those of us who enjoy soca,
[9]. Books on Rastafarianism?
[10.] What are the different reggae styles?
[11.] CARIBANA FAQ
[12.] Can anyone give me some info on the rasta culture?
[13.] Could anyone out there suggest to me any albums which combine
reggae and
[14.] Caribbean Clubs FAQ
[15.] What is the significance of the "Two Sevens"?
[16.] What's all this about Sound Systems, Clashes and Dubplates?
[17.] Is there a World Wide Web Server for Reggae?
[18.] Is there a Gopher Server for Reggae?
[19.] What is RAW (Reggae Ambassadors Worldwide)?
[20.] Why do purists look down on UB40?
[21.] Can anyone recommend good female reggae vocalists (not
dancehall). ?
The Questions and Answers
[0]. Is there a Reggae Archives on the Internet?
The Jammin Reggae Archives are located at jammin.nosc.mil
(128.49.28.5). The archives can be accessed in several ways:
1. Gopher Server - gopher jammin.nosc.mil
2. WWW (World Wide Web) using the Jammin Home Page:
http://jammin.nosc.mil/jammin.html
Or other home pages:
Reggae Down Babylon Home Page:
http://nyx10.cs.du.edu:8001/~damjohns/reggae.html
http://wsogata.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp
http://www.biologie.uni-freiburg.de/data/reggae/reggae.html
3. Anonymous FTP - To access the archives, ftp to
jammin.nosc.mil
and login with username anonymous, use your email userid
address as the password. After logging in,change directory
pub/reggae. Use the "DIR" command to see what's there and
"get" command to download files. Don't forget to set binary
transfer mode with the "bin" command for pictures or sound
4. Mail Server - To access the mailserver, send a message to
mailserv@jammin.nosc.mil with a message body:
send file
The files are arranged as follows:
audio Sound sample files directory
faq This file
pics Pictures directory
Incoming For uploading
catalogs Record catalogs
lyrics Song lyrics
radioshows
mailorder
If you have any problems or anything to contribute, like radio shows
your local area or pics, post to rec.music.reggae or mail me at
mikey@nosc.mil. Files may be uploaded to the archives by anonymous
ftp to jammin in directory pub/reggae/Incoming.
[1]. Dub Recommendations
Ok, here's a FAQ if I ever saw one:
GIMME SOME DUB POINTERS!
I've been there a bit already - got some LKJ, Agustus Pablo,
Lee Perry, Upsetters, but I have yet to find the really mind
searing spaced out heavy dub that I hear hints of once in awhile.
I want loads of echo, pans and sounds like the universe is
being ripped apart at the seams in front of me. Skip the drum
machines unless they're very tastefully done, lay on the heavy
bass and crank up the volume, kick back and close your eyes...
Help me find it! My last try was ROIR's TOWERING DUB INFERNO
and only a couple of tracks get close to as heavy as I'd hoped.
I keep getting pointers to African Headcharge, but that stuff is
very steeply priced - is it worth it?
- malcolm
In article malcolm@wrs.com (Malcolm Humes)
writes:
>...but I have yet to find the really mind
>searing spaced out heavy dub that I hear hints of once in awhile.
>I want loads of echo, pans and sounds like the universe is
>being ripped apart at the seams in front of me
Two words: Mad Professor
>I keep getting pointers to African Headcharge, but that stuff is
>very steeply priced - is it worth it?
Yes. The best stuff from their first four albums is out on two discs,
titles I can't remember (they'll be obvious, though, they have "volume
and "volume 2" in the title). Also the CD _Songs of Praise_ is
excellent,
although it's not as twisted as the early stuff; it's more African in
an On-U sort of way than spaced out in an On-U sort of way.
You are also required to have much Prince Far I within easy reach at
In article malcolm@wrs.com (Malcolm Humes)
writes:
>Ok, here's a FAQ if I ever saw one:
>GIMME SOME DUB POINTERS!
>I've been there a bit already - got some LKJ, Agustus Pablo,
>Lee Perry, Upsetters, but I have yet to find the really mind
>searing spaced out heavy dub that I hear hints of once in awhile.
I had a Prince Fari LP in New Zealand which seems to fit the bill -
leave it with a friend as a parting gift since he was so in tune with
it. Sorry, can't recall the name now! (it had a track called "Plant
which I was really into). Also try some Mad Professor albums.
rfrance@umiacs.umd.edu (Robert B France) writes:
>In article malcolm@wrs.com (Malcolm
writes:
>>Ok, here's a FAQ if I ever saw one:
>>GIMME SOME DUB POINTERS!
>>I've been there a bit already - got some LKJ, Agustus Pablo,
>>Lee Perry, Upsetters, but I have yet to find the really mind
>>searing spaced out heavy dub that I hear hints of once in awhile.
For good spaced-out dub, try Dub Syndicate (On-U Sound). They're hard
to find in the US - try the import or World Music section of your
local mega-store.
malcolm@wrs.com (Malcolm Humes) writes:
>GIMME SOME DUB POINTERS!
>Help me find it! My last try was ROIR's TOWERING DUB INFERNO
>and only a couple of tracks get close to as heavy as I'd hoped.
i liked TDI, but i can see what you mean... try any of the ON-U
releases like PLAYGROUP (jazzy dub) or PARTY SOUNDS 1, etc. they're
quite good. also, anything else Adrian Sherwood does by himself
seems to be great dub.
>I keep getting pointers to African Headcharge, but that stuff is
>very steeply priced - is it worth it?
in a word, yes. it's pretty steeply priced here, maybe not at Amoeba
in Berkeley. your best bet is to write ON-U directly for better
prices. this is what a friend of mine does. i'll send you the address
via email when i get home and look on one of my ON-U cds.
In article malcolm@wrs.com (Malcolm Humes)
writes:
>Ok, here's a FAQ if I ever saw one:
>GIMME SOME DUB POINTERS!
>I've been there a bit already - got some LKJ, Agustus Pablo,
>Lee Perry, Upsetters, but I have yet to find the really mind
>searing spaced out heavy dub that I hear hints of once in awhile.
>I want loads of echo, pans and sounds like the universe is
>being ripped apart at the seams in front of me. Skip the drum
>machines unless they're very tastefully done, lay on the heavy
>bass and crank up the volume, kick back and close your eyes...
>Help me find it! My last try was ROIR's TOWERING DUB INFERNO
>and only a couple of tracks get close to as heavy as I'd hoped.
>I keep getting pointers to African Headcharge, but that stuff is
>very steeply priced - is it worth it?
> - malcolm
WOW!! excellent start!!!! You might try some Mad Proffesor Psychedelic
Umm let me go look... well Iroy Crisis time (any Iroy rocks but dub..)
also try more Perry, Satan's Dub, The Upsetter and The Beat, Scratch
Attack..
The best dub (in my opinion) comes from bootlegs, Steel Pulse does
some crazy
stuff live: maybe you've heard versions of Roller Skates nana dub
There are alot of flip side dubins on Bob singles.
BTW how's African Headcharge coming out???
jafari
Here are some things to look for from the discography in the back of
Jon Savage's _England's Dreaming: Anarchy, Sex Pistols, Punk Rock, and
Beyond_. He also says that Steve Barrow is working on what should be
the definitive book on Reggae and Dub (looks like nothing available
yet). (Most of this is Dub, since that's what I'm most interested in
hearing, I think.)
Aggrovators (mixed by King Tubby)
Johnny in the Echo Chamber 1989 Atlantic
Dub Justice 1990 ATLP
Collections/Compilations
The Harder They Come 1972 Island
soundtrack
King Tubby Meets the Upsetter at the
Grass Roots of Dub 1976 Fay Music
Keep On Coming Through the Door Trojan
"talkover"
U-Roy and Friends: With a Flick of My
Musical Wrist Trojan?
"talkover"
20 Reggae Classics 1987 Trojan CD
Studio Kinda Cloudy 1988 Trojan Hudson
King Tubby's Special 1973-1976 1990 Trojan 30
tracks
Culture
Two Sevens Clash 1977 Joe Gibbs
Rupert Edwards
Irie Feelings 1990 Trojan CD 20
remixes
Keith Hudson
Pick A Dub 1975 Atra
Torch of Freedom 1976 Virgin ?
Rasta Communication 1978 Joint Records
Junior Mervin (mixed by Lee Perry)
Police and Thieves 1976 Island
Lee "Scratch" Perry ("The Upsetter")
Super Ape 1976 Island
Lee Perry and Friends - Give Me Power 1988 Trojan
The Upsetter Collection 1988 Trojan
The Upsetter Compact Set 1988 Trojan
Prince Far-I
Heavy Manners 1976 Joe Gibbs
Revolutionaries
Dub Sensation
Bamba in Dub 1977 Skynote
Hordcore Dub 1990 OMLP
The manufacturer of a lot of these records:
Trojan Records
12 Thayer Street
London W1M 6AU
A distributor/shop which supposedly has or can get most or all of the
Trojan reissues:
Shanachie Records US
Dalebrook Park
Hohokus, New Jersey 07423
In article LB.NKA@isumvs.iastate.edu
Achebo) writes:
>From: LB.NKA@isumvs.iastate.edu (Nubi Achebo)
>Subject: Natty Dub Music
>Date: Mon, 4 Jan 1993 19:32:16 GMT
>Would anybody give me a list of some natty dub laden reggae music and
>musicians. Also please include any mail order place you know to get
>albums since I live in a tiny city where the selection is very poor.
>I,ll also like to have the address of "Mango" - a record producing
>distribution company.
>Nubi Achebo.
Here's a list of 10 particularly fine dub albums by non-dub artists
particular order):
1. Black Uhuru - Dub Factor (Mango)
Sly and Robbie team up with Paul 'Groucho' Smykle for a ferocious
dub album. Almost like a heavy metal album in its intensity.
2. Prince Fari - Cry Tuff Dub Encounter chapter I (ROIR cassette,
Danceteria CD), II (Virgin/Caroline reissue) III (Daddy Kool) IV
(Trojan).
The voice Moses heard on the mountain must have been similar to that
of the late Prince Fari's. His dub albums rumble and boom as well.
Especially fine is I where he hooks up with English dubmeister Adrian
Sherwood.
3. UB40 - Present Arms in Dub (Virgin)
Before UB40 sold its soul for mass pop-reggae stardom, they released
Present Arms, a great album. In Dub is even better. Distinguished by
spare use of traditional dub effects (like echo), it combines a heavy
bassline with crisp drums and UB40's best asset - their horn section.
4. Wailers - Tribute to Carly Barrett (Atra)
Until Island relents in its pigheadedness and releases Dennis
Thompson's dub mixes of the Marley catalog, check the Wailers
spotlight on
their late drummer. Carlton Barrett, wiped from creation in 1987, had
unique drum style which is mixed upfront on this dub of Horace Andy
Winston Jarrett tracks. Great supporting work from Tyrone Downie's
and Bobby Ellis's horns.
5. Aswad - New Chapter of Dub (Mango)
(Mikey) Dread at the Controls serving up a spacey dub of Aswad's
English import New Chapter LP. Includes stellar horn work by Michael
Bammie' Rose and Vin Gordon.
6. Bunny Wailer - Dub D'sco Vol. I and II (Solomonic).
Unlike his partners, Bob and Peter, Bunny has released two superb
dub albums. Vol. I features his vocals mixed high and then
pushed/pulled in
a wash of dub echo. Vol. II is a more traditional dub album.
7. Ras Michael and the Sons of Negus - Rastafari Dub (ROIR cassette,
Crocodisc CD).
Nyabinghi dub. Robbie Shakespeare's bass leads the way while the
akete, funde and repeater drums complement him against Earl 'Chinna'
Smith's
flange guitar. Any extremely rare dub album reissued featuring Peter
on clavinet!
8. Treasure Isle Dub Vol. I and II (Treasure Isle).
Classic rock steady and early reggae tracks given the dub
treatment; like John Holt's 'Ali Baba', Alton Ellis's 'Cry Tough' and
Melodians 'Come on Little Girl'. A good companion to Heartbeat's Duke
Treasure Chest of '92. Check several of Studio One's dub albums as
9. Dr. Alimontado - Love Is (Keyman)
Like Bunny Wailer's, this is more a vocalized dub album of tracks by
one of reggae's most underrated toasters. A perfect example of how
deejays
have followed U Roy's example in incorporating dub.
10. Alpha and Omega - Watch and Pray (A & O, Greensleeves)
Dub's new wave: borrowing a little from Jah Shaka and ON U sound's
African Headcharge, Alpha and Omega combine haunting female vocals,
spacey
dub effects, bonecrushing bass and salutations to Jah for an ethereal
Possibly an acquired taste.
Bonus: Kings of Reggae featuring Chris Hinze (Keytone)
More of an instrumental album. Some cheezy flute player from
Holland (Hinze) goes down a yard and teams up with the best of
Jamaica's
session men: Sly and Robbie, Mikey Chung, Sticky. While the premise
this sounds horrofic, the result is a masterpiece: Sly and Robbie rock
the unknown female backups sound great and as a bonus Peter Tosh
warbles on
a couple of tracks. One more reason reggae music will suprise you
Probably the finest single dub album I own is a double LP on Trojan
called
"King Tubby Special." It consists, of course, of classic tracks
dubbed up by
the King himself. Kicks butt big time.
Also, there is a Prince Far I CD available from Trojan called "Voice
Thunder," and it's essential.
Keep an eye out for the Bunny Lee reissues coming out on RAS these
There's a very nice U-Roy disc ("Rock with I", RASCD 3219), which
features
U-Roy toasting over gutbusting dub tracks, and also a great collection
instrumental tracks by the Aggrovators which isn't strictly dub but
features
Bunny's dubwise production style.
From: Robert Nelson (rnelson@alexandria.lib.utah.edu
Prince Fari has always been one of my all time favorites. His voice
sounds
like he used to drink Drano :-). He chanted my all time favorite
reggae
lyric, "The humble cow gives the most milk." I probably feel sadder
his death than Marley's overall.
The Cry Tuff album that was produced by Adrian Sherwood was the first
Tuff Dub Encounter. It came out in 1978 on the Hitrun label and
features the
Arabs as the musicians. (In actuality I think the Arabs were really
Syndicate). ROIR has released this on cassette and Danceteria has the
It's a great dub album, with lots of special effects. Lions roaring
sort of thing; great for your answering machine message :-)
The Virgin/Caroline compilation called "Dubwize" has 4 unreleased
singles/
versions & Cry Tuff Chap II. There are 8 songs listed for II. These
Caroline
reissues were notorious for leaving various tracks from the original
albums off of the CD reissues. Does anyone out there have Cry Tuff II
vinyl? Did they leave off anything?
Here's a Prince Fari discography: *Cd availability
Cry Tuff Dub Ch. 1 (Roir/Danceteria)*
Cry Tuff Dub Ch. 3 (Daddy Kool)
Cry Tuff Dub Ch. 4 (Trojan)
Dubwize (Virgin/Caroline)*
Voice of Thunder (Trojan)*
Umkhonto we Sizwe - Spear of the Nation (Wambesi)*
Musical Revue (ROIR/Danceteria)* - live with the Suns of Arka
Black Man Land (Virgin/Caroline)* - tracks from Message from the King
Livity
Under Heavy Manners (Joe Gibbs)
Psalms For I (Carib Gems) - Bible verses chanted over reggae beats
Jamaican Heroes (Trojan)
Free From Sin (Trojan)
Musical History (Trojan)
Here's some more I only know about, (if anyone has these and would
like to
do a trade swap, please mail me)
Message from the King (Virgin)
Long Life (Virgin)
Livity (Pre)
Rockers in a Suitcase (Pre)
Fari also did stellar work with Sherwood's Singers and Players:
Golden Greats (ON U)*
War of Words (ON U)
Staggering Heights (ON U)
Plus there is a nice Prince Fari love song where he sings and a DJ
toasts
over HIM on the ON U release Reggae Archives Vol 1.
If I've left anything out, please let us know.
Robert.
From: pandit@news.delphi.com (PANDIT@DELPHI.COM)
Subject: Re: Dub Reggae Reccomendations
Well, where do we start? I guess I'll limit this too stuff that is in
Dub Syndicate/African Headcharge/SIngers and Players -- some of the
spaciest and furthest out dub, produced by Brit A. Sherwood,
available on import from UK on On-U-SOund.
Mad Professor - DUb me Crazy Series, esp. 2, 4, 5, and 6. Wild,
playfull, slightly more electro dub from UK. Available domestically
from RAS.
Burning Spear - Living Dub I and II. REmixes are not as good as
originals
but what are you going to do? RAS.
Scientist - whatever is available. It's all good.
Prince Jammy - likewise - except for the electro stuff.
Dennis Bovell - some great stuff, some not so great.
Lee Perry - Blood Vapour, Blackboard Jungle Dub, SUper Ape,
Trojan Box Sets. One of the founding fathers.
Prince Far-I - I don't know what's in print, but most
dub titles are excellent.
That's probably about it. Unfortunatley, most of the best
stuff is long out of print, available only on small JA or
UK labels on LP, and all us collectors beat you to it.
Regards,
Pandit
From: pandit@news.delphi.com (PANDIT@DELPHI.COM)
How could I forget? Black Uhuru's Dub Factor and SLy and RObbie's
Reggae Greats.
Pandit
From: mikey@monkfish.nosc.mil
30 Years of Dub on the Go, 2 CD set from Rhino. King Tubby, King
Scientist and The Mad Professor.
Subject: Re: What's your favorite DUB?????
I have to agree, Mad Professor's dubs are among the VERY best. I rate
Crazy Part 2 (Beyond the Realms of Dub) as his best album by a long
But I haven't heard many of the later ones...
Other than that, most Scientist is great (especially Dub Landing), as
is most
of Jah Shaka's output.
Cheers,
|> On And In Dub ...
|> -Echomania is the most recent Dub Syndicate album. Most everything
|> On-U Sound label is worthwhile and they're now re-releasing old
stuff at
|> quite a clip. The Dub Syndicate Classic Selections and African Head
Charge
|> Vintage Selections are good value.
|> -One very fine NEW DUB compilation is Time Warp Dub Clash (Island
Records).
|> The first half is old Sly & Robbie Dubs, but the latter part is a
bunch of
|> fine new tracks from Jah Shaka,Manasseh, etc. Also check out Jah
Shaka's
|> Dub Symphony (Mango)
|> In terms of classics, my favourite dub album of all time is Johnny
|> Echo Chamber by the Aggrovators (trojan Records), produced by King
|> Tubby.Also look for Lee Perry, Scientist (his 'Tribute to King
Tubby' thru
|> ROIR Records in New York is cool - it got me thru a seven-hour
traffic jam
|> trying to get to Glastonbury once.)
|> If it's dubwise but not strictly dub yer after, try anything by THE
|> Which is ambient dub, but hey, let's not get into that
From: stevem@dcs.gla.ac.uk (Steve McGowan.)
Subject: Re: U.K. Reggae Top 40
>|> >1 Various - 30 Years Of Dub Music On The Go (2 CD) (Rhino UK)
Mike, I've seen a lot of requests for more information on
this dub CD - maybe the track listing ought to go in the FAQ???
~Title: "30 years of dub music on the go" - various artists.
Producer: Bunny Lee.
Recorded at various studios in Jamaica.
Label: Rhino Records (RNCD 2046).
(KT=King Tubby, KJ=King Jammy, CMP=Crazy Mad Professor, S=Scientist)
Zion gate dub - KT Natural dub - KT
Money dub - KT Hard core dub - CMP
Forward home dub - KJ Pretty dub - CMP
Something on my mind dub - S Slow motion dub - KJ
Mellow dub - CMP Jump song dub - KJ
Ten to one dub - KJ Good dub - S
Glad tidings dub - KT Baltimore dub - KT
Happy dub - S Reggaematic dub - KT
Hold on dub - CMP Confusion dub - KJ
Marcus dub - KT Dark destroyer dub - KJ
Fittest of the fittest dub - KJ Penetrating dub - CMP
Movie star dub - S Time dub - CMP
Graceful dub - KT Just say who dub - KT
Different style dub - KJ Impulsive dub - KT
Blood danza dub - S
[2]. Can anyone recommend some books on reggae?
1. Catch a Fire - The Life of Bob Marley. Timothy White. Holt,
Rinehart and
Winston. 1983
2. Reggae Bloodlines - In Search of the Music and Culture of Jamaica.
Stephen
Davis and Peter Simon. Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. 1977
3. Reggae International. Stephen Davis and Peter Simon. Rogner &
Bernhard GMBH
4. The Harder They Come - Michael Thelwell
5. "Bob Marley" by Stephen Davis, published by Schenkman Books, INC
ISBN: 0-87047-045-0, 087047-044-2 (pbk)
A good biography about Bob's life, mentions all the albums and a
of concerts, Bob made. A must for the real Marley-fan.
6. Derek Bishton "Blackheart Man"
7. Leonard Barrett "The Rastafarians"
8. Adrian Boot/
Michael Thomas "Jamaica: Babylon on a Thin Wire"
9. Adrian Boot/
Michael Thomas "Jah Revenge: Jamaica Revisited"
10. Howard Johnson/ "Reggae: Deep Roots Music
Jim Pines
11. Malika Lee Whitney/ "Bob Marley: Reggae King of the World
Dermott Hussey
12. Dick Hebdige "Cut n Mix"
Published 1987 by Methuen & Co.
29 West 35th St., NY, NY 10001.
ISBN: 0906890993 (paperback) and 1851780297
(hardback).
From the back cover: "This is a book about the music of the
Caribbean--from calypso and ska through to
reggae
and Caribbean club culture."
13. Rebekah M. Mulvaney "Rastafari and Reggae: A Dictionary &
Sourcebook"
14. Joseph Owens "Dread: The Rastafarians of Jamaica"
From Lee O'Neill:
|> I also thought that while I'm at it, I should post a reggae
bibliography.
|> These are the books that I know about that pertain to Jamaican
|> There are many other useful books that deal with Jamaica or
Rastafari that
|> are a bit outside the self-imposed limits of this compilation. If
anyone
|> has any additions, please let me know via email.
|> Boot, Adrian & Thomas, Michael BABYLON ON A THIN WIRE (Schocken,
|> Boot, Adrian & Goldman, Vivien BOB MARLEY: SOUL REBEL-NATURAL
MYSTIC
|> (St.Martin's Press, 1982)
|> Clarke, Sebastian JAH MUSIC (Heinemann, 1980)
|> Chapman, Rob NEVER GROW OLD 2ed. (1992)
|> Davis, Stephen BOB MARLEY (Doubleday, 1985) (reissued Schenkmann,
|> Davis, Stephen & Simon, Peter REGGAE INTERNATIONAL (Random House,
|> Davis, Stephen & Simon, Peter REGGAE BLOODLINES (Doubleday, 1977)
|> (reissued
|> DaCapo,1992)
|> Hebdige, Dick CUT 'N' MIX (Comedia, 1987)
|> Jahn, Brian & Weber, Tom REGGAE ISLAND (Kingston, 1992)
|> Johnson, Howard, & Pines, Jim REGGAE (Proteus, 1982)
|> Kaski, Tero & Vuorinen, Pekka REGGAE INNA DANCE HALL STYLE (Black
|> Larkin, Colin, ed. GUINNESS WHO'S WHO OF REGGAE (Guinness, 1994)
|> Marre, Jeremy BEATS OF THE HEART (Pantheon, 1985)
|> McCann, Ian COMPLETE GUIDE TO THE MUSIC OF BOB MARLEY (Omnibus,
|> Mulvaney, Rebekah Michele RASTAFARI & REGGAE (Greenwood, 1990)
|> Observer Station BOB MARLEY: THE ILLUSTRATED DISCO/BIOGRAPHY
(Omnibus,
|> Scrivener, Jean RHYTHM WISE (Black Star)
|> Scrivener, Jean RHYTHM WISE 2 (Black Star, 1990)
|> Scrivener, Jean RHYTHM WISE 3 (Black Star, 1992)
|> Thelwell, Michael HARDER THEY COME (Grove, 1980)
|> Waters, Anita M. RACE, CLASS & POLITICAL SYMBOLS: RASTARARI &
REGGAE IN
|> JAMAICAN POLITICS (Transaction , 1985)
|> White, Timothy CATCH A FIRE (Henry Holt, 1983, revised 1989)
|> Whitney, Malika & Hussey, Dermott BOB MARLEY: REGGAE KING OF THE
|> (Dutton, 1984)
From: Richard W Anglin
RASTA AND RESISTANCE by Horrace Campbell, published by The African
gives a history and the situations that led up to and caused to birth
reggae.
The Guiness Who's Who of Reggae
Publisher: Guiness
Welch, Chris BOB MARLEY
CD Books
Reggae Magazines
Roots & Culture
Published by Impact Graphics
10800 N. Military Trail #233
Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410
Dub Missive
Orlando, FL 32867-7850
Voice/FAX 407-381-9907
The Beat
Bongo Productions
Los Angeles, CA 90065
Reggae Report
Hallandale, FL 33008-2722
Email: 74467.3070@compuserve.com
Reggae Trade Magazine
63a Bruce Grove
Tottenham, London N17 6RN
[3]. What is "Dub" music anyway?
Look at the B-sides of Jamaican 45s beginning with rock steady, and
you'll notice many of them say "Version". This is "dub", a simple
instrumental
remix of the A-side that may also include a few scraps of the vocals.
singers are "dubbed out", but in most other respects the version is
identical
to the A-side. Begun as a test for sound levels during the record-
mastering
process, version later became vogue. The Jamaican public developed an
taste for version, and the scat-singing sound-system deejays took to
recording
their master-of-ceremonies raps over the hit-backing rhythms.
"Reggae International", Davis and Simon
Chapter 8, X-Ray Music
[4]. Can anyone recommend some roots reggae?
I always recommend the samplers, that way you can choose what sounds
interesting and branch out from there. I highly recommend the
Greensleeves,
Heartbeat, RAS, and Mango samplers, although there are many others.
EZ Noh, mike
From: mart@csa.bu.edu (borja larrumbide)
Newsgroups: rec.music.reggae
Subject: Re: New Groups, Any ideas?
If you like Steel Pulse you will definitely enjoy Aswad. They both
sound very
alike, especially in albums like Aswad(live, Hulet,...).Try to avoid
its most
recent stuff and check first its old albums. If you hear Bob Marley
then you
should check Peter Tosh(Wanted Dread or Alive,...). Other groups I
recommend would be Black Uhuru, Alpha Blondy(It been considered to
follow the
trends of Bob Marley. Although that's a matter of opinion). Another
choice
could be Burning Spear(live in Paris, Mek We Dweet,...). There are
many more
and the list too long. I hope this helps!
Long live reggae!
From: fiddick@condor.ucsb.edu (Laurence Fiddick;)
Newsgroups: rec.music.reggae
Subject: Re: recommendations
here goes:
if it's on studio one buy it. in particular you might look for burning
spear's 'studio one presents' and 'rocking time', the heptones' 'on
the carlton and the shoes' lp--generally you can't go wrong with
studio
not on studio one, look for:
augustus pablo 'original rockers'
augustus pablo 'king tubby meets rockers uptown'
augustus pablo 'east of the river nile'
culture 'two sevens clash'
culture 'harder than the rest'
culture 'cumbolo'
black uhuru 'red'
black uhuru 'showcase/guess who's coming to dinner'
linton kwesi johnson 'dread, beat an blood'
linton kwesi johnson 'making history'
dennis brown 'visions'
bob marley 'rasta revolution'
bob marley 'african herbsman'
count ossie and the mystic revelation of rastafari 'grounation'
burning spear 'marcus garvey'
burning spear 'social living'
hugh mundell 'africa must be free by 1983'
various 'wiser dread'
i'm sure others can add more to this list.
Newsgroups: rec.music.reggae
Subject: Re: recommendations
No self-respecting reggae fan should be without a few Lee Perry
albums (either ones that he's produced or recorded - or both)
Best ones include...
Heart of the Ark (Vols I and II)
Megaton Dub (Vols I and II)
Super Ape
Return of the Super Ape
Excaliburman
George Faith - 'To be a Lover' (Lee Perry Produced)** highly
recommended
Build the Ark -|
Open the Gate -|--- All three are three-album boxed sets
Upsetters -|
(There's lots more, but these are the ones that you should
investigate
first, especially the George Faith album. I do think, however, that
this album is now deleted [at least on vinyl], so the only place you
may come across it are in 2nd-hand record shops or record fares - but
it's a classic album which you *must* try and listen to. I got my
from a record fare a few years ago - for a paltry 3 pounds.)
From: rnelson@alexandria.lib.utah.edu (Robert Nelson)
Subject: Re: New Groups, Any ideas?
Here's a list of 10 albums that will give anyone a simple
introduction to reggae music. (These are all readily available from
record stores/chains). I'll assume that you'll want to pick up most of
Marley catalog, especially since most of the titles cost about $8 now
1. Burning Spear - Marcus Garvey/Garvey's Ghost (on CD) (Mango label)
2. Bunny Wailer - Blackheart Man (Mango Label)
3. Black Uhuru - Guess Who's Coming to Dinner (Heartbeat)
4. Peter Tosh - Legalize It (CBS)
5. Aswad - To the Top (Mango or Simba)
6. Steel Pulse - True Democracy (Elektra)
7. Eek a Mouse - Wa Do Dem (Shan. or Greensleeves)
8. Alpha Blondy - Jerusalem (Shan.)
9. Gregory Isaacs - Night Nurse (Mango)
10. Judy Mowatt - Black Woman (Shan.)
This only scratches the surface, each one of these
artists has many more killer titles all reggae lovers
should own.
Robert.
From: d2domer@dtek.chalmers.se (Erik Domstad)
Culture- 'Culture in Culture'
Mighty Diamonds- 'The Real Enemy'
Black Uhuru- 'Anthem'
Bunny Wailer- 'Liberation'
Burning Spear- 'Resistance'
Israel Vibration- 'Praises'
Wailing Souls- 'Fire house rock'
Ini Kamoze- 'Pirate'
Ijahman- 'Haile I hymn'
ixtst+@pitt.edu (Isaac Thompson) writes:
What (reggae) life has taught me, I would like to share with you.--
Selasie. The following are reggae artists I think true, dyed-in-the-
reggae heads must have:
>Mutabaruka (Ja.--roots poetry, plenty of brain food)
>Linton Kwesi Johnson (Ja.--ditto)
>Luky Dube (South Africa)
>Evi Edna (Nigeria--female, terrific voice, great voice, down right
rootsy!)
>Identity (US--group of West Indians)
>Cidre Negra (Brazil--def!)
>Sandee (Japan)
>Check them out.
From: dhoffman@spot.Colorado.EDU (David Hoffman)
Couldn't let this one go without adding my essentials:
Junior Murvin - the record with "Police and Thieves"
Gregory Isaacs, esp. early releases
Sugar Minott
Black Uhuru - check out "Sinsemilla"
Judy Mowatt
June Lodge
just a few suggestions!
From: linden@fanout.et.tudelft.nl (Hans van der Linden)
Name for his style: IJahMan Levi's music.
Compare him? It's said that Chris Blackwell decided for him to be THE
successor of Bob Marley ("sign me your publishings and I make you a
wealthy man").... yet IJahman did go his own way.
But of similar musical and lyric-wise level and similar sort of
music/lyrics
I'd say: A lot of Pablo Moses' (esp. older: Revolutionary Dream and
work (also still around and hot), also Sugar Minott's work on studio
Junior Byles (Jordan), Lee Scratch Perry's Heart of the Ark
collection,
Yabby You's One Love, One Heart (also GREAT), side A of Singers and
Players' Leaps and Bounds, Israel Vibration, Wiss, and such.
Albums and tapes I have, so I can tell about (not in specific order):
`Are We A Warrior?' 1979 (still Island:-) [title song esp. great
`Haile I Hymn (chapter 1)' (ALL 4 NUMBERS PERFECT) (yet still Island)
esp. numbers: `Jah Heavy Load' and `Jah Is No Secret' are
PERFECT+
`Tell It To The Children' (again very great)
`Levi Inside Out' (very great again, incl. 2 love songs, and a new
version of
`Jah Heavy Load') JMI 1100 (Tree Roots prod. 1989)
`Lilly Of My Valley' (lot of love songs, yet VERY good) JMI 500 (Tree
`IJahman & Friends' (VERY VERY good, esp. most numbers:-) (some
guests, like
Black Uhuru and His Majesterian appear) JMI 900, Tree Roots
`Africa' (to bore you all...again ALL BRILLIANT, great blazing, as
JMI 400, Tree Roots '84
Very recently (dedicated to 100th Anniversary of Haile Sellasie)
gave me the album:
`KingFari', I love side A, side B (love songs) I like.(JMI 1400 Tree
(Oh yes, I recorded [from radio!] `Live in Paradiso '87, guess
that will
not be found worldwide though:-)
From: Richard W Anglin
Well at the top of my list is BURNING SPEAR!!
Anything of Burning Spear up to the late 1980's. Especially the new
compilation
HAIL H.I.M.
CULTURE also primo... newly released BABYLON BRIDGE
LINTON KWESI JOHNSON
THE GLADIATORS
THE ABBYSINIANS....check out their compilation on the HEARTBEAT
label..SATTA MASSAGNA it is now considered to be a colector's item.
THE MEDITATORS
THE ORIGINAL WAILERS.... BOB MARLEY and the WAILERS when they were
called
the WAILERS
JACOB MILLER... an unsung HERO!
INI KAMOSI.... "BEFORE he went to jail"
basically I recommend all roots reggae before the mid to late 1980's
[5]. Live reggae recording recommendations
From: geofh@meibm4.cen.uiuc.edu ()
Subject: Re: Recommendations for LIVE reggae productions
Geof's favorite live discs-
Black Uhuru "Tear It Up- Live" on Mango <-- An incredible release
featuring my favorite BU lineup (Michael Rose, Ducky Simpson,
Puma) with Sly and Robbie rhythm section. Classic rockers
A must have.
Burning Spear "Live in Paris '88" on Slash/Blue Moon <--- There's
been talk of this album on the net before. Whichever version
you end up with is a killer one.
Toots and the Maytals "Live (at the Hammersmith Palace)" <--- You
want great crowd interaction? Check out the 11 (?) minute
"54-46 That's my Number" These guys have got soul. The
must have recommendation is a given for all of these selections.
Peter Tosh
"Captured Live" on ??? (this is all from the top of my head)
<--- Killer. Relatively easy to find.
Bunny Wailer "Live" on Solomonic <--- I've only seen this on vinyl
with a pretty low sound quality. Includes stuff from
"Blackheart Man" and "Rootsman Skankin'
(sorry) and an "I'm the Toughest" cover. Anyone seen this on
disc? It's definitely worth it.
BMW "Live" <--- The prototype live reggae album.
From: bbe001@acad.drake.edu
Well I'm mostly roots myself, but just by chance I was listening to a
dancehall record tonight- Charlie Chaplin's "Take Two." I know this
not be the new NEW dancehall you're talking about, i.e. Ninjaman,
Shabba, etc.
But Chaplin's the MAN and he's backed by Roots Radics here. I say
"live" cause
it's live in the studio, but he's got plenty of people whistling and
shouting.
"Take Two" is 1990 on RAS.
More good live stuff would of course be any of the Sunsplashes! I have
Eek-A-Mouse w/ Michigan and Smiley from the '84 Sunsplash and
Yellowman at the
'83. They both slam but try to get the Eek-A-Mouse disc if you have to
choose.
That's all I can think of for now...
From: oweng@aston.ac.uk (Gareth Owen)
Subject: Re: Recommendations for LIVE reggae productions
Misty In Roots - Live at the Counter Eurovision '78 (on People Unite)
Wonderful stuff
From: dudley@treefort.Corp.Sun.COM (Dudley Gaman)
You probably have Marley's _Talkin' Blues_. If not, you must get it.
Burning Spear's _Live in Paris_ is very good. My favorite live reggae
album is _Gregory Issacs Live_ from the Reggae Greats collection. It
was released 8 or 10 years ago, but I still listen to it when I need
a dose of Gregory at his best.
Dudley
From: rnelson@alexandria.lib.utah.edu (Robert Nelson)
Subject: Re: Recommendations for LIVE reggae productions
I've got a 2 album bootleg of Peter Tosh called "Dealing with the
Shytstem". With a wicked version of Babylon Queendom.
There are a couple of other Marley bootlegs in circulation as well:
The Lion's Domain
Wailing For the Last Time.
(I don't feel too bad about picking up bootlegs, since Island
shortchanged
alot of the rarities on Songs For Freedom; dem maga dogs!)
Robert.
From: mike@jammin.nosc.mil (mike pawka)
Subject: Re: Recommendations for LIVE reggae productions
My favorite "live" CD is Mighty Diamonds "Live In Tokyo", although
luck in finding it. It's a Japanese Import, I found it at Tower for
day, grabbed it and haven't seen a copy since. I think the performance
is from
From: barstow@cv.hp.com (Art Barstow)
Subject: Re: Recommendations for LIVE reggae productions
A few of my favorites that have not been mentioned:
o Bob Marley and the Wailers: Babylon By Bus
o Lucky Dube: Captured Live
o Pato Banton: I think it is 'American Revolution' or 'Reggae
Revolution';
it was recorded in San Fran. and has a good version of "Niceness"
and "Don't Sniff ...".
Reply-To: coker@artiste.sitka.sun.com
Well, once again to address real reggae, lovers rock and the
dancehall, the
25th Anniversary Album from Alton Ellis is an all-time favorite live
From: linden@fanout.et.tudelft.nl (Hans van der Linden)
Subject: Re: Recommendations for LIVE reggae productions
Though most of my favourites have yet been mentioned, still missing is
great: Chalice - Live at Reggae Sunsplash 1982 (VSLP 8902, Vista
Records)
Greetings, Hans
[6]. Who was Marcus Garvey?
Excerpted from "Reggae International", Stephen Davis and Peter Simon.
Ethiopianism includes the appreciation of Ethiopia's ancient
civilization as well as its role in the Bible. To blacks, Africa
(interchangeable with Ethiopia) became a glorious, Biblical home-
land equated with Zion. The recognition of African roots and the
desire for repatriation has been a central theme in New World
black religion before and since emancipation. Ethiopianism became
a "black religious reaction to pro-slavey propaganda."
Marcus Garvey's "Back to Africa" movement developed the spirit of
Ethiopianism to its fullest extent.
....since the white people have seen their God through white
spectacles, we have only now started out (late though it be) to
see our God through our own spectacles. Tbe God of Isaac and the
God of Jacob let him exist for the race that believe in the God
of Isaac and the God of Jacob. We Negroes believe in the God of
Ethiopia, the everlasting God--God the Son, God the Holy Ghost,
tbe one God of all ages. That is the God in whom we believe, but
we sball worship him througb the spectacles of Ethiopia.
A. J. Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey
Garvey's words planted the seeds for most "Black Cod" movements
in the US and Caribbean. Stressing the superiority of the ancient
Africans and the dignity of the black race, he inspired many
successful nationaiist movements and numerous African leaders
from Kenyatta to Nyerere.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey was born in St. Ann, Jamaica, in 1887,
descended from the fiercely proud Maroons. He founded the
newspaper The Negro World, which took as its motto his
nationalist cry, "One God, One Aim, One Destiny." In 1917, he
founded UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) in
Harlem. Its aims were described in a speech delivered by Garvey
in 1924 at Madison Square Garden, New York:
The Universal Improvement Association represents the hopes and
aspirations of tbe awakened Negro. Our desire is for a place in
tbe world, not to disturb the tranquility of other men, but to
lay down our burden and rest our weary backs and feet by the
banks of the Niger and sing our songs and chant our hymns to the
God of Ethiopia.
Garvey's goal of repatriation was expressed in his famous slogan
"Africa for the Africans." His well-known Black Star Line
steamship company was established to trade and eventually carry
New World blacks to Africa. This prophet of African redemption
was not always successfull in his countless business ventures,
but by the 1920s Garvey was the most powerful leader among the
black masses in the United States.
In 1916, before he left for his US campaign, Garvey's farewell
address to Jamaicans included the words "Look to Africa for the
crowning of a Black king; he shall be the Redeemer."
[7]. Can you recommend some Dancehall?
Profile's "Dancehall Stylee" Volumes I-III
VP's "Strictly The Best" Volumes 1-8
Mango's "Ram Dancehall"
| Scott Cairns | email: scairns@fsg.com |
My own current dancehall faves, if yuh interested:
"Gal Wine" - Chakademus / Pliers
"Wear Yuh Size" - Lt. Stitchie
"Hypocrites" - Michael Prophet / Daddy Freddy
"Ruling Cowboy" - Cocoa Tea
"Fresh Vegetable" - Tony Rebel
"Love Fever" - Cobra
"Bandaleros" - Pinchers
"Jump Up" - Admiral Bailey
"Talk Tough" - Bobo General / Culture Lindsay
| DJ Scotty Ranks | email: scairns@fsg.com |
To show respect to the broad field of dancehall stylees I compiled a
of `Big' DJ/dancehall names (over the years, I guess somewhat since
These man and man have settled their names in many ppl's memories and
made more than a couple of albums. I added one of my favourite albums
each of them. I must have missed great ones by lots and must have
selected
semi-optimal albums for many of them, so lets grow this list please.
a LOT of more temporary starts have made HOT ridims and lyrics, but
including
them (Ashanti Waugh, Peter Culture, Scion Sashay Success, Tapper Zukie
etc etc
etc) would make this list endless.
I roy - The General
U roy - Natty Rebel (++)
Papa/General Echo - 12" of Pleasure (man died too young, hear next
Clint Eastwoord & General Saint - Two Bad DJ
Michigan & Smiley - Downpression
Yellowman & Fathead - I Cant take it (if live was a thing money coulda
Yellowman & Home-T4 - Mr.Consular (this one and previous are 12")
Barrington Levi - Here I Come
Mikey Dread - World War III
Sugar Minott - Time Longer Than Rope
Big Youth - Dread Locks Dread
Jah Thomas - Dance Hall Connection
Jah Woosh - Chalis blaze
Little John - True Confession
Max Romeo - Holding Out My Love To You (maybe not everyone finds this
dancehall)
Winston Reedy - Crossover
Maxie Priest (slightly disco-ish) - You're Safe
Dr. Alimentado (not really dancehall) - Best Dressed Chicken In Town
Eek-A-Mouse (singing DJ) (some like it some hate it)) - Skidip
Dillinger - (SORT of, various experiments) I did like CB200
(ocassionally
With the very many names over the years samplers are especially useful
selecting your taste here. Nice samplers, i.e. `Super Fresh', `Sure
Very nice live samplers: a series called: `Live Dance Hall Session
where ... is `Aces International' or `Lees Unlimited' etc.
*) Sons of Thunder is better, yet less dancehall-ish
As I didn't purchase much dancehall the last few years, I missed the
latest
great names. Also some stuff lost some actuality. All titles above are
me at least) timeless anyway. Oh yes, now we're on it. On MTV I saw
Shabba,
Snow, and Shaggy on 3, 2, 1 in English chart as well. In Holland they
also be in top 5, accompanied by Dr.Alban (reggae from sweden [or
danmark?]).
BTW, wouldn't someone be able and willing to post a Jamaican chart on
group sometimes? Even with some delay it might keep us informed of
what is
hot in Jamaica much quicker.
OK, sorry for the length of this, Greetings, Hans (flashbacks will
change my
musical diet for some days, and they are already doing so:-)
Yes, it's one of the dusty, sleepy nyah mon making a dancehall
recommendation: Check out the ROIR/RAS CD, "Nice Up Dancee" featuring
Sanchez,
Flourgon, Little Lenny, Johnny P., Tiger, Tippa Lee & Rappa Robert,
Little Kirk, Paul Blake & Bloodfire Posse, Super Glen, and Natural
Beauty.
Also Two Tough Record's "Dancehall Boomshots".
EZ Noh, mike
Newsgroups: rec.music.reggae
Subject: Re: dancehall
In article <1993Jun7.012035.27087@uvm.edu>, walker@uvm.edu (Sherrett O
Walker)
writes:
|> Can someone send me email on the newest and classic dancehall
favorites???
|> Thanks in advance.
It's always difficult to determine what is the "latest" dancehall: it
always depends on how soon you were able to get to the local reggae
before
the last shipment done!! Anyway:
-"Oh Carolina," Various Artists, King Jammy's version (Which is
substantially
faster and different from the Signet (Sting Int'l) version.
-"Ghetto Vibes" Various Artists, also of Jammy's. Features D. Brown,
Courtney
Melody/Risto Benjy, Bounty Killer etc.
-Sound Boy Burial - Trouble, Tan Yah records
-Welfare/Good Enough - Blacka Ranks/ the late great Alton Black, Tan
-People - Gen. Degree, Penthouse
-Creator - Tony Rebel, Penthouse
_Operation Ardent = Buju, Penthouse
-You a lead/??? - Nardo/Galaxy P, Penthouse
-Love will lead you back - Wayne Wonder, Penthouse
-Excellence - Louie Culture, Madhouse
I will check on some new stuff that I just got in the last month and
give you
names. Also let me know how far back you mean (1993 stuff, last
month, etc..)
As for classic favorites - I'll just name some of mine:
"Here I come" - Dennis Brown
"Pumpkin Belly," "Ring the Alarm" - Tenor Saw
"Bam Bam" - Muma (then Sister) Nancy, Techniques (Winston Riley's -
its on the
same rhythm as Tenor Saw's Ring the alarm and more recently Buju's "Do
sup'm". Big Beat recently rereleased it with a *Phizattt* hip-hop
remix as
as the original.).
"Murderer," "Under me Sensi" - Barrington Levy
"Night Nurse," "Mr. Brown" - Gregory Isaacs
"Loving Pauper" - Dobby Dobson
"No,no,no" (You don't love me and I know) - Ken Boothe
"Greetings" "Level the vibes" - Half Pint
"Bobo Dread," "Leggo me hand" - Josey Wales
"Gunman Connection," "Suzy Q" - Nicodemus
Innumerable Yelloeman, especially with Fat head (e.g BAM BAM)
"Cry fi the Youth", "Mud up," "Sweet for my sweet," "Under Pressure,"
Super Cat.
"Synthersizer voice" - Pampidoo
"Gi me punany," "Think me did done" (part II), "Big Belly Man" - Adm.
Bailey
"Big Batty Gal," "Jump Spread out" - Flourgon
"Ram Dancehall," "Boombastic," "No wanga gut," "Mi lover mi lover" -
Any pre-Atlantic record of Lieutenant Stitchie After: "Father Beat me
hot, Old
Confession, All nations, Wear yu size"
"Pretty Looks done" - Major Mackerel
"Cover Me" - Ninja Man/Tinga Stewart
Etc. etc...
Selector Dudu Black
From: ac999a11@umbc2.umbc.edu
Subject: RE: dancehall
Here are a few more to add:
Zion in a vision - Garnet Silk
Love of a lifetime - ???
Love how de gal dem flex - Buju
If I ever fall in love again (cover) - Pinchers
Why so much gun and ammunition - Tony Rebel
They're not brand new, but are among some of the better '93 selection
to come
>As for classic favorites - I'll just name some of mine:
Some to add here would be:
Jump Up - Tiger
Babylon Boops - Lovindeer
Computer Burial - ???
Sorry - Foxy Brown
Love the life you live - Colonel Mite and Frighty
Gun Talk - Tony Rebel
Dolly My Baby (Original Version) - Super Cat
Cuff - Shelly Thunder
She a Trickster - ???
Love the Ghetto Youth - Admiral Bailey
Telephone Lover - J.C. Lodge
One Blood - ???
>Selector Dudu Black
Some Stuff That Came out in 92 that may be classic soon:
Ting-a-ling - Shabba
Boom Bye Bye - Buju
Murder She Wrote - Shaka Demus and Pliers
Lord, Me Can't Take it No More - General Degree
Granny - ??? (Same Version as that above)
Falling in Love All Over Again - Beres Hammond
Big Up Big Up - ???
Murderation - Capleton
Dem A Bleach - Nardo Ranks
Hot This Year - ???
Love is Guaranteed - Reggie Stepper
Richard Thomas
ac999a11@umbc2.umbc.edu
Also, you'd asked about updating the dancehall FAQ recently. I think
of course
the selectors like Mr. Black are most qualified to do so, but I do
think for
'94 anyhow, the new Pepperseed Riddim should get some mention
Stress Michigan and Smiley
Tickle Her Body Baja Jedd
Big Speech Frisco Kid
Wifee Dugsey Ranks
Dappa Donovan Steele, Daddy Screw
Big Thing a Gwan " "
Kotch, #2 Terror Fabulous
@SUBJECT:rec.music.reggae Frequently Asked Questions (2/3)
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Subject: rec.music.reggae Frequently Asked Questions (2/3)
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[8]. Is there a newsgroup that caters to those of us who enjoy soca,
salsa, or merengue?
Try rec.music.afro-latin
[9]. Books on Rastafarianism?
The title says it all. I currently have Leonard E. Barrett's book.
Anyone
know of other reputable titles?
From: "richard paul"
Well Steve... it's been a while since I have been up on the topic... (
back to Toronto Canada after working in Jamaica in 1979-80), but you
wish to check out Joseph Owens, DREAD: The Rastafarians of Jamaica.
Published by Sangsters (Jamaica) in 1979.
Rex Nettleford also has some interesting things to say in his book,
Caribbean Cultural Identity: The Case of Jamaica -
AN Essay in Cultural Dynamics (1978) Institute of Jamaica
I seem to recall a professor at York University in Toronto -
Carol Yawney I beleive working on her PhD. dissertation on this very
If you have access to interlibrary loan, you may be able to get hold
of this
From: bb@generali.harvard.edu (Brent Byer)
Steve Mcgowan wrote:
> .... I currently have Leonard E. Barrett's book.
> Anyone know of other reputable titles?
Check for: "Rasta and Resistance" (From Marcus Garvey to Walter
Rodney)
By: Horace Campbell
Publisher: Africa World Press, Inc.
Trenton, NJ 08607
ISBN: 0-86543-035-7 (paper, 234 pg, $12.) c1987; 3rd printing, 1990
From the back cover:
"Rasta and Resistance" is a study of the Rastafarian Movement in
all its manifestations, from its evolution in the hills of Jamaica
to its present manifestations in the streets of Birmingham and
the Shashamane Settlement of Ethiopia. It traces the cultural,
political and spiritual sources of this movement of resistance,
highlighting the quest for change among an oppressed people.
This book serves to break the intellectual traditions which
placed the stamp of millenarianism on Rasta.
From close of Chapter 3:
"The symbols of the flag, the lion, the drum, the chalice, the locks,
and the distinctive language were reflections of a style of
resistance.
The Rasta were neither crazy nor millenarian, for they were part of
sufferers who were making their own protest against the sickness of
the colonial society.
The Dreadlocks of the hills were making their imprint on the
consciousness
of the poor and it is to the evolution of the movement which we now
The Rastafari were creating the musical forms to strengthen the
people
to meet the violence and thuggery of neo-colonialism."
>Dear fellow internet_er,
> I am an anthropology student in Fredericton, Canada and I am
>trying to obtain information about Rastafarianism. I would like to
>if this movement is a millinerian movement or if millinerian is just
>generalized title of the movement. I would appreciate any comments or
>information pertaining to this debate.
Check out the books....
AUTHOR: Barrett Leonard Emanuel
TITLE: The Rastafarians
IMPRINT: Kingston, Jamaica Sangster's Book Stores Ltd London Heinemann
Educational 1977
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: ill
SUBJECT: Ras Tafari movement History
CLASSMARK: Theology AF 430 BAR
Revised and Updated Edition, 1988, Beacon Press (Boston) BP795,
ISBN 0-0870-1026-X ; ISBN 0-8070-1027-8 (paper)
AUTHOR: Cashmore Ernest
TITLE: Rastaman the Rastafarian movement in England
IMPRINT: London Allen & Unwin 1979
SUBJECT: Ras Tafari movement England * West Indians England
CLASSMARK: Theology AF430 CAS * Adam Smith Lib 2 copies
The first book goes into this subject in reasonable depth, and also
valuable pointers to other sources. I've just started reading the
second, so
great comments to give for that particular one...
Maybe you should include this book in the archives...
AUTHOR: Cashmore Ernest
TITLE: Rastaman the Rastafarian movement in England
IMPRINT: London Allen & Unwin 1979
SUBJECT: Ras Tafari movement England * West Indians England
CLASSMARK: Theology AF430 CAS * Adam Smith Lib 2 copies
|> Several books to look for:
|> ITATIONS OF JAMAICA AND I RASTAFARI (First Itation)
|> AUTHOR: Mihlawhdh Faristzaddi
|> ITATIONS OF JAMAICA AND I RASTAFARI (Second Itation)
|> AUTHOR: Mihlawhdh Faristzaddi
|> Both books explore and celebrate Rastafari culture in Jamaica and
|> elsewhere with poetry, psalms, praises and wonderful photographs,
|> including many from Ethiopia. These books are perfect companion
|> pieces to Norman's insightful posts, which by the way, are
respected
|> as positive contributions to rmr.
|> The books are available from:
|> JUDAH ANBESA
|> MIAMI, FLORIDA 33116 USA
|> Here are a few more that I found helpful and/or interesting:
|> Title:Rastafari: The Healing of the Nation
|> Author: Dennis Forsythe
|> Publisher: Ziaka Publications
|> Constant Springs P.O.
|> Kingston, Jamaica
|> /// I doubt if the address is still valid but I purchased it in JA
|> summer so, who knows.///
|> Title: Roots of Rastafari
|> Author: Virgia Lee Jacobs
|> Publisher: Avant Books
|> Slawson Communications, Inc.
|> 3719 Sixth Avenue
|> San Diego, CA 92103-4316
|> IBSN: 0-932238-25-4 (pbk)
|> Title: Race, Class, and Political Symbols: Rastafari and Reggae in
|> Jamaican Politics.
|> Author: Anita M. Waters
|> Date: 1985; paperback edition 1989
|> Publisher: Transaction Publishers
|> New Brunswick, NJ 08903
|> IBSN: 0-88738-632-6 (pbk) and 0-88738-024-7 (not pbk)
|> ///This is a scholarly work--almost a textbook--thats appears to be
|> off of a PhD disertation. Nonetheless, there is a whole heap of
valuable
|> information and EXTENSIVE bibliography.
|> I hope all of this helps.
|> --Papa Pilgrim
|> Reggae Ambassadors Worldwide
|> jjk1054@u.cc.utah.edu
[10.] What are the different reggae styles?
From: pharvey@quack.kfu.com (Paul Harvey)
Subject: Re: Reggae styles
In article
jn163051@longs.LANCE.ColoState.Edu (Joel Nevison) writes:
>One thing I am a bit fuzzy on is the defining characteristics of
>the various styles of reggae; dancehall, rock steady, etc etc.
>I have a grip on the difference between ska and dub, but those
>are pretty obvbious. Could some of the experts here give an outline
>of the musical characteristics of the various styles? Also helpful
>would be a short list of titles that are good examples of or define
>a particular style. I've been listening to reggae for so long, and
>mainly break it down into two groups; love it, and okay. Seems I
>ought to maybe think about it a little more now.
I'll start but, it's not easy to do in writing. And I could probably
stand some education myself, anyway:
Ska - 50-60's, pioneered by the Skatalites? There is a thing called
ska beat, which I don't really know how to describe, maybe you take
beat and make it triplet with the two outer notes played by a guitar
keyboard or horn and the center note a drum hit. Anyway, much ska was
just American pop of the 50-60's with a ska beat, but there was
orginal
stuff also and there were certainly a lot of variations in the basic
Dub - is just dubing something, usually vocals, onto an instrumental
version, often a B side.
Rock Steady was late 60's and was a slowed down version of ska with
of a rock feel.
Roots was sort of a cross between American Rock and Ska/Rock-Steady,
Wailers being the equivalent of the Beatles.
Dancehall seems to be the catchall for 80's and 90's Jamaican music
is a varied as American Modern Rock/Pop music. Shabba Ranks is
probably
the big name here, but there are of course many others. There are lots
of terms for sub-types of Dancehall.
From: ld21@cunixf.cc.columbia.edu (Lee Dirks)
Subject: Re: Reggae styles
In article pharvey@quack.kfu.com (Paul Harvey)
writes:
>In article
>jn163051@longs.LANCE.ColoState.Edu (Joel Nevison) writes:
>>One thing I am a bit fuzzy on is the defining characteristics of
>>the various styles of reggae; dancehall, rock steady, etc etc.
>Ska - 50-60's, pioneered by the Skatalites?
I'm not sure anyone can say exactly who pioneered ska, but the
Skatalites
were definitely right there at the beginning...and are still going
strong!
>Dub - is just dubing something, usually vocals, onto an instrumental
>version, often a B side.
As far as I know, Dub should probably come in later down in this list,
that is a minor point.
>Rock Steady was late 60's and was a slowed down version of ska with
>of a rock feel.
I think you could safely say early 60s...
>Roots was sort of a cross between American Rock and Ska/Rock-Steady,
>Wailers being the equivalent of the Beatles.
Good call. Fitting in after Roots (chronologically) would be Lover's
and the man Gregory Isaacs, along with many other smooth singers of
Before we jump on to dancehall, I think you should mention its
origins, those
being Toasting and DJ. At least I would say these are the precursors,
given to dancehall before it was called dancehall. Toasting: U-Roy
probably be one of the grand-daddys of this musical form (Big Youth as
working the sound systems and chanting and toasting over dub versions
of other
popular tunes of their day. Then, that was followed by the DJ style
popularized by The King (in his day) Yellowman; this style glided
straight
into Dancehall as we know it today. At least, this is my take on the
situation. I'm more a roots man myself, so I'm not exactly taking
about my
field here.
>Dancehall seems to be the catchall for 80's and 90's Jamaican music
>is a varied as American Modern Rock/Pop music. Shabba Ranks is
probably
>the big name here, but there are of course many others. There are
>of terms for sub-types of Dancehall.
I think this idea of drawing up catageories and writing descriptions
listing artists which define the style is a good idea which should be
continued by all who wish to contribute. This could develop into a
worth saving. Let's keep filling in the blanks!!
From: bbe001@acad.drake.edu
Subject: Re: Reggae styles
In article <1993Mar10.153518.4235@news.columbia.edu>,
ld21@cunixf.cc.columbia.edu (Lee Dirks) writes:
> In article pharvey@quack.kfu.com (Paul
Harvey)
writes:
>>In article
>>jn163051@longs.LANCE.ColoState.Edu (Joel Nevison) writes:
>>>One thing I am a bit fuzzy on is the defining characteristics of
>>>the various styles of reggae; dancehall, rock steady, etc etc.
>>Ska - 50-60's, pioneered by the Skatalites?
> I'm not sure anyone can say exactly who pioneered ska, but the
Skatalites
> were definitely right there at the beginning...and are still going
strong!
Most people contribute it to Laurel Atikan (I know I spelled that
>>Dub - is just dubing something, usually vocals, onto an instrumental
>>version, often a B side.
Ah but so much more brah. It started out with people like King Tubby
Augustus Pablo taking the instrumental tracks from the A-sides, then
pumping
the bass, using delay (like an echo) effects on the instruments and
sometimes
maybe a snatch of vocals for the B-sides. If it was just stripping the
vocals
ff, then it's just a "version" record. This is why some songs use the
ims. But then, they just started having studio musicians provide the
Now, with the new techno-dub, for lack of a better word, the drum
machines and
synths are doing a lot of it- like Jah Shaka and King (used to be
Prince)
Jammy's newer stuff.
> As far as I know, Dub should probably come in later down in this
list, but
> that is a minor point.
>>Rock Steady was late 60's and was a slowed down version of ska with
>>of a rock feel.
> I think you could safely say early 60s...
>>Roots was sort of a cross between American Rock and Ska/Rock-Steady,
>>Wailers being the equivalent of the Beatles.
> Good call. Fitting in after Roots (chronologically) would be
Lover's Rock
> and the man Gregory Isaacs, along with many other smooth singers of
> Before we jump on to dancehall, I think you should mention its
origins,
> being Toasting and DJ. At least I would say these are the
precursors, or
> given to dancehall before it was called dancehall. Toasting: U-Roy
> probably be one of the grand-daddys of this musical form (Big Youth
> working the sound systems and chanting and toasting over dub
versions of
> popular tunes of their day. Then, that was followed by the DJ style
> popularized by The King (in his day) Yellowman; this style glided
straight
> into Dancehall as we know it today. At least, this is my take on
> situation. I'm more a roots man myself, so I'm not exactly taking
about my
> field here.
>>Dancehall seems to be the catchall for 80's and 90's Jamaican music
>>is a varied as American Modern Rock/Pop music. Shabba Ranks is
probably
>>the big name here, but there are of course many others. There are
>>of terms for sub-types of Dancehall.
Definately true- about the deejay style of the 80's before dancehall
now. Like
Eek-A-Mouse, Michigan and Smiley, and King Yello. For those of you
interested
in some CONSCIOUS DANCEHALL- check out Charlie Chaplin -"Take Two,"
> I think this idea of drawing up catageories and writing descriptions
> listing artists which define the style is a good idea which should
> continued by all who wish to contribute. This could develop into a
> worth saving. Let's keep filling in the blanks!!
I remeber reading about all these wierd names like "sleng-teng" and
others
I don't remember. I think sleng-teng was real techno-synth stuff. And
I still
don't know what "inna yard style" is! Yeah yard is your house, but
someone
me an actual artist in the yardee style, if any.
Respect,
From: mcbean@vax.oxford.ac.uk
Subject: Re: Reggae styles
Date: 13 Mar 93 07:29:05 GMT
In article , stevem@dcs.glasgow.ac.uk
McGowan) writes:
> ld21@cunixf.cc.columbia.edu (Lee Dirks) writes:
>>In article pharvey@quack.kfu.com (Paul
Harvey)
writes:
>>>In article
>>>jn163051@longs.LANCE.ColoState.Edu (Joel Nevison) writes:
>>>>One thing I am a bit fuzzy on is the defining characteristics of
>>>>the various styles of reggae; dancehall, rock steady, etc etc.
> I posted a very similar question a couple of months ago, but got
> no replies. I asked if anyone knew how/where the music style
> known as Mento fitted in with the development of reggae.
> I think Mento may have been more blues oriented than reggae (as we
> know it today), but not so distant that reggae could not evolve
> from it.
> Anyone shed some light?
My understanding of mento was that it is more like calypso (old
calypso as
opposed to soca). It certainly sounds like it, more rhythmical
lyrically, in
storytelling tradition which suggests that it is closer to the
original
African
music forms. Some fuzzy memory tells me I'm on the right track but
me definitely. It was probably more influenced by the folk music
forms of
England & great britain, since it comes from an era where dances like
quadrille were still prevalent.
It definitely predates ska, and if you listen to ska then you can hear
some of
the mento influence coming through, and of course reggae comes out of
the ska
tradition.
There is a Jamaican "musicologist" (whatever that is supposed to
mean), Dermot
Hussey, who has published several articles on this. Unfortunately
residing in
"Babylon" at present means I have no way of enlightening you:-)
[11.] CARIBANA FAQ
CARIBANA '93 - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
Version 1.00 - Last updated July 14, 1993
Compiled by Steve Frampton with help
several contributors (listed at the end of this document, section "Q-
This document is copyright 1993 by Steve Frampton (on behalf of
himself and
all the contributors) but is freely distributable to the benefit of
Caribana '93 and the West Indian communities in Toronto and
surrounding
Q-00. Do you have any legal disclaimers to get out of the way first?
Q-01. What the #&*$! took you so long to release this FAQ!?
Q-02. What the heck is "Caribana", anyway?
Q-03. When will Caribana '93 take place?
Q-04. What is the schedule of Caribana '93 events?
Q-05. Sounds great, now where can I purchase tickets?
Q-06. Can you recommend some nice and affordable accomodations?
Q-07. Which forms of transportation should I use to get around?
Q-08. What kind of musical styles (and who is playing!) will be
featured?
Q-09. Where are some good places to get authentic West Indian food?
Q-10. Caribana aside, what are some good Caribbean clubs in the area?
Q-11. Which Caribbean radio stations can I listen to while I'm in
Toronto?
Q-12. How can I get more information about this wonderful event?
Q-13. I'm too far away for Caribana -- do you know of any similar
events?
Q-14. Any "Quotable Quotes" from past attendees you want to share?
Q-15. Who contributed to this FAQ document?
Q-16. In the perspicacious words of Janet Jackson, "Is that the end?"
Q-00. Do you have any legal disclaimers to get out of the way first?
Neither myself (Steve Frampton) nor any of the contributors (listed at
the end of this document) shall be held liable for any damages caused
the information (or mis-information, as the case may be) contained
within
this document, including but not limited to, special, incidental,
consequential, or other damages.
Although every attempt has been made to ensure a reasonable degree of
accuracy is contained herein, this document has been prepared more as
general guide and is not intended to be used as a definitive "bible"
the events at large. You are encouraged to contact any of the people
listed under section "Q-12" for more information on Caribana '93
before
making any plans.
In short, USE THIS INFORMATION AT YOUR OWN RISK.
Q-01. What the #&*$! took you so long to release this FAQ!?
This is the first-ever release of the Caribana FAQ. The information
gathering took a lot longer than I had expected, due not only to the
fact that Caribana planning seems to be delayed until the last minute,
but also due to my excessive procrastination. :-)
I'd like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who kept in
constant
contact with me to get this thing done, and also to apologize to the
for the incessant delays in releasing this FAQ, as well as some of the
information being unavailable for inclusion.
Much of the information herein will hold true for future Caribana
events, so I'll be able to release this FAQ in coming years much
earlier
than this one. In short, we'll get it right for Caribana '94! :-)
Thanks for your patience, and on behalf of myself and all who
contributed, good luck and have a blast at this year's Caribana!
Q-02. What the heck is "Caribana", anyway?
Caribana is an annual event, founded 26 years ago by Toronto's
Trinidadian
community as the Northern version of Trinidad's Carnival. As Caribana
increased in popularity, other West Indian communities contributed to
festivities, and recently the Latin and African communities joined in
During the last two and half decades, Caribana's popularity has been
increasing exponentially. 25 years ago it was a celebration of only a
few thousand. Last year, Caribana celebrated it's 25th anniversity --
and over 2,000,000 people were in attendance to make it the most
successful
year for Caribana so far.
According to a past member of the Caribana Cultural Committee, the
Gras in New Orleans had approximately 4,000,000 people attend in 1991.
At Caribana's current rate of growth, Caribana will surpass this
famous
carnival within only a couple of years.
Caribana is the success it is because of the people who attend -- and
come from all over the world, often to meet with family who are also
attendance or living in the area. A publication that was released for
Caribana '92 indicated that many people plan family reunions. During
years, people made plans to meet at specific street corners on the
parade
route. In 1991, however, the route was changed to follow the lake
where there were no specific buildings or corners. Luckily, some
bright
individual noticed that each lamp post had unique code numbers
affixed,
and the word went out that this would be an ideal method used for
meeting
family and friends.
Q-03. When will Caribana '93 take place?
Caribana is a two week period of events beginning in the latter part
July, ending with a major blowout on the long weekend (Canadian Civic
holiday) at the beginning of August.
Although many people believe that Caribana is only a single weekend
consisting of the parade on Saturday and the island picnics on Sunday,
it is actually two weeks in length! There are many events that are
held during this period, including the Junior Carnival, and the King &
Queen's Pageant to name only a couple.
Q-04. What is the schedule of Caribana '93 events?
There are all kinds of parties and activities at Caribana that will
place all around Toronto. Here is the schedule and pricing
information:
MONDAY, JULY 19, 12:00 PM - 2:00 PM: OFFICIAL FESTIVAL LAUNCH
Nathan Phillips Square, City Hall / Cost = FREE
Entertainment will include "Massive Chandelier", "Lady Pearl", "Pan
Fantasy Steelband", as well as "The Scarborough Caribbean Youth Dance
Ensemble".
FRIDAY, JULY 23, 7:30 PM - 11:30 PM: WARM-UP PARTY
Nathan Phillips Square, City Hall / Cost = FREE
Entertainment includes "Massive Chandelier", "Moss International",
Pearl", "Elsworth James", "The Caribbean Folk Performers", "Metrotones
Steelband", "Brother Resistance", and the Rap and Step Dance winners
from a previous CCC event.
SUNDAY, JULY 25, 2:00 PM - 8:00 PM: JUNIOR CARNIVAL
Lamport Stadium, 1155 King Street West
Cost = $12.00 adults, $5.00 seniors & children
(Competition of children's carnival costumes).
Entertainment includes "Tropical Youth Dancers", "Panatics Steel
Rap-Off 1st runner-up, step dance, and D.J. Frankie, D.J. Lee.
MONDAY-FRIDAY, JULY 26-30, 7:30 PM - 11:30 PM: SUNSET CRUISES
The Trillium / Cost = $25.00 adults (excluding bar & meals)
Cruise on Lake Ontario while you dance as the sun sets. Board the
at the foot of Bay Street. Featuring Caribbean cuisine and a cash
Entertainment varies depending on evening: Monday is "Massive
Chandelier" and "D.J. Lee", Tuesday "Pelham Goddard & Charlies Roots"
and "D.J. Bad Lad", Wednesday "Atlantik" and "D.J. Bad Lad", Thursday
"Carribbean Traffic Jam" and "D.J. Frankie", and Friday is "Moss
International" and "D.J. Lee".
WEDNESDAY-FRIDAY, JULY 28-30, 12:00 PM - 4:00 AM: CASINO CARIBANA
Regal Constellation Hotel, 900 Dixon Road / Cost = FREE
Casino gambling; $10.00 maximum bets (Rapid Blackjack up to $100), Las
Vegas style rules, professional dealers.
THURSDAY, JULY 29, 8:30 PM - 1:00 AM: KING AND QUEEN OF THE BANDS
Lamport Stadium, 1155 King Street West
Cost = $15.00 adults, $5.00 seniors & children
A competition for the King, Queen & Individual of the bands. Features
spectacular display of costumes, Caribbean cuisine.
Entertainment includes "Silhouettes Steelband", and "D.J. Bad Lad".
FRIDAY, JULY 30, 8:30 PM - 2:00 AM: CARNIVAL DANCE
Toronto Airport Hilton, 5875 Airport Road / Cost = $25.00 adults only
Dance all night long to the music of "Pelham Goddard & Charles Roots",
"Brass Trazx", "D.J. Bad Lad".
Chance to win family accomodation for 4 nights at Caribana '94 at the
Toronto Airport Hilton (winner to be announced night of this event).
SATURDAY, JULY 31, 10:00 AM - 6:00 PM: CARIBANA PARADE
Exhibition Stadium, Lakeshore Blvd. West
Cost = $10.00 adults, $5.00 seniors & children, $26.00 family of four
The most well-known event of Caribana. Thousands of masqueraders in
colourful costumes parade before panel of judges. Dance to the
Caribbean's pulsating music, as the bands play west along the
Lakeshore
to Parkside Drive.
SATURDAY, JULY 31, 8:30 PM - 2:00 AM: CARIBANA 'LAS' LAP' DANCE
Delta Toronto Airport, 801 Dixon Road / Cost = $15.00 adults only
After the parade dance to the rhythms of "Shandu", and "D.J. Lee".
SUNDAY, AUGUST 1, 8:00 PM - 2:00 AM: KAISOFEST
Skyline Hotel, 655 Dixon Road / Cost = $15.00 adults only
Featuring local Calypsonians, cash bar.
SUNDAY-MONDAY, AUGUST 1-2, 12:00 PM - 8:00 PM:
OLYMPIC ISLAND CARIBBEAN MUSIC FESTIVAL
Take the ferry at the foot of Bay Street to Olympic Island
Cost each day = $15.00 adults, $5.00 seniors & children
This is a 2 day festival featuring Caribbean music, dances, craft
exhibitions, and Caribbean cuisine, as well as a beer garden.
Entertainment varies depending on day; on Sunday: "Atlantik", "Pelham
Goddard & Charles Roots", "Sparrow", "David Rudder", "United Sisters",
"Iwer George", "Anslem Douglas", "Show-Do-Man", "Triveni Brass", "Hit
Squad", "Jayson", "Jones & Jones", "Jackie James", "Chester Miller",
"Los Karachis", "Tommy Joseph", "Ballet Creole", "Afro Pan", and
"Protector". On Monday: "Atlantik", "Second Imij", "Sparrow", "David
Rudder", "United Sisters", "Rikki Jai", "Anslem Douglas", "Instant
"Elsworth James", "Tabaruk", "Devon Irie", "Inspector Lenny", "Dance
Caribe", "Pan Fantasy", "Ramabai Espinet & Sudharshan", "Tommy
Joseph",
"Protector", "Jones & Jones", "Military Force", "Simply Majestic", as
well as the Rap-off winner from a previous CCC event.
Q-05. Sounds great, now where can I purchase tickets?
Tickets for any of the events can be purchased in any of the following
outlets:
* Toronto Central *
Caribana Carnival Shop Pizzazz Unlimited
& Main Ticket Outlet 1266 Danforth Ave. (near
Greenwood)
College Park, 444 Yonge St. Toronto, Ontario
(at College Subway) (416) 465-6738
The Official Caribana Store #1 The Bay, Queen St.
College Park, 444 Yonge St. 401 Bay Street
(inside mall) Toronto, Ontario M5H 2Y4
The Official Caribana Store #2 Rock Wells
301 Yonge St. @ Dundas St. 301 Yonge St.
Toronto, Ontario Toronto, Ontario M5B 1R2
* North Central *
Loxx Hair Design & Esthetics
4844A Yonge Street
(1 block north of Sheppard)
North York, Ontario
Climax Records Promotions Mr. Jerk
8 & 10 MacDonnell Ave. 1552 Eglington Ave. W. @
Dufferin
(Queen & Lansdowne) Toronto, Ontario
Toronto, Ontario (416) 783-1367
Elma's Spice Corner Nappy's
255 Dundas St. West, Unit 4A 267 Queen St. East
(Parker Hill Centre) Brampton, Ontario
Fade II Black Nappy's
Main Mall Level 20 Dundas St. East
140 King St. East Mississauga, Ontario
Hamilton, Ontario (416) 949-6787
Northern Lights Records Tapes & Discs
3-1750 The Queensway, Suite 1329
Etobicoke, Ontario
Mello Music Network Records
Liberty Square Plaza 2918 Sheppard Ave. East
2388 Eglington Ave. East (at Victoria Park Ave.)
Scarborough, Ontario North York, Ontario
Mr. Jerk
3050 Don Mills Road
North York, Ontario
Q-06. Can you recommend some nice and affordable accomodations?
Accomodation can be tight, with most hotels usually being fully booked
at least the final weekend. Because of this, it is very important
that you
make hotel reservations *well in advance*.
It cannot be stressed enough: MAKE RESERVATIONS WELL IN ADVANCE! It
recommended you make reservations as much as 2 months in advance of
intended stay. (You'll of course be able to do this for Caribana '94
when this FAQ is released a *lot* earlier).
Another thing to consider is that generally accomodation rates raise
the event. Accomodation rates right in the downtown area can go as
as $140 CDN per night.
Some good ideas to help keep accomodation costs down are to make plans
stay with friends or relatives if possible, or perhaps find others who
with to join you in sharing the cost of a room.
Another way to keep costs down is to stay in a hotel near the airport,
even stay in Mississauga, Brampton, Oshawa, or any other of the cities
outside of Toronto. This could save you plenty; and most of these
have reasonably efficient public transportation to take you back and
to Caribana.
If money isn't a big concern with you, then staying in downtown
Toronto
is probably the best bet, as you would be within walking distance to
of the events!
Below are a few places you may wish to consider for your accomodation
needs. Prices should not be taken as absolute; they are more of a
of prices you can expect. You are recommended to contact any of the
hotels
for actual prices. Don't forget to inquire about weekend package
Prices and phone numbers subject to change without notice. If you
an error in this FAQ document, please e-mail the correct information
the FAQ maintainer. In addition, if you can find it the e-mail
address
of a particular hotel (if available) I would appreciate it if you can
pass the information on so it can be included here.
* Toronto Downtown *
BEST WESTERN PRIMROSE HOTEL - (416) 977-8000 or FAX (416) 977-6323
111 Carlton Street - Single $ 99-$129
Toronto - Double $109-$159
BOND PLACE HOTEL - (416) 360-6406
65 Dundas Street East - Single $ 59-$ 89
Toronto - Double $ 69-$109
CARLTON INN - (416) 977-6655 or FAX (416) 977-0502
30 Carlton Street - Double $ 69-$ 79
Toronto
HOLIDAY INN ON KING - (416) 599-4000
370 King Street West - $ 70-$124
Toronto
HOTEL IBIS - (416) 593-9400 or FAX (416) 593-8426
240 Javis Street - Single $ 94
Toronto - Double $109
HOTEL VICTORIA - (416) 363-1666 or FAX (416) 363-7327
56 Yonge Street - Single $ 99-$120
Toronto - Double $114-$135
STRATHCONA HOTEL - (416) 363-3321 or FAX (416) 363-4679
60 York Street - Single $ 59
Toronto - Double $ 69
* Toronto Airport *
Suggestions would be appreciated.
* Hotels Around Vicinity *
BROWNSTONE HOTEL - (800) 263-8967, (416) 924-7381
15 Charles Street East - Single $ 90-$110
Yorkville - Double $100-$120
HOTEL SELBY - (416) 921-3142 or FAX (416) 923-3177
592 Sherbourne Street - Single $ 45-$ 55
Toronto - Double $ 55-$ 75
JOURNEY'S END - (416) 968-0010 or FAX (416) 968-7765
280 Bloor Street West - Single $ 94
Yorkville - Double $109
VENTURE INN - (416) 964-1220 or FAX (416) 964-8692
89 Avenue Road - Single $ 89
Yorkville - Double $ 99
* Toronto North Vicinity *
ROEHAMPTON HOTEL - (416) 487-5101 or FAX (416) 487-5390
808 Mount Pleasant Road - Single $ 85-$ 95
Toronto - Double $ 85-$ 95
* East North Vicinity *
THE SHERATON TORONTO EAST - (416) 299-1500 or FAX (416) 299-8959
2035 Kennedy Road - Single $ 89-$135
Scarborough - Double $ 85-$160
* Pickering *
Suggestions would be appreciated.
* Mississauga *
Suggestions would be appreciated.
* Oshawa *
Suggestions would be appreciated.
Q-07. Which forms of transportation should I use to get around?
Caribana events are held in locations all around Metro Toronto, and
many of them, transportation is required.
During the day, you are strongly urged to take public transportation
and from the various events. Toronto is quite convenient as far as
public
transportation is concerned, offering subway, bus, and streetcar to
you where you want to go. GO trains are also available to transport
from some of the more distance areas (for example if you have arranged
accomodations in Oshawa). All parking at GO stations is free, so a
idea might be to drive to a GO station and take the train in.
In Metro Toronto, the subway system runs until ??:?? am, with the
busses
running until ??:?? am. This is pretty convenient, but if you're
planning
to wind your waist well into the night, a car will probably be
required.
Phone the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) at (416) 393-INFO for
special
information on the Caribana route.
A word to the wise: Do NOT drive a car on the final weekend
(Saturday,
the day of the parade). There will be *lots* of people in Toronto for
this event, and it is pretty sure that driving will be a headache and
parking will be a nightmare.
Q-08. What kind of musical styles (and what bands!) will be featured?
If it has any relevance to the Caribbean, it will be featured.
Calypso,
rap, reggae, soca, even some dancehall will all be offered, whether at
Caribana or at any other of the great Caribbean clubs in the area.
By far, the best deal is to go to Nathan Phillips Square. Everybody
up to perform, and it only costs about $15. For more information on
this or any other musical event, see question "Q-04", schedule of
events.
Q-09. Where are some good places to get authentic West Indian food?
Good news! West Indian food is in abundance at any time of the year
Toronto, but even more so when Caribana comes to town.
You can find good West Indian restaurants with great food at
reasonable
prices. Toronto is an expensive city though, so the finer restaurants
set you back a bit. There are also many street vendors providing West
Indian delicacies at Caribana events.
Toronto is the city and Caribana is the event where you can act out
your culinary fantasies! Imagine if you will, curry goat with fried
dumplings. How about some spicy beef roti, or perhaps some jerk
chicken
to put fire in your eyes. All the good restaurants and night clubs
situated in a relatively small area, so they are all easy to get to.
Caribbean Restaurants/Cafes:
The Real Jerk Pit
Roti Palace
Bathurst Street, about a block south of "Honest Ed's"
Supreme Restaurant & Tavern Michidean's Take Out
1559 Eglinton Avenue West 758 Dovercourt Road
Toronto Toronto
Ali's West Indian Roti Shop
1446 Queen Street
Toronto
Caribbean Grocery/Specialty Stores:
Mr. $aver - Signature Plaza Wire's Variety
1366 Weston Road 753 Dovercourt Road
Toronto Toronto
Danforth Variety/Fruit Market Tower Fresh Fruit Market
2742 Danforth Avenue 10-12 Tower Drive
Toronto Scarborough
Caribbean Corner Variety
1032 Brock Street, Unit 2
Whitby
Q-10. Caribana aside, what are some good Caribbean clubs in the area?
I was able to get names of the nicer clubs but unfortunately not the
addresses for the majority of them. Look them up in the phone book if
you want to patronize them, hopefully I'll be able to include further
information next year.
- California Dreams, downtown Toronto, near Yonge & Bloor.
- Rockit, downtown Toronto, near Yonge & Bloor.
- Jaguar (Fridays & Sundays), downtown Toronto, near Yonge & Bloor.
- Vertigo, near Dufferin & Finch.
- Cutty's Hideaway in Scarborough, 538 Danforth Avenue, west of
Carlaw.
- Crystal Palace, north-end of Toronto.
- Club Trinidad, downtown Toronto, around Church Avenue. A favorite
hangout of many Torontonians, this 2-floor establishment seems to be
always featuring well-known calypso artists.
Q-11. Which Caribbean radio stations can I listen to while I'm in
Toronto?
The Canadian Radio Television Commission (CRTC) has not yet allowed
establishment of a dance/black radio station in Toronto, so the
station
of choice is an American station (WBLK 93.7 FM) in Buffalo, New York.
Another good choice would be a station based in St. Catherines,
Ontario,
at 107.9 on your FM dial. They offer a reggae/calypso show on
Saturday
afternoons.
There is a student-run radio station (CKNL 88.1 FM) based at Ryerson
Polytechnical Institute. They are mandated to follow an alternative
format so they do cater to a variety of different cultures.
Finally, another station of unknown origin has been discovered (105.??
which also caters to a variety of musical tastes. They offer a
reggae/
calypso program, usually on Sunday evenings. The signal is fairly
weak in
Toronto, however.
Q-12. How can I get more information about this wonderful event?
I suggest, when you get to Toronto, pick up a copy of "Share" to find
what is available. Share is a West Indian community newspaper that is
distributed free and is available many places throughout Metro.
Official Contacts:
Caribbean Cultural Committee
171 Carlton Street, Suite 200
Toronto, Ontario M5A 2K3
Or feel free to contact any of:
Toronto Tourist Bureau/Board of Trade

Afro-Caribbean Students' Association
44 St. George Street
Toronto, Ontario
Indo-Caribbean Students' Association
University of Toronto
12 Hart House Circle
Toronto, Ontario
Caribbean Student Associations (e-mail contacts):
SCA@biology.watstar.uwaterloo.ca
Sandra M.

Q-13. I'm too far away for Caribana -- do you know of any similar
events?
The most famous event that is similar to Caribana (and in fact,
Caribana
is *based* on this event) is called "Carnival" and is held annually in
Trinidad, around the time of Ash Wednesday.
Montreal has an event called "Carifete" which is similar to Caribana.
is held in the month of June(?), and ... [further information would be
appreciated].
This section could benefit from some further information. :-)
Q-14. Any "Quotable Quotes" from past attendees you want to share?
"For anyone stuck in Canada and unable to get any `regular' cultural
stuff, (as compared to New York City, for example), this is the
*wildest*
time one can have." - Gerry George
"Must-see include the Brazillian float - Oh Gawd!!!!" - [ Unknown :-(
"Last year's Caribana was almost Trini style, of course there was the
Canadian conservatism and no whining and GRINDING." - Ian Murray
"Between the various concerts, picnics, dances and parades there was
everywhere." -
If you have something to say about Caribana send it to the FAQ
maintainer
(currently ) and it will be considered
inclusion herein.
Q-15. Who contributed to this FAQ document?
This document would not have been possible without the generous and
informative contributions made by the following people:
Calvin Henry-Cotnam
Tricia "Trish-E" Graham
Evelyn Walker
George Chow
Ian Murray
richards@sco.COM
Gerry George
Patrice A. Simon
... apologies to anyone I forgot to mention ...
Mr. Henry-Cotnam stands out among the others, because not only did he
provide an enormous amount of information for this document, he has
served on the Caribana Cultural Committee in past years and has
volunteered
much of his time, helping to make Caribana a reality.
Ms. Graham also holds an honoured place in the above list, because she
provided a great deal of first-hand experience about Caribana as well
information about many notable West Indian establishments in the
Toronto
Finally, Ms. Walker must be thanked for doing the legwork of finding
accomodation information in Toronto and surrounding areas.
Q-16. In the perspicacious words of Janet Jackson, "Is that the end?"
Yes it is. Thank you for reading.
[12.] Can anyone give me some info on the rasta culture?
Rastafarians
{rah-stuh-far'-ee-uhnz}
Rastafarians are members of a Jamaican messianic movement
dating
to the 1930s; in 1974 they were estimated to number 20,000 in
Jamaica.
According to Rastafarian belief the only true God is the late
Ethiopian
emperor HAILE SELASSIE (originally known as Ras Tafari), and
Ethiopia is
the true Zion. Rastafarians claim that white Christian preachers
missionaries have perverted the Scriptures to conceal the fact
that Adam
and Jesus were black. Their rituals include the use of marijuana
and the
chanting of revivalist hymns. REGGAE music is the popular music
movement. The Rastafarians, who stress black separatism, have
exercised
some political influence in Jamaica.
Bibliography:
Barrett, Leonard E., The Rastafarians: Sounds of Cultural
Dissonance
(1977); Sparrow, Bill, and Nicholas, Tracy, Rastafari: A Way of
"In the beginning Jah created heaven and earth".
This is what the the Bible says. Jah is the creator, Jah is God.
Jahova, Jehova, Jahve are just different spelling of the name of God.
In the beginning of this century, a man called Marcus Mosiah Garvey
from Jamaica said "Look to Africa, where a black king shall be
crowned". A
little after that, Ras Tafari Makonnen was crowned, and became the
Emperor
of Ethiopa, His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, King of Kings, Lord
Lords, conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah, Elect of God.
Marcus Garvey started an organization with the aim to help black
people
in Babylon (the West World) cross river Jordan (the Atlantic Ocean)
back to Zion (which is not Israel, but all of Africa, especially
Ethiopia). People in Jamaica followed Marcus the prophet. This was the
beginning of the Rasta movement. Rasta is of course short for Ras
Tafari,
the name of Haile Selassie.
There is more to say, and I'm sure many others will add to and
correct
what I have written.
Jah Love
@SUBJECT:rec.music.reggae Frequently Asked Questions (3/3)
@PACKOUT:12-03-94
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[13.] Could anyone out there suggest to me any albums which combine
reggae
and jazz?
From: dudley@treefort.Corp.Sun.COM (dudley)
Just about every jazz/hip-hop fusion album has a couple of reggae
numbers. Check out Us3, Arrested Development, or Dream Warriors.
Of course, if you aren't into get-down funky groovin' dance music,
you probably won't like the rest of the stuff on the albums.
dudley
From: mikey@monkfish.nosc.mil (Mikey I)
I would suggest some Dean Fraser, in particular "Taking Chances".
Along these lines, there is an interesting snippet in the current
of The Beat about a sax player named Arturo Tappin and an album called
"Strictly
Roots Jazz". Anybody heard it?
EZ Noh, mike
From: ckhan@bbn.com (Chico Khan)
I'd recommend Jamaican pianist Monty Alexander. Check out his Chesky
release "Caribbean Circle".
From: Kofi Apeagyei-Wiredu
John P. Stevenson@coral.
try rico rodriguez.
From: ibsenj@govonca.gov.on.ca (Jeff Ibsen)
I'm a big fan of a hitherto neglected sub-genre of reggae that
I call "instrumental reggae" This type of reggae generally is very
horn-heavy and contains lots of solos. It is frequently also heavily
dubbed, and often the 'straight' and dubbed versions of songs are
both included on the same album. Some examples of albums which I
consider to belong to this category are:
Aggrovators Meet Revolutionaries: Side 1 is straight instrumental
stuff, lots of horn solos, side 2 has dub versions of the songs
on side 1
Fatman Riddim Section Meets Downtown Horns: A great album with
reggae versions of some well-known jazz standards.
The Workers Speak To Their Slave Masters With STRIKE!: The best
album title (and cover) in the known universe. I've never seen
another copy of this one but it has great tunes, with titles
like 'Better Working Conditions for Workers' and 'More Opportunity
for Workers' Children'! A Studio 16/Winston Edwards production,
all tracks played by the 'Well-Pack Band' Some tunes are dubbed
versions.
Count Ossie -:Tales of Mozambique: Not strictly instrumental,
but lotsa horns and good soloing.
Also, there is tons of early instrumental ska that contains
extended soloing - anything by the Skatalites - Tommy McCook,
Don Drummond, Roland Alphonso et. al. The jazz pianist George
Shearing considered the late Don Drummond one of the best
trombonists in the world.
Jeff Ibsen
[14.] Caribbean Clubs FAQ
CARIBBEAN CLUBS - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
Version 1.01 - Last updated March 25, 1994
Compiled by Steve Frampton with help
several contributors (listed at the end of this document, section "S-
This document is copyright 1994 by Steve Frampton (on behalf of
himself and
all the contributors) but is freely distributable to the benefit of
lovers of Caribbean culture world-wide.
S-00. Legal disclaimers and important information.
S-01. Caribbean restaurants in the United States and Canada.
S-02. Caribbean restaurants in other parts of the world.
S-03. Caribbean (music) clubs in the United States and Canada.
S-04. Caribbean (music) clubs in other parts of the world.
S-05. Notable future (next 6 months) live performances in clubs world-
S-06. List of contributers to this FAQ document.
S-07. Where to send your club FAQ submissions to.
S-08. And so endeth this document.
S-00. Legal disclaimers and important information.
Neither myself (Steve Frampton) nor any of the contributors (listed at
the end of this document) shall be held liable for any damages caused
the information (or mis-information, as the case may be) contained
within
this document, including but not limited to, special, incidental,
consequential, or other damages.
It would not be possible to guarantee a 100% degree of accuracy for
establishments listed herein. These clubs and restaurants are bound
move, shut down, change prices or hours, etc. without notice. A
telephone call made first before paying a visit may prevent
considerable
inconvenience and aggravation.
In short, USE THIS INFORMATION AT YOUR OWN RISK.
S-01. Caribbean restaurants in the United States and Canada.
This section includes full restaurants which MAY or MAY NOT have
UNITED STATES:
"Caribee Dance Center" 14th & Webster Streets, Oakland, CA
Features: Small cafe-type operation with all cooking done off-site is
open Wed-Sat nights with limited menu (curry goat, jerk chicken,
escovitch
fish, and Veggie Curry, etc.) Club open Wednesday to Saturday, and
sometimes on Sunday 9:00pm-1:00am, with reggae, dancehall, and one
salsa/latin night. Live bands occasionally. Alcohol available but
is equally friendly towards non-drinkers with a wide variety of
non-alcoholic beverages.
Cover: $5 Wed, $5-$8 Thu-Sat.
"Caribbean Experience" 2897 Bailey Avenue, Buffalo, NY
Features: Great food, bar, dance floor, experience
"Dr Bird Inc" 842 Delevan Avenue, Buffalo, NY
Features: Food, groceries (ie, not a club)
"Nagasaki's Restaurant & Nightclub" 276 Fulton Ave., Hempstead, NY
Features: Restaurant daily, featuring West Indian and Asian dishes,
reasonably priced, good eating atmosphere. Weekends club featuring
mainly dancehall, reggae and soca, with some r&b, hip-hop, etc.,
Club Cover - Friday: men free before 9pm, ladies free b/f 10pm
$5 until 12am, $10 after
- Saturday: $5 b/f midnight, $15 after
S-02. Caribbean restaurants in other parts of the world.
This section includes full restaurants which MAY or MAY NOT have
Submissions would be appreciated.
S-03. Caribbean (music) clubs in the United States and Canada.
This section includes full dance clubs, which MAY or MAY NOT serve
limited food items.
UNITED STATES:
"Alberto's" 736 W. Dana Street, Mountain View, CA
Features: Dance club specializing in live dance music of all types;
styles
include Reggae, Latin, Brazilian, Soca, Calypso, Tango, Cajun. Many
include free dance lessons.
Cover: from $4 to $10.
"Western Front" Western Ave. & Putnam St., Cambridge, MA
Phone: n/a
Features: Styles include reggae, calypso, soca, etc. Live
performances
most nights - gets both local talent, regional bands, and sometimes
bigger
name musicians like Eeek-a-Mouse and Mutaburuka. Friendly, laid back,
nice atmosphere.
Cover: from $10 to $20
"Club Eclipse" 247 Fabyan Place, Newark, NJ
Features: reggae, dancehall, a small amount of soca, etc.
"Club Illusion" 103 Empire Boulevard, Brooklyn, NY
Features: mostly Jamaican music, dancehall, reggae, etc. Very
popular.
Cover: n/a
"Tilden Hall" Tilden Avenue, Brooklyn, NY
Phone: n/a
Features: a variety of DJ's
Cover: n/a
"Callalloo II" ** address unknown **, Brooklyn, NY
Phone: n/a
Features: lots of Trinidadians, food also available
Cover: n/a
"Starlight Ballroom" 4016 Church Avenue, Brooklyn, NY
Phone: n/a
Features: Nightclub weekends, featuring dancehall, reggae and soca,
hip-hop, house, etc. Performers & sound systems occasionally
"Club SOB's" Varick & Houston, Manhattan, NY
Phone: n/a
Features: always have live music, sometimes Caribbean performers such
Mighty Sparrow or reggae music, etc.
Cover: depending on performance, $12 or more.
"China Club" Broadway, between 74th & 75th, Manhattan, NY
Features: Nightclub, Wednesday thru Sunday with dancehall, reggae and
r&b, hip-hop, house, etc. Performers frequently; local radio stations
(either WRKS or WBLS) broadcast from the club weekly.
Sundays: Sheek Sundays - "for mature reggae crowds" (23 & over) -
- $5 b/f midnight, $10 after
"The Arena" 24th Street between 5th & 6th Ave., Manhattan,
Phone: n/a
Features: Nightclub weekends, two floors of music: 1st floor -
calypso & soca
2nd floor - dancehall & reggae, Fridays for the afterwork crowd
"Bentley's" 40th Street & Madison Avenue, Manhattan, NY
Phone: n/a
Features: Nightclub Friday & Saturday, two floors of music - 1st
floor: r&b,
hip-hop, house, etc. 2nd floor: reggae, soca, dancehall, etc. Local
station WBLS broadcasts from here every Saturday. Performers
occasionally.
Cover: from $10 to $15
"Club Harambe" 127 W. 43rd Street., Manhattan, NY
Features: Nightclub weekends, featuring dancehall, reggae and soca,
some r&b, hip-hop, house, etc.
"Club S.I.B.'s" 92-32 Union Hall St., Queens, NY
Features: Nightclub weekends, featuring dancehall, reggae and soca,
hip-hop, house, etc.,
Cover: from $5 to $15; After work Wednesdays - $5
"Krystal's" Hillside & Merrick Avenues, Queens, NY
Phone: n/a
Features: Nightclub weekends, featuring dancehall, reggae and soca,
some r&b, hip-hop, house, etc. Performers frequently; Music
(normally)
by Sting International
Cover: from $10 to $15 Friday & Saturday, $1 Sunday (yes, $1!!)
"Cue (Q?) Club" 93-37 150 Street, Queens, NY
Phone: n/a
Features: Nightclub weekends, featuring dancehall, reggae and soca,
hip-hop, etc. Performers frequently; sound systems occasionally
Cover: Ladies $1 b/f midnight, $10 - $15 otherwise
"Infinity" 3878 Bay Boulevard, Queens, NY
Features: Nightclub Friday & Saturday, featuring dancehall, reggae and
r&b, hip-hop, etc. Local radio broadcasts from here occasionally.
"Trafalgar Square" 91-12 144th Place Archer Ave., Queens, NY
Features: Nightclub Wednesdays, featuring mostly dancehall, reggae,
soca, in the V.I.P. Louge, and on most weekends featuring dancehall,
reggae
and soca, r&b, hip-hop, house, etc. Performers frequently
CANADA:
"Rockit" 120 Church Street, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA
Featuring: Dancehall music, drinks
"Opera House" 735 Queen Street East, Toronto, Ontario,
CANADA
Featuring: Dancehall music, drinks
"St. Lawrence Market" 92 Front Street East, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA
Phone: (416) 781-1695 or (416) 286-0207
Featuring: Dancehall music, drinks
"Twilight Zone" 491 College Street, Toronto, Ontario CANADA
Phone: n/a
Featuring: Dancehall music, drinks
"Phoenix" Sherbourne & Carlton Ave., Toronto, Ontario,
CANADA
Phone: n/a
Featuring: Dancehall music, drinks
"Limelight" 250 Adelaide Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA
Phone: n/a
Featuring: Dancehall music, drinks
"Tropicana" 686 Princess Street, Kingston, Ontario, CANADA
Featuring: Mostly soca, latin, some dancehall. Sometimes live calypso
usually from Toronto. Some light, simple foods are available.
S-04. Caribbean (music) clubs in other parts of the world.
This section includes full dance clubs, which MAY or MAY NOT serve
limited food items.
"Rastatoo" La Gasca 120, Madrid, SPAIN
Phone: n/a
Features: Roots and some Dancehall style, reggae videos from live
concerts
and interviews.
Cover charge: Usually none.
S-05. Notable future (next 6 months) live performances in clubs world-
This section lists NOTABLE (ie. big-name) live performances in clubs
world-wide for the period from March 1, 1994 until August 31, 1994.
Submissions would be appreciated.
S-06. List of contributers to this FAQ document.
This document would not have been possible if the following people
hadn't taken the time to submit club information:
Calvin and Donnia Henry-Cotnam
Tricia "Trish-E" Graham
Evelyn Walker
George Chow
Ian Murray
Albertos

Raun Kupiec
Barbara Caramba-Coker
Gerry George
Patrice A. Simon
Jeffrey R. Meade
Borja Larrumbide Martinez
Dudley Gaman
George Elkins
... apologies to anyone I forgot to mention ...
S-07. Where to send your club FAQ submissions to.
If you have some club information you would like to see listed in the
FAQ, you may send your submission to: .
Please try and stick to the format used in this FAQ, it makes for
easier
editing. Too much information, and you risk being severely edited,
too little and you aren't helping us. :-)
S-08. And so endeth this document.
Please send in some club information!
Steve Frampton E-mail:
[15.] What is the significance of the "Two Sevens"?
here is what the liner notes for the album has to say:
"One day Joseph Hill had a vision, while riding a bus, of 1977 as a
year of
judgement -- when two sevens clash -- when past injustices would be
avenged.
Lyrics and melodies came into his head as he rode and thus was born
the song
"Two Sevens Clash" which became a massive hit in reggae circles both
Jamaica
and abroad. The prophecies noted by the lyrics so profoundly captured
imagination of the people that on July 7, 1977 - the day when sevens
clashed (seventh day, seventh month, seventy-seventh year) a hush
descended on
Kingston; many people did not go outdoors, shops closed, an air of
foreboding
and expectation filled the city."
From: redingtn@athena.mit.edu (Norman H Redington)
Subject: Re: Two Sevens Clash
"Mi know prophet Marcus Garvey prophecI say:
St. Jago de la Vega and Kingston is gonna meet.
And I can see with mine own eyes
It's only a housing scheme that divides.
What a liv on bamba yay when the Two Sevens clash!
Marcus Garvey was inside at
Spanish Town District Prison,
And when they were about to take him out
He prophecied and said:
As I have passed through this gate,
No other prisoner shall enter and get through.
And so it is until now:
The gate has been locked. So what,
What a liv on bamba yay when the Two Sevens clash!"
--Culture
Excerpts from a very interesting article by Beverly Hamilton
in the June '91 _Jamaica Journal_:
"...One version of the prophecy claimed that Garvey said there
would be severe hardships, doom, and destruction 'when the two
sevens meet'. Another was that Garvey said that if black people
could pass through the seventies, they could pass through anything.
A third claimed that Garvey said that the black man would rise up
when the two sevens met. This prophecy received official sanction
when Mr. Edward Seaga, the then-Leader of the Opposition and a
noted sociologist, referred to it in his New Year's message. The
idea gained further currency through the music of some reggae artists,
especially Culture...
"In 1977 I interviewed two Garvey elders about the prophecy. Z. Monroe
Scarlett said quite clearly he had never heard Garvey make any
specific
statement about two sevens. What he remembered him saying was that if
black people could pass through the seventies they could overcome all
major difficulties. The other, Van Riel, a BITU veteran, explained:
'Him (Garvey) say 1977 will be a hard year. Yu see already. The Prime
Minister say yu belt tight.' ... Two months later, Jamaica went to the
International Monetary Fund for assistance.
"...One must remember that this period followed the 1976 elections,
most violent in Jamaica up to that time. As 1977 progressed, different
versions were added to the prophecy...finally it was a special day,
7, 1977, when the 'four sevens' met. One even heard that blood was
to flow and that Manley's head would roll. A report in the _Daily
Gleaner_
of July 7, 1977 [says]:'...The Combined Security Forces have been put
full alert so as to be prepared [for] possible trouble when the four
meet today (the 7th of the 7th month of '77), Minister of National
Security
Munn told the _Gleaner_ yesterday...'
"There was a further official response. That day was used to launch a
constitutional reform programme...with the Prime Minister scheduled to
speak at 7 p.m. -- when the 'five sevens' met...
"...Other Garvey prophecies are about Jamaica...Garvey is credited
predicting the twinning of Spanish Town, the capital of St. Catherine,
with Kingston, the present capital of Jamaica. In the late sixties and
early seventies, a massive housing development scheme known as
Portmore
was carried out in southern St. Catherine. A causeway was built across
Kingston Harbour to link this development with Kingston, thus
fulfilling
Garvey's prophecy...
"...Another prophecy relating to Garvey's stay in Spanish Town prison
is that he is supposed to have put a seal on the prison door through
which he left. Many claim that this door has been fastened to this
Prisoners in the Spanish Town Penitentiary still tell of being shown
the gate on which Garvey was supposed to have put this curse..."
[from "The Legendary Marcus Garvey", by Beverly Hamilton, _Jamaica
Journal_
COMMENT: I used to think that the Two Sevens was a classic example of
failed prophecy. However several explanations have been offered.
1) Who knows what happened that day which didn't get noticed by the
world? Maybe someone was born, for instance.
2) The mid Seventies were the high water mark of the Soviet Empire,
which engulfed Ethiopia a little earlier and was on the move in the
Caribbean along with its CIA mirror-image. In late 1976, an Orthodox
monk named Seraphim Rose (who was almost certainly unaware of the
Garvey
prophecy) had a vision on the Day of the Seven Sleepers in which he
saw a vast multitude singing the Easter Psalm ("Let God arise, let his
enemies be scattered, as smoke vanishes so let them vanish, as wax
melts before the fire!"). It was explained in the vision that for one
particular enemy - the Soviet Empire - this would "now" be fulfilled:
it would vanish. In 1977, people doubted this prophecy, to say the
3) As Bop pointed out in his post, two sevens clash in Pharaoh's dream
Genesis. The clash reflects conflict and opportunity, as do the
various
versions of Garvey's prophecy. The clashing sevens saved Israel,
because
Joseph by correctly interpreting the dream went from being a slave
top of that, in jail and presumed dead by his relatives!) to Prime
Minister
of Egypt, able to save his people. But the Israelite migration into
was a mixed blessing; they would end up as slaves and it would take
to get them back to Zion. All this is connected to the Garvey
prophecy,
which seen in this light is very much deeper than it appears.
[16.] What's all this about Sound Systems, Clashes and Dubplates?
>Dumb question...but here goes,
>What is a sound system?
>Hope this does not destroy my credability has a true reggae
>music lover :-)
A sound system, well consider it to be a glorified stereo system.
Basically
it is usually lots of base boxes lots of mid-range boxes and lots of
high end
boxes ( what I mean by boxes is large speaker cabinets). All this is
driven
by lots of amps to make it so loud that the base makes the hair on
your neck
move to the beat. You really haven't experienced true dancehall until
been to a true yard dance like Stone Love at House of Leo (Kingston
In article <2qp6iv$s1k@bruce.uncg.edu> pennyr@hamlet.uncg.edu
(Reginald Penny)
writes:
>Subject: sound systems
>From: pennyr@hamlet.uncg.edu (Reginald Penny)
>Date: 10 May 1994 23:49:51 GMT
>Does anyone have a list (brief or massive) of what people are in what
>sound system? Also what are the top 5 largest sound sytems in the
>BTW - what exactly is meant by a clash? Is it when more than one SS
battle?
Wow thats a tough question as to the top five. It would fall under
personal
pref. " Stone Love" is one of the best; the selectors are Rorey ,
Weepow and
Cancer. "Bodygaurd" is another top sound, their main selector is
Johnny and
they are bringing in a few more. " Metromedia" is a more classic
selector is Skyjuice who is a performer in his own right -- you really
haven't
seen metro until you've seen Skyjuice take his shirt off. "Jamrock" is
another big sound, I don't remember who the seletor is. There is
straight
outta NYC "Addis" with selector Baby Face; they were up in the top at
world cup. Innercity, with selectors Mark, Danny and Wally -- they
right up there. There are tons of sound systems and I could go on for
listing them.
As far as a "clash" there can be at least two sounds clashing. It is
with two, a clash is like a strategic chess game. When sounds clash
they try
to out do each other, who can play the best "Garnett Silk" dubplate
and who
can get the crowd to respond more. You try to play what the people
want to
hear and the trick is to do it better than who you are clashing.
Maybe I
should explain what a dub plate is. A dub plate, aka "a special", is
created
when you take a tune and ask the artist to customize it for you, such
getting Buju Banton to do a version of Boom Bye Bye, but, change the
lyrics to
Boom Bye Bye in a sound boy's head. In other words they customize the
lyrics
of there songs to put either the sound systems name in it or the sound
system
that the are clashing's name in it. None of this is free -- it costs
dollars
unless you have connections but it still costs dollars.
I hope this all makes some sense and that I havn't totally confused
you if you
have any quetions post them and I will try ro answer them.
[17.] Is there a World Wide Web Server for Reggae?
Yes, there are several Home Pages:
http://jammin.nosc.mil/jammin.html
http://nyx10.cs.du.edu:8001/~damjohns/reggae.html
http://wsogata.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp
http://www.biologie.uni-freiburg.de/data/reggae/reggae.html
[18.] Is there a Gopher Server for Reggae?
Yes, the Jammin Reggae Archvies features such a server, gopher to
jammin.nosc.mil (128.49.28.5)
[19.] What is RAW (Reggae Ambassadors Worldwide)?
Reggae Ambassadors Worldwide began with a seed planted in 1990 by
Circle guitarist Roger Lewis. In a casual conversation he mentioned
everywhere they performed they met a "Papa Pilgrim," that is, someone
familiar with local runnings and committed to the growth of Reggae
He suggested that we begin linking up and do some serious networking.
the ensuing years Roger would again mention networking each time we
Then, during the summer of '92 I had a chance contact with Rastaman
of Grand Rapids, Michigan. As we chatted I mentioned Roger's
suggestions.
Nane's response was "Let's do it." When I put him off because I was
busy," he countered with "When I want to get something done I give it
the busiest person." How could I refuse? Grand Rapids was selected as
meeting place because of Nane's certainty that that city's Reggae
community would endorse such a gathering. Encouraged by Nane's
enthusiasm,
support, and confidence, letters were written, phone calls made, and
we went. As Nane said, "Even if there are only two of us, that's a
On December 11-13, 1992 more than fifty conferees representing the
roots of Reggae met in Grand Rapids to forge the beginning of an
exciting
new direction for popularizing Reggae music. This meeting, which came
be known as Conference '92, represented the fruition of that seed
planted
by Roger Lewis. Our combined vision was that Reggae music, given the
support it so richly deserves, would become as mainstream as rock,
country
and other "Top 100" genres. Further, we wanted to actively contribute
increasing the public's awareness of Reggae artists living both in and
of Jamaica and to provide increased opportunities for unsigned
performers.
Borrowing the concept from Third World's hit of the same name, Reggae
Ambassadors Worldwide was "born." Performing artists, deejays,
promoters,
club owners, writers, label representatives and others met and began
forming a networking system aimed at having Reggae music achieve 100%
parity with other genres. With so many facets of the business of
Reggae
coming together, we realized we were doing something right and we were
doing it with a sense of purpose, commitment, optimism, and unity .
bottom line for each participant seemed to be to "Forward the Reggae
vibeEverytime!"
Conference '93 was again held in Grand Rapids August 13-15. More than
hundred Ambassadors and other conferees shared visions, created ideas,
networked. Foundations were laid for an album release and tour
showcasing
member artists. Committees were formed to assist with various tasks
decision made to seek non-profit incorporation. Our Mission Statement
reads "Reggae Ambassadors Worldwide is an international network of
Committed Reggae Enthusiasts who have joined forces to spread the
positive
vibe of Reggae music. Daily we will move forward educating humankind
about our music, always remembering the vision of One Love!" Our
Vision:
To be the primary reference for the Reggae Industry.
At the end of 1993 Reggae Ambassadors Worldwide members represent 14
countries including 28 American states and the District of Colombia.
Annual membership fees range from $15 to $50 depending upon membership
category.
Lastly, in conversations with Ambassadors from around the world, I and
others are beginning to sense that the growth potential of Reggae
Ambassadors Worldwide is limitless. We are growing because of your
efforts. So, let us know of your creative endeavors and remember,
Forward
the Reggae VibeEverytime!
Today (8/29/94) RAW membership represents 20 Countries and 34 American
states and the District of Colombia. This includes 122 Peforming
Artists,
59 deejays, 10 writers, and 34 Committed Reggae Fans.
If you want more information about Reggae Ambassadors Worldwide e-mail
your postal mail address.
Forward the Reggae Vibe...Everytime!
--Papa Pilgrim
Reggae Ambassadors Worldwide
[20.] Why do purists look down on UB40?
From: tomdp@selway.umt.edu (Thomas D Potterf)
UB40 has consistently released albums with intelligent lyrics,
though
sometimes Ali Campbell's enunciation is not that great! My question,
do so many "reggae purists" consider the UB's contribution to the
as minimal at best? Their lyrics speak about individual power,
fighting
injustice, and are backed by a solid reggae beat. Is it because they
seldom refer to Jah?
From: hbowser@bianca.amd.com (Horace Bowser)
Subject: Re: UB40: concious reggae
Nah, homey... It's the sound... the sound... the One Drop, Heartbeat
Riddim
I Ya! No doubt, lyrics are important and, from what you say, their's
to be on the one. But it's about the music.
From: walkup@phyast.nhn.uoknor.edu (John Walkup)
Subject: Re: UB40: concious reggae
The way UB40 "reggaefies" mainstream songs annoys me.
From: mikey@monkfish.nosc.mil (EZ Noh Mikey)
Subject: Re: UB40: concious reggae
For me it's how lame their new stuff sounds compared with their early
eighties tunes like "Madame Medusa", "Tyler", "Burden of Shame" and
"My Way of
Thinking".
EZ Noh, mike
From: bobko@nunki.usc.edu (Ryan Bobko)
Subject: Re: UB40: concious reggae
I'm not too sure, but I'm almost certain Elvis wasn't writing {insert
last remake} in the mindset of a poor Jamaican fighting oppression in
homeland. Not that much oppression of Jamaica in Tennessee...
From: TIMRAS@aol.com
it might have more to do with the fact that
Campbell is white. I think they have had a major
influence in popularizing the genre/music, and their
earlier releases (pre Rat in the Kitchen) were representive
of the whole Steel Pulse/Naturlites UK roots-dub sound.
Political lyrics, horns, bass heavy dub mixes while
Junjo and Phang and their dancehall style was the style
in Jamaica. When UB40 got more "pop"ular in their sound,
"I Got You Babe" - "Red Red Wine", which was around when
their mixer/producer Pablo Falconer? , the bass players
brother, died (in a car crash?), they lost all alot of their old fans,
me included. I still think they are great for what they do,
but "Signing Off" thru "UB44" were genius, and the 12"
mixes from that time are really great.
Ultimately race and success may have been their un-doing
in the eyes of the so called reggae "purest"
For me the best reggae is often the most un-pure.
Give me Everly Brother covers and harmonica and banjo
riffs to keep the sound the mix of influences that first
turned me on to that funky music from Jamdown.
From: kmayall@cousteau.uwaterloo.ca.uwaterloo.ca (Kevin Mayall)
In article ,
John Walkup wrote:
>The way UB40 "reggaefies" mainstream songs annoys me.
The way UB40/35 "mainstreams" reggae songs annoys me.
From: tafari@netcom.com (Ras Mikael Enoch)
Subject: Re: UB40: concious reggae
UB35: Manipulative opportunists who have been pushed and
pedestalised
by the white controlled music industry - with need for white
stars/bands/with token black backdrops. And in their top
position, they now vilify RasTafarians in the scene, and
the influence it has in reggae. They are Pomie Ras Clots
that's all - what other mind set would you expect from a
bunch of shaved faced, baldhead poms - that are more than
proud to be citizens of England? We are all happy for them,
and their preferential treatment that they have received.
Always sounds like an inside job to the I.
It's a pomie creation, invention, outward push to the world.
For we know about all of the shunned Jamdown artists, who
are replaced with phoney chart pushed of Snow, Vanilla Ice,
UB35, Ace of Base, New Kidsionne of the Block.
Anti-Jah, Anti Ras Tafarians - that is UB35. Their vocal
expressions against such, will always be their downfall -
and but a constant pagenote on the Internet - so let the
world know, of the eradicated truly Jamaican style, fashion,
artists.
Ras Mikael Enoch
From: papalee@aol.com (Papa Lee)
Subject: Re: UB40: concious reggae
I can't resist responding to this question. I think that there are
minor reasons as to why UB40 has is so disrespected by reggae
"purists"
but there are also a couple of serious reasons that many people
probably
don't want to deal with.
First, the easy stuff (1) They did their most serious work and some
their best work before A&M picked them up so many of their best and
conscious songs were not heard until the poppier material gave them
image. (2) They really haven't done much interesting songwriting in
about seven or eight years. (3) They don't sing about Rasta themes
don't use Rasta iconology (4) They don't connect in any way with
Jamaica
(5) There is a natural inclination among purists of all genres to
dismiss
those who achieve success on a more universal level (George Benson,
anyone?) (6) There is also a fundamental distrust of any act that even
deals on a global level. Although I believe Third World's last two or
three records among their best and some of Steel Pulse's flirtations
modern R&B to be exciting, there are too many people who pine away for
good old days when they were on Mango. UB40, on A&M and Virgin,
"suffers"
from the same attitude (7) They emerged at the same time that the Two-
movement was peaking and to many are indelibly linked to Madness, the
Specials and that ilk. The relationship of those acts to "real" ska
tenuous at best but it can influence the perception of the connection
between UB40 and "real" reggae.
On a deeper level, I believe that there is a certain amount of racism
involved here and I also believe that many people come to reggae with
very specific cultural perspective that is not entirely musical.
On the issue of racism, I've seen this over and over again in the
criticism and literature of different musics that were invented or
developed out of various black communities. Jazz, soul and blues have
had passionate arguments over the issue of white musicians within
genres and while it is undoubtedly true that jazz is fundamentally a
based musical style, that doesn't mean that Bill Evans, Stan Getz and
Pepper aren't creative, innovative and exciting musicians. The same
arguments have raged over Stevie Ray Vaughn, Paul Butterfield and Joe
Cocker and they are equally pointless there as well.
As regards UB40, I have to believe that at least in their material
Signing Off to Labour of Love (and Rat in the Kitchen as well), that
very fact that they are (predominantly) white works against them
within
the reggae community. One other band that I think suffered from this
of racism was the Blue Riddim Band, a truly excellent American band
the early 1980s that never quite got the recognition they deserved
despite
a tremendous talent and devotion to classic reggae.
Finally, I believe that there are distinctions to be made between
reggae
and Rasta and reggae and Jamaica. The three are not identical and it
important to keep their identities somewhat separate. Reggae is a
*musical* form that was born out of commercial necessity and grew up
competitive, commercial environment. It has consistently adapted
influences from all over the place and had grown tremendously in
content
and popularity. The fact that many international listeners
"discovered"
reggae in an era in which most musicians were dedicated to Rasta
themes
or came to find the music through Bob Marley has caused them to
identify
the music with that specific culture. That's a mistake. Reggae is
broader than the music of Bob Marley would indicate just as the
culture is
broader than reggae. Yet because UB40 exists completely outside of
culture defined by Bob Marley they are dismissed by those who define
reggae by Marley's standards. That's unfortunate because UB40 are
excellent musicians who are often capable of powerful songs (although
their last three records have left me pretty cold).
One Love,
Lee O'Neill
Date: Fri, 23 Sep 1994 19:40:03 -0700 (PDT)
From: Allen Kaatz
To: mikey@monkfish.nosc.mil
Subject: Re: UB40: concious reggae
> UB40 has consistently released albums with intelligent lyrics,
though
>sometimes Ali Campbell's enunciation is not that great! My question,
>do so many "reggae purists" consider the UB's contribution to the
>as minimal at best? Their lyrics speak about individual power,
fighting
>injustice, and are backed by a solid reggae beat. Is it because they
>seldom refer to Jah?
I like UB40, myself, but the only record I own by them is a single of
"Red Red Wine", which I knew would be a hit the first time I heard it,
thought they did a great job with that song. A long of reggae fans
prefer more rootsy Jamaican reggae, I guess. I don't know why people
waste so much energy putting them down... maybe it's easier than
saying
something positive for some people. I think UB40's records have
helped a
lot of younger people get turned on to reggae in general, which is a
thing. The band themselves are always very honest about their roots,
having recorded two albums worth of older Jamaican songs (Labour Of
Love). I think that UB40 are just another facet of the modern reggae
scene, they love the music, and have as much right to play it as
anyone
else. As far as the rastafarian aspect, there are plenty of non-rasta
Jamaican artists who get respect in Jamaica. Reggae is a musical
not a religion, and although the rastafarian movement has had obvious
influences on reggae music, it is far from the only influence on
Jamaican
music. American rhythm & blues, mento, calypso, etc. are some of the
others.
I have heard musicians in Jamaica mention UB40 with respect,
they seem to be accepted there, if not a favorite. Many Jamaicans,
including recording artists, seem to be proud that musicians from
other countries are interested in their music. Another point in
favor is that when they record material by Jamaican artists they have
out of their way to made sure that the original writer gets paid.
type of thing does not go un-noticed by musicians & artists in
Kingston.
*Allen Kaatz*
From tpj@de-montfort.ac.uk Fri Sep 30 09:39:48 1994
To: mikey@monkfish.nosc.mil (EZ Noh Mikey)
Interesting question, this. At a guess I would say that UB40 are loved
hated in roughly equal proportions! I think it is not really UB40 who
perceived as the problem, but they do tend to get a lot of flak as the
result
of a more general problem.
It is clear that UB40 have achieved a level of success exceeding their
abilities as a reggae band. I have nothing against them musically,
except
to say that they are very ordinary.
A similar case can be made concerning ex-Simply Red's Mick Hucknall.
got a good voice, but not the best, and his style is basically an
good imitation of other people's music. Also Lisa Stansfield (sorry
these are
all English examples), the soul singer- good singer, but not *that*
the list goes on.
Why is this?
Check out the old Macka-B song that says something like, "UB40 a-make
most millions." In there, I don't think he's criticisng them
personally,
but using them as an example of something more general a lot of black
artists have been complaining about for years. Their argument is that
music they produce is marginalised and marketed as something alien, to
then be replaced in the mainstream by weak imitations by white artists
(or at least partly white, in UB40's case).
However, if this is indeed the case (I would tend to agree) I think
the 'consumers' and not just the marketers of the music must shoulder
of the responsibility for this phenomenon. Most people, and I
certainly,
with hindsight, must include myself among them at some times naturally
aren't aware of this bias for whatever reasons. They genuinely think
lisa, Mick, Ali or whoever are the better artists.
That's the opinion of this purist, anyways.
Best wishes, all.
Tom (tpj@uk.ac.dmu)
[21.] Can anyone recommend good female reggae vocalists (not
dancehall). ?
A friend turned me on to Annette Brissett and the Taxi Gang's
"Annette." He's crazy about her and since he's got a birthday coming
up I was wondering if any kind souls could offer suggestions? Thanks
in advance for the help.
From: mikey@monkfish.nosc.mil (EZ Noh Mikey)
Check out Sophia George, either the "For Everyone" or "Latest Slang"
Also "Black Woman" by Judy Mowatt.
EZ Noh, mike
From: sppcarso@ultrix.uor.edu (Bush Doktor)
Try one of my faves... Kofi Her first cd is great, I believe it's
called "with sugar". Try Ernie Bsssssss, he has it.
BUSH DOKTOR sppcarso@ultrix.uor.edu
From: deen@primenet.com (Deen Ipaye)
Judy Mowatt's "Look At Love" CD is a recent favorite
Marcia Griffith's "Naturally" is a mellow classic
Rita Marley's "Who Feels It" LP with "One Draw" track is another
good one
Martha Velez's "Escape From Babylon"--Produced by Bob Marley
(If you can find it!)
TAKE YOUR PICK... I'm sure there are lots more!
From: papalee@aol.com (Papa Lee)
Marcia Griffiths is an amazingly talented singer and almost any record
she's ever made is worthwhile. Judy Mowatt (Griffiths, Mowatt and
Marley were members of the I-Threes, the harmony singers for Bob
Marley)
is good songwriter and singer and her Black Woman album is one of the
greatest of all time. Hortense Ellis is another great female singer,
although finding her records is getting to be very difficult these
I'd also recommend Doreen Shaffer and Dawn Penn unequivocally. I also
love JC Lodge and Carlene Davis, although both have a tendency to get
bit mawkish. And before I forget, there's Sandra Cross, Janet Kay,
Carroll Thompson and Susan Cadogan from England.
Happy hunting,
Lee O'Neill
From: highnote@eskimo.com (Allen Kaatz)
Marcia Griffith's Studio One LP is a classic... I think it is
currently
available, although the music is older style...
From: d2domer@dtek.chalmers.se (Erik Domstad)
I would recommend Aisha, either "High Priestess" or "Daughters of
Nice roots style, Mad Professor at the controls....
American Eskimo
Debbie Ritchie
Western Massachusetts
American Water Spaniel
The American Water Spaniel Field Association of America
Breed Rescue Chairperson: Lynn Morrison
Union Lake, MI 48387-0160
|| American Water Spaniel Club
|| Sharon Beaupre
Argentine Dogo
Argentine Dogo Club of America
Gabriel Moyette
BOx 234 Blueberry Hill Rd.
West Shokan, NY 12494
Australian Cattle Dog
Australian Cattle Dog Club of America
Rescue Chair
|| Valerie Eltzroth
John Kurpas
19975 Concord
Detroit, MI, 48234
Judith Ransom
Lithia Springs, GA 30057
Australian Kelpie
Jo Ann Weller
Jan Wesen
Washington
Australian Shepherd
Australian Shepherd Club of America (ASCA)
Aussie Rescue and Placement Program
in New England, call
Peter Kontos
413-467-9812 after 1:30 pm. EST
Don Rowan
Maryland
Kathy McDonald
Carolina Australian Shepherd Club
Aussie Rescue Group
Kathleen Cole
Melanie Schlaginhaufen
Mary Cummings
607-729-2718 (NY area)
(Also does GSD rescue work)
Australian Terrier
|| Australian Terrier Club of America
Barbera Curtis
939 Lochness Court
Ft. Collins, CO 80524
Margaret Reignier
Debra Austin
New York
Basenji
|| Basenji Club of America
|| Rescue Chair
|| Judith Holiday
Karen Butler
Jennifer Hampton
Basenji Club of Northern California
Margaret Hoff
191 Butterfield Rd.
San Anselmo, CA 94960
Basenji Club of Southeastern Wisconsin
Pat Wand
3636 N. 100th Street
Milwaukee, WI 53222
Dallas-Ft. Worth Basenji Club
Linda Coker
321 Birchwood Dr.
Garland, TX 75043
Nancy Sullivan
Virginia
Iris Craven
Maryland
Cathy Cant
Maryland
baylist: Margaret Hoff
191 Butterfield Rd.
San Anselmo, CA 94960
Delaware Valley Basenji Club
Mark Baime
New Jersey
Bay State Basenji Club
(New Hampshire and Mass)
Jennifer and Fred Sienko
email fsienko@ede.sanders.lockheed.com
Basset Hound
Basset Hound Club of America (BHCA) Rescue
|| Rescue Chair
Libby Sallada (Denver CO area)
Northern California Basset Hound Club
Ruth Wilcox
High Country Basset Rescue and Adoption (Denver Metro Area)
Bill Nail
Denver, CO area
|| Basset Hound Rescue League
|| Arlene Kahn
|| Fort Washington MD 20744
|| Covers Washington, DC, Maryland, Virginia, Southern PA,
|| West Virginia, and some NOrth Carolina
Pilgram Basset Hound Club
Barbara Boudreau
21 Podunk Road
Sturbridge, MA 01566
Kirk Joiner
617-984-0667 (after 6) (Mass.)
Tri-State Basset Hound Rescue League
(was Berkshire Valley Basset Hound Club)
Barbara Wicklund
Skillman, NJ 08558 (NJ, Southern PA)
Kathy Karppinen
Aloha, OR 97006
Kris Pellom
Badgerland Basset Hound Club
Jane Baetz, Rescue Chairperson
West Bend, WI 53094
Basset Hound Rescue
Phyllis Stapells
St. John's Sideroad
RR 3 Stouffville
Basset Hound Club of B.C.
Miss Anna Phillips, President
17 James St.
Strathroy, ON N7G 1S6
Beagle
SOS Beagle Rescue
Linda Forrest
1286 Smithville Road
Bordentown, NJ 08505
"Purebred Beagles for adoption. Vet checked, loving compainions
and adoption application required."
Blossom Valley Beagle Club
Mary Powell & Trudi Reveira
1015 Reed Ave.
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
Mandy Cronin
baylist: 408-244-1848
Bearded Collie
Bearded Collie Club of America
Paul Glatzer
10 Eden Drive
Smithtown, NY 11787
Chantal Bailey
Davie, FL 33325
Mark Ropersburg
Barbara Marshall
baylist: Ann Angevin Allen
87 Claire Way
Tiburon, CA 94920
Beauceron
Susan Bulanda
Pennsylvania
Claudia Batson
Virginia
Bedlington Terriers
Bedlington Terrier Club of America
|| Linda Jones
Judy Barton (Monte)
806 Oregon St.
Bakersfield, CA 93305
Belgian Laekenois
See Alicia Marcinczyk under Belgian Tervuren.
She accepts infos on Belgian Sheepdogs,
Belgian Malinois, and Belgian Laekenois and Tervs.
Belgian Malinois
American Belgian Malinois Club
Jennifer Leseberg
HCR#1 Box 59
Sciota, PA 18354
Allyson Olson
Marysvale, UT 84750
baylist: 408-946-2136 or 415-365-5613
Also see Alicia Marcinczyk under Belgian Tervuren.
She accepts infos on Belgian Sheepdogs,
Belgian Malinois, and Belgian Laekenois and Tervs.
Belgian Sheepdog
Belgian Sheepdog Club of America
Roy A. Elliott
Buffalo, MN 55313
United Belgian Shepherd Dog Club
c/o (the chairperson is moving - I will
|| Randie Meyer update when she's available again)
|| 3 Mayhew Lane
|| Amherst, NH 03031-2032
Phyllis Davis
2530 Harbison Rd.
Cedarville, OH 45314
Janet Bennett
Culpeper, VA 22701
Sharon Roundy
708-343-3358 (This is in Illinios)
Barb Vaneseltine
Marilyn Russell
Kathy Greenwood
1304 Glen Oaks Ct.
Norman, Ok 73071
(kathy@aardvark.ucs.uoknor.edu)
Kathy Ellis: head of rescue committee for Belgian
Sheepdog of America club
4815 Wards Chapel Rd.
Owings Mills, MD 21117
See Alicia Marcinczyk under Belgian Tervuren.
She accepts infos on Belgian Sheepdogs,
Belgian Malinois, and Belgian Laekenois and Tervs.
Belgian Tervuren
|| American Belgian Tervuren Club
|| Miki Baiocchi
|| Cindy Simonsen
Barb Vaneseltine
Manely Tervuren Belgian Club
Alicia Marcinczyk, Rescue Chair (Northeast States)
Box 736 RFD #1
Cornish, ME 04020
Also accepts infos on Belgian Sheepdogs,
Belgian Malinois, and Belgian Laekenois
American Belgian Tervuren Club
Miki Baiocchi
107 East 2nd
Georgetown, TX 78626-5013
Cindy Simonsen
W359 S2546 Highway 67
Dousman, WI 53118
(continued next message)
@SUBJECT:rec.pets.dogs: Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 1/2
 (Continued from last message)
Linda Cowell
Connecticut
Linda Boncek
Connecticut
Don McManus
Western Massachusetts
Paula Eldridge
New Hampshire
Bernese Mountain Dog
|| Bernese Mountain Dog Club of America
|| National Rescue Chair
|| Beth Friichtenicht
|| North Start States Bernese Mountain Dog Club
|| Jenny Pavlovic, Rescue Chair
|| 5381 St. Croix Trail S.
|| Afton, MN 55001
|| pav10009@gold.tc.umn.edu
|| Walter Houseman
|| Cambridge, MA 02139
Bernese Mountain Dog Club of Nashoba Valley
|| (getting up-to-date info...)
Bernese Mountain Dog Club of Watchung
Lillian Ostermiller
Flemington, NJ 08822
|| (need a phone number update!)
North Coast BMDC of Ohio, Inc.
Rescue Committee
Sue Sanvido, Chairperson
27170 Bagley Road
Olmsted Twnship, OH 44138
Bichon Frise
Bishon Frise Club of America
|| Laura Fox-Meachen
Bichon Frise Club of Northern New Jersey
Anne Baird
25 Hayes Avenue
Millville, NJ 08332
National Bichon Frise Rescue Trust
Nancy McDonald
14303 Spring Maple Lane
Houston, TX 77063
Bichon Frise Club of Greater Houston
Carolyn Messner
10702 Burgonyne Rd.
Houston, TX 77042
Bichon Frise Club of San Diego
Betty Ribble
13035 Via Caballo Rojo
San Diego, CA 92129
Greater New York Bichon Frise Fanciers
Eleanor Grossick
41 Audrey Ave.
Elmont, NY
Bichon Frise Club of Southern New England
Irene Libby
Connecticut
Bichon Frise Club of Canada
Norma Dirszworsky, Secretary
12 Mill Pond Lane
Udora, ON L0C 1L0
Bloodhound
American Bloodhound Club
|| Ed Kilby
Susan La Croix Hamil
20372 Laguna Canyon Rd.
Laguna Beach, CA 92651
Jim Smotrich
Bloodhounds West * Breed Rescue
20372 Laguna Canyon Road
Laguna Beach, CA 92651
Border Collie
The North American Border Collie Rescue Network:
Nancy Starkey in Maryland (301-253-4732)
Carole Presberg, NABCRN (607-659-5868)
Box 843, Ithaca, NY 14851
(send a long SASE for information and rescue list)
Nancy Broderick
Janet Larson
New Hampshire
Border Terrier
|| Border Terrier Club of America
|| JoEllen Wolf
North American Border Terrier Welfare
Robert Cowell
Connecticut
Pam & Chris Dyer (coordinators)
3685 Montee 4eme Rang
Ste-Marie-Madeleine, QUE JOH 1SO
Area Reps:
Quebec: Jocelyne Tasse-Durosher 514-641-0941
Ontario: Marnie Fielding 613-825-0722
Alberta: June Smith 403-283-1364
baylist: Jim Kane
5509 Blank Rd.
Sebastapol, CA 95472
Borzoi
|| Borzoi Club of America
|| Barbara Skinner, rescue chair
Borzoi Club of California
Margaret Jemison
(Orange Cty.)
6292 Shayne Dr.
Huntington Beach, CA 92647
Judith Lofgren (L.A.)
Borzoi Club of Delaware Valley
Debbie Carcillo
1407 Rising Sun Ave.
Parkland, PA 19047
Borzoi Rescue of Northern California
Jacquieline Gregory
Somerset, CA 95684
Puget Sound Borzoi Club
Lita Bond
Auburn, WA 98002
Ted Turchin
New Hampshire
(also other sighthounds)
Susan Caulkins
baylist: Jacqueline Gregory
2200 Wolfhound Rd.
Somerset, CA 95648
Boston Terrier
Boston Terrier Club of America
Ellen Dresselhuis
Minnesota
Call for local referrals, too.
Boston Terrier Club of Maryland
Rescue Committee
Rachel Toczylowski
8906 Ardwick-Ardmore Rd.
Lanham, MD 20785
Fostering, adoption, and referrals
Covers the Maryland, Virgina, Penns, Delaware,
and D.C. areas.
Boston Terrier Club of Milwaukee
Dr. Myles Notaro
2925 South 10th St.
Milwaukee, WI 53215
Detroit Boston Terrier Club
Barbara Lohringel
696 Merrimac
Canton, MI 48188
or Mira Jilbert
2082 Butterfield
Troy, MI 48084
Lenape Boston Terrier Club
Alma Bettencourt
41 Main Rd.
Flanders, NJ 07836
Minuteman Boston Terrier Rescue
Betty Foerster
Alice Krawczyk
Rhode Island
Boston Terrier Club of Canada
Doreen Jones, Secretary
7127 5th St. S.W.
Calgary, AB T2V 1B2
baylist: Nancy Ford
10520 Baywood Ct.
Cupertino, CA 95014
Bouvier Des Flandres
American Bouvier des Flanders Club, Inc.
|| Diane Sutherland
Ralph Goldman Memorial Fund
American Bouvier Rescue League
Jacqueline R. Crowe, committee chair
1880 West 11800 South
South Jordan, Utah 84065
Bouvier des Flanders Club of SE Michigan
Sandra Jarrell
5522 Lake Vista
Pontiac, MI 48054
Northeastern Illinois Bouvier des Flanders
Candice Lutz
210 Hazelwood Dr.
Lindenhurst, IL 60046
Maureen Patterson
Ken Westphal
Debbie Goldstein
Virginia
Nancy Woodley (Rescue Chairman for the SouthEast)
3114 Wilson Road
Decatur, GA 30030
American Boxer Association
Tracy L. Hendrickson
4412 W. Kent Circle
Broken Arrow, OK 74135
Boxer Rescue Service, Inc.
Jean Loubriel
90 Holland Ave.
Demarest, NJ 07627
notes: "Rescue on average as many as three Boxers a week.
There is coverage of shelters, kennels, pounds and
veterinarian's offices looking for the distressed Boxer
Puppy and Adult."
Jill Dennis
Bluebonnet Boxer Club
Stephania Jinks
1210 Magnolia Lane
Kingwood, TX 77339
or Jinna Dunn
Grangerland, TX 77302
Greater Miami Boxer Club
Elizabeth McCann
3601 NW 35th Way
Lauderdale Lakes, FL 33309
Pacific Northwest Boxer Club
Bill and Sarah McNary
Snohomish, WA 98290
Boxer Rescue Service, Inc.
Michele McArdle
Connecticut
Ursula P. Sauthier
17100 Ventura Blvd. #111
Encino, CA 91316-4077
baylist: 415-383-1065
Briard
Briard Club of America
Jack Wynne, U.S. & Canada
321 Central
Inkster, MI 48141
Mary Bloom
53-07 Douglaston Parkway
Douglaston, NY 11362
Judith Pratt
(referral only)
Judy Ziozios
Brittany
|| American Brittany Club
|| Anne Murphy
Aloha Brittany Club
Dimi Poser
Waianae, HI 96792
Missouri Brittany Club
Dave White
12012 W. 150th Circle
Olathe, KS 66062
Joanne Godin
New Hampshire
Brussels Griffon
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@SUBJECT:rec.pets.dogs: Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 1/2
 (Continued from last message)
NBGC Rescue
Marjorie Simon, breed rescue chairman
25 Windermere
Houston, TX 77063
Linda Knight
Virginia
baylist: Joan Guest
860-862 Old County Rd.
Belmont, CA 94002
Bulldog
|| Bulldog Club of America
|| Dr. James K. Young
Pat and Pam Devoid
Hillsborough County, FL (near Tampa Bay)
Joyce Smith
Pinellas County, FL (near Tampa Bay)
(also does French Bulldog Rescue)
Bulldog Club of Texas
Brandy Nunciato
17719 Heritige Creek Drive
Webster, TX 77598
Bulldog Club of Denver
Sandra Coffman
6917 W. Frost Pl.
Littleton, CO 80123
Bulldog Club of Northern California
Pat Ropp
132 Blueberry Hill
Los Gatos, CA 95030
San Antonio Bulldog Club
Dr. Jim Young and Diana Young
7508 Marbach Rd.
San Antonio, TX 78227
Donna Marcham
(referral only)
Bullmastiff
The American Bullmastiff Association
Mary Walsh 690 E. 8th St.
S. Boston, MA 02127
HOTLINE: 508-939-5300
Virginia Rowland (@ HOTLINE number)
Barbara Brant
Bull Terrier
Bull Terrier Club of America
|| Norma Shepherd
|| 800-BTB-T911 (RI)
Bill Edwards
1526 Belleau Rd.
Glendale, CA 91206
Bull Terrier Club of Metro Detroit
Sharon Whalen
7185 Gillette
Flushing, MI 48433
Bull Terrier Club of New England
Kathy Brosnan
Kingston, NH 03848
Christine St. Cyr
Bull Terrier Club of St. Louis
Jeff Clinebell, D.V.M.
Columbia Animal Hospital
Columbia, IL 62236
Central New Jersey Bull Terrier Club
Corinne Gliozzi
31 Bloomfield Ave.
Somerset, NJ 08873
Barbary Coast Bull Terrier Club
Shari A. Mann
San Francisco, CA 94122
Blue Ridge Bull Terrier Club
Cheryl Yost
4401 Manor Hall Lane
Fairfax, VA 22033
David Weber
Charlottesville, VA 22901
Buckeye Bull Terrier Club (Northern Ohio)
Kayla Applebaum
2765 Som Cntr. Rd.
Huntington Valley, OH 44022
Same as above but Southern Ohio
Carolyn Kramer
4611 Manchester Rd.
New Middletown, OH 45042
Bull Terrier Club of America
Randy and Jan Bisgaard
1173 N. Westmoreland Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90029
Bull Terrier Club of Canada (Alberta Div.)
Tom O'Conner
Box 5958, Station A
Calgary, Alberta, T24 1Y4
Canada
Bull Terrier Club of Puget Sound
Linda Owings-Rosenburgh
7033 52nd Ave. N.E.
Seattle, WA 98115
Bull Terrier Club of Tampa Bay
Sandra Hill-Cowen
2810 Crystal Court
Coconut Grove, FL 33153
Ft. Dearborn Bull Terrier Club
Katherine Ross
151 Saemann Rd.
Chesterton, IN 46304
Golden Triangle Bull Terrier Club
Betty Desmond
Claysville, PA 15323
Mile High Bull Terrier Club
Mark and Diane Haller-Campbell
3446 Longview Rd.
Erie, CO 80226
Dee Garrison
1070 E. Eaton St.
Lakewood, CO 80226
Kathy Brosnan
New Hampshire
Charlene Rogers
Connecticut
Bull Terrier Welfare and Rescue
Bull Terrier Club of Central Arizona
Lisa Newell
5002 West Stephanie Rd.
Glendate, AZ 85301
Cairn Terrier
Sue Millward
Cairn Terrier Club of America
Betty Marcum
Alvarado, TX 76009
co-chairs: Sue DeWitt
Lynne Nabors
Becky Stamps
Cairn Terrier Club of Denver
Nancy Cassel
795 Spanish Bit Dr.
Colorado Springs, CO 80921
Cairn Terrier Club of Northern California
Bobbie Walker
Mill Valley, CA 94442
Cairn Terrier Club of Southern California
Karen Smith
889 El Paisano Dr.
Fallbrook, CA 92028
Potomac Cairn Terrier Club
Lynda Hammel
12027 Sugarland Valley Dr.
Herndon, VA 22070
Cairn Terrier Club of Canada - Ontario & Eastern Regions Rescue
Edith Skellett
4243 Tisdale Rd
RR 3 Mount Hope
Ontario, CA
416-679-6741 (between 9am - 8pm)
Nancy Barrett
Anne Manning
Rhode Island
Cardigan Welsh Corgi -see Welsh Corgi Cardigan
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
Babs Murdock
Debbi Baker
Patricia Hutchins
Cavalier King Charles Spaniels of B.C.
Katie J. Eldred
Huntingdon, BC
Chihuahua
Chihuahua Club of B.C.
Edna St. Hilaire
2114 Dublin St.
New Westminster, BC V3M 3A9
Chinese Shar Pei
|| Chinese Shar-pei Club of Americaa
|| Chinese Shar-pei Rescue Committee
|| Eastern Region Coordinator
|| Alice Lawler
|| Creamridge, NJ 08514
Chinese Shar-Pei Club of the Raritan Valley Rescue
|| Randy Blumhagen
254 Hillside Ave.
Cranford, NJ 07016
|| Maryann Smithers
|| 232 Park Rd,
|| Boonton, NJ 07005
|| Cynthia Czarda-Black
|| North Brunswick, NJ 08902
|| (grooming shop) 908-846-4949
Edward Yee
Charlene Rogers
Connecticut
Chinese Shar Pei Rescue
Chow Chow
Chow Chow Club Rescue
Chris Cameron
Barbara Malone
Dr. J.A. DeBlois
see also: Vicki Rodenberg below
Elaine Albert
Chow Chow Club of Greater Houston
Shirley Gooch
Houston, TX 77251-1593
Wisconsin Chow Chow Club
Vicki Rodenberg
Janesville, WI 53546
Mt. Hood Chow Chow Club
Joyce Hay
8455 S.E. Orchard Lane
Portland, OR 97266
Rita Enwright
(referrals only)
Chow Chow Fanciers of Canada, South Central Ontario
Judy Goacher
4248 RR 1 Kendal, ON LOA 1EO
416-983-6412 (between 6-9pm)
baylist: Ellen Prior
6095 Springer Way
San Jose, CA 95123
Clumber Spaniel
Clumber Spaniel Rescue Committee
c/o Janna Glasser
40 Crosshill Road
Hartsdale, NY 10530
Vikki Lucas
Cocker Spaniel - See also English Cocker Spaniel
Bay Cities Cocker Spaniel Club
Vera Sill
110 Yellowood Pl.
Pittsburg, CA 94565
Gerry Foss
603-547-3363 (eves & weekends)
New Hampshire
Anne Lindsay
baylist: Ann Norton
237 Santa Lucia Ave. #5
San Bruno, CA 94006
Collie
|| Collie Club of America
(continued next message)
@SUBJECT:rec.pets.dogs: Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 1/2
 (Continued from last message)
|| Gene Malone
Tuscon Collie Club
Jean Malone
7066 Calle Centuri
Tuscon, AZ 85710
Northern California Collie Rescue
Jean Roberts
1046 Sunset Rd.
Napa, CA 94558
408-288-6624 (Santa Clara County) (micki@novell.com)
408-683-4604 (Gilroy/Santa Cruz)
Collie Rescue Southern California
Cookie Routman
909 15th St., Apt. E
Santa Monica, CA 90403
213-395-6496 (Los Angeles)
805-255-5777 (Saugus, Lancaster)
805-524-4542 (Ventura County)
805-969-5548 (Santa Barbara County)
Collie Club of Colorado
LaVonne Archuletta
3226 W. Exposition Ave.
Denver, CO 80219
Marty Hamlin
Collie Rescue League
17604 Parkridge Drive
Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878
Collie Club of Maryland
Pam Catalano
608 Plymouth Rd.
Baltimore, MD 21229
The Collie Network
Mary Lenertz
Harvard, MA 01451
Collie Rescue League Of Mass., Inc.
Tri-County Collie Rescue, Michigan
Carol Fox
5955 Mayburn
Dearborn Heights, MI 48127
Lee Patton
Toledo Collie Club
Carol Lamb
147 Tunnicliffe Rd.
Petersburg, MI 49207
Toledo Collie Club
Kathy Foley
5434 Armada Dr.
Toledo, OH 43623
Pacific Northwest Collie Club
Glenda Kelly
44615 NW Elk Mnt. Rd.
Banks, OR 97106
Theresa Uzelac
10685 NW McDaniel Rd.
Portland, OR 97229
Collie Rescue of South Eastern Pennsylvania
Willow Grove, PA 19090
Lynn Wolkiewicz
Linda Knouse
Collie Club of Western Pennsylvania
Cheryl Flora
132 Church Lane
Pittsburg, PA 15238
Andria Sobczak
Rhode Island
Collie Rescue League of Metro, Washington, Inc.
Kay Richter, Secretary
9202 Honey Creeper Ct.
Burke, VA 22015
Martha Handman, President
7433 Sportsman Dr.
Falls Church, VA 22043
Collie Club of America
Carol Zielke
Seattle, WA 98155 *I had this in Spokane?
The following is a list of names and phone numbers
for Collie Rescue given to me by Holly Kruse.
AZ: Patrick Martin, 602/948-1503
CA: Kay Bedeau, 916/423-1732]
CO: Susan Murphy, 303/659-7875
CT: Nancy Connor, 413/367-2182
Darlene Ferris, 203/877-2431
IL: Anne Rice, 708/940-1596
Jan Ziech, 815/475-7143
KY: Christine Schroth, 606/586-5750
LA: Carolyn Donner, 504/391-0151
MA: Nancy Connor (see CT)
MD: Barbara Bernhardt, 301/236-9294
ME: Claire Marx, 207/892-3118
MI: Megan Veen, 313/664-2548
MO: Cecily Barker, 314/567-6289
NC: Claudia Aaron-Sneed, 919/791-2518
NH: Beth Michaud, 603/424-5436
NJ: Anna Jones, 908/464-5720
Marge Lippman, 201/962-4173
NY: Christine Wayman, 518/734-3179
OH: Nonda Jones, 216/235-4197
Ruth White, 412/443-6248
OR: Pam Beery, 503/246-0688
PA: Sandy Fisher, 215/932-2777
Doug Miller, 717/382-4086
Ruth White (see OH)
TX: Marion Pahy, 512/494-0389
Bettina Whyte, 713/661-2052
VA: Teresa Warner, 703/528-7349
WI: Marge Hohman, 414/734-6734
E. Ann Buck, 715/344-8533
baylist: 707-445-3685
Corgi -see Welsh Corgi
*** NEW ENTRY ***
Curly-Coated Retriever
|| Curly-Coated Retriever Club of America
|| Sandra Freeman
Dachshund
Dachshund Club of America
Ruth Martucci
7647 Sunset Ave
Fair Oaks, CA 95628
Dachshund Rescue of Monmouth/Ocean County
Jody Caizza
New Jersey
Western Pennsylvania Dachshund Club
Kathryn Daniels
1319 E. Hookstown
Grade Rd.
Clinton, PA 15026
Lori Eden
San Diego Dachshund Club
Dorothy Shelton
4496 Trias St.
San Diego, CA 92120
Eastern Canada
Dachshund Club
Pat Kearney, Secretary
Pakenham, ON K0A 2X0
Joan Dubuc
Western Massachusetts
Carolyn Smith
baylist: 408-253-8153
Dalmatian
|| Dalmatian Club of America
|| Chris Jackson
Dalmatian Adoption League & Rescue
Barb Gunnage, president
D.A.L. Rescue Svc.
20472 Purlingbrook
Livonia, MI 48152
Mike Harper, VP
Dalmatian Club of Northern California
Joe Immerman
639 Prentiss St.
San Francisco, CA 94110 415-282-6929
Dalmatian Club of Greater St. Louis
June Mueller
3208 Brisolhall Ct.
Bridgeton, MO 63044
Delaware Valley Dalmatian Club
Donna Howard
218 E. King Street
Malvern, PA 19355
or Susan Hlavacek
Dalmatian Club of Southern New England
Carolyn Mullins
Connecticut
Dandie Dinmont Terrier
Douglas Young
Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club of America
|| Jacklyn Moss, rescue chair
also listed:
Evelyn Ammerman
312 Hoffnagle St.
Philadelphia, PA 19111
Doberman Pinscher
Doberman Pinscher Club of America
Judith Fellton
219 Johnson Ferry Rd.
Marietta, GA 30067
The Doberman Pinscher Club of Michigan
Greater Detroit Area
Maggie Hillard, sec DPCM
496 Emmons Blvd.
Wyandotte, MI 48192
Aztec Doberman Pinscher Club of San Diego
Angie Monteleon
9821 Dunbar Lane
El Cajon, CA 92021
Cabrillo Doberman Pinscher Club
Betty Smith
25510 Carmel Knolls
Carmel, CA 93923
Sandra F. Wood
158 Garlin Rd.
Watsonville, CA 95076
California-Sierra Doberman Pinscher Club
R. Dallara
San Bernardino, CA 92413
Doberman Pinscher Breeders Association of Penn-Jersey
Pat Adriano
40 Broad Ave.
Edison, NJ 08820
Doberman Pinscher Club of Rocky Mountain Area
Nancy Melichar
Arvada, CO 80004
Mt. Hood Doberman Pinscher Club
Pat McMillian 3123 SE 129th Ave.
Portland, OR 97236
Puget Sound Doberman Pinscher Club
Julianne Ferado
Renton, WA 98058
Quaker City Doberman Pinscher Club
Pam Gutekunst
One Melvin Road
Phoenixville, PA 19460
Santa Ana Valley Doberman Pinscher Club
Jane Menz
1119 S. Clarence
Anaheim, CA 92806
Tucson Doberman Pinscher Club
Sharon Crissey
4948 La Canada
Tucson, AZ 85705
Doberman Rescue Unlimited, Inc.
New Hampshire Doberman Rescue League
Norma Guronskas
Paul McTigue
Barbara Burns
Sherry Bovinet
New Hampshire (also Vermont referrals)
Fran Robinson
Connecticut
D. & F. Bloomberg
Judy Staven
Rhode Island
Patti & Henry Clark
Connecticut
Robin Tardiff
New Hampshire
Joanne Bugai
Connecticut
baylist: 408-734-5834 or 707-448-3850
|| Elizabeth Adjan
|| 510-532-5040 (bay area, CA)
|| Always looking for foster homes, too
English Bulldog -see Bulldog
English Bull Terrier -see Bull Terrier
English Cocker Spaniel -see also Cocker Spaniel
English Cocker Spaniel Club of America
Marsha T. Wallace, M.D., rescue chair
607 Wayne St.
Alexandria, VA 22301
Arlington, VA 22205
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@SUBJECT:rec.pets.dogs: Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 1/2
 (Continued from last message)
Mrs. Doty
English Pointer -see Pointer
English Setter
|| English Setter Association of America
|| Dawn Ronyak
Golden Gate English Setter Club
M.A. Samuelson
21680 Fortini Rd.
San Jose, CA 95120
Cheryl Rudolph
English Springer Spaniel
Eastern English Springer Spaniel Hotline
English Springer Spaniel Rescue
|| Lorraine Paul
Dunstable, MA 01827
Hellen Rae Thomas
Everettville, WV 26533
baylist: 408-255-8436 or 408-779-2739
English Toy Spaniel
Sue Kisielewski
Route 1, Box 245-X
Monroe, VA 24574
Fila Brasileiro
Fila Brasileiro
Zebulon, GA 30295
Fila Brasileiro Registry
Manhattan, KS 66502
Flat Coated Retriever
|| Flat-Coated Retriever Society of America
|| Dana Crevling
Joyce Reine
Michigan
Fox Terrier - Smooth or Wire
American Fox Terrier Club of America
Pam Bishop
(800) FOX-TERR (in CA)
(Should be able to send local rescue references.)
Fox Terrier Club of Northern California
Judy Cullina
266 Castenada Dr.
Millbrae, CA 94030
415-697-1921 (evenings)
Holly Peterson
(referrals only)
Carol Wainwright
Fox Terrier -Toy-see Toy Fox Terrier
French Bulldog
French Bulldog Club of America
Brenda Buckles, rescue network chair
6111 Walnut St.
Kansas City, MO 64113
Joyce Smith
Pinellas County, FL (near Tampa Bay)
(Also so American Bulldog Rescue)
Judy Hoobin
German Shepherd Dog
German Shepherd Dog Club of America, Inc.
Linda Kury, rescue committee national chair
369 Drake Court
Santa Clara, CA 95051
German Shepherd Dog Club of Alaska
Bonnie Johnson and Christa Burg
Chugiak, AK 99567
German Shepherd Rescue
417 N. Moss St.
Burbank, CA 91502
(818) 558-7560 Ask for Grace.
German Shepherd Dog Club of Minneapolis-St. Paul
Marilyn Lindsey-Miller
210 Kindross, P.O. Box 574
Willenie, MN 55090
German Shepherd Dog Club of S. Nevada
Betty Zapatka
5409 Avendia Vaquero
Las Vegas, NV 89108
German Shepherd Rescue (Placement, evaluation, referrals)
Stu and Karen Randall
228 Gorham Pond Rd.
Goffstown, NH 03045
Ritter Hof Kennel
Mary and Kitty Cummings
810 E. Maine Rd.
Johnson City, NY 13790
German Shepherd Rescue, Inc of PA
Nancy Aiosa (717) 586-9064 Diane Reppy (717) 943-2055
Sue Bunnell (717) 388-6959 Wendel Larson (215) 294-9216
Charlotte Williams (717) 943-2624
|| Marci Linn
Green Mountain German Shepherd Club
Ellamea and Rex Jones
German Shorthaired Pointer
CALIFORNIA:
German Shorthaired Pointer Club of Orange County
Karen Detterich
Mira Loma, CA 91752
Alison J. Lavitt
13532 Elgers Street
Cerritos, CA 90701
|| baylist: 415-493-2555 (Eddyce and Lou Mueller)
|| German Shorthair Pointer of CA Rescue
|| Laura Hansen
|| 2644 monte Vista
|| El Cerrito, CA
Grass Valley: Hank & Maggie Deetz (916)764-2595
Livermore: Mimsy Pangilinan (510)449-5197
Napa: Jan Scott (707)257-7008
|| 3258 Sonoma Highway
|| Napa, CA 94559
Redlands: Stephanie B. Casdorph (909)798-3491
|| Jean Galli
|| 1225 Buchanan Drive
|| Santa Clara, CA 95051
|| Sharon Ennis
|| 5926 Mauritania Ave
|| Oakland, CA 94605
CONNECTICUT
German Shorthaired Pointer Club of America
Chairperson, rescue
Nancy Campbell
P.O. Box 134, Redding, CT 06875
ILLINOIS
Chicago: Melinda Metzger (312)883-1736
Presumption: Bonnie Wilcox, DVM (309)534-8112
KANSAS
Beloit: John Pfefferkorn (? )738-5135
Olathe: Julie Haller (913)782-5866
Brunswick: Wilma G. Sarna (207)729-5838
MARYLAND
Upperco: Donna Headley (410)239-8387
MASSACHUSETTS
Hull: Jinny & Jack Nealon (617)925-2579
Laura Grose
Linda Flynn
(referral only) (MA)
Katahdin German Shorthaired Pointer Club of New England
David Nelson
Lunenburg, MA
MINNESOTA
Barnum: Don & Betty Sandberg (218)389-3413
Inver Grove Hts.: Sally Battista (612)455-0364
MONTANA
Billings: Nancy Lane (406)698-3438
NEW HAMPSHIRE
Candia: Alison Jones (603)483-8113
Danville: Peggy Gagnon (603)642-5878
Sandown: Tricia Thomas (603)887-2093
NEW JERSEY
Chester: Eleanor Campbell (908)879-2378
Edison: Marcia Steinmann (908)494-1290
Millville: Judith L. Noon (609)825-3948
Morris Plains: Lina Vitanza (201)829-6877
Stockton: Jane C. Ludwig (609)397-2016
Upper Montclair Joan Tabor (201)746-5986
NEW MEXICO
Carrizozo: Sharon Baker (505)354-2894
Las Cruces: Phyllis McNall (505)527-4201
NEW YORK
Hampton: Kenneth Janssen (518)282-9648
Pine Bush: Laura Pedersen (914)744-5501
Red Hook: Jacquelyn Cookingham (914)758-8511
Sound Beach: Lori Truncale (516)821-3084
NORTH CAROLINA
Charlotte: Judith Van Noate (704)375-6957
Walkertown: Beth Cochran, DVM (919)595-3307
Cambridge: Betsy Miller (614)439-2652
Medina: Judy Parietti (216)667-2688
PENNSYLVANIA:
Carlisle: Virginia S. Shambaugh (717)249-1947
Red Oak: Joan McGrath (214)617-0256
VERMONT
Shelburne: Lorie A. Crain (802)425-4007
VIRGINIA
Phiolmont: Cecelia Weller (703)338-2801
WASHINGTON
Renton: Linda Zobbi (206)255-7464
German Wirehair Pointer
German Wirehair Pointer Club of America
Linda Strathman
German Wirehair Pointer Club of America
Carol L. Stuart
Altoona, PA 16601
Seattle-Tacoma German Wirehaired Pointer Club
Laura Myles
22730 Echo Lake Rd.
Snohomish, WA 98290
Giant Schnauzer -see Schnauzer-Giant
Golden Retriever
Golden Retriever Club of America
Ginny Kell, rescue chair
William Feeney
GRREAT
(Golden Retriever Rescue, Education and Traning,Inc.)
Virginia
(serves D.C., north and northwestern VA, MD, DE, and eastern PA)
Kathy Carbone
Southeastern Virginia GRREAT Inc.
(Golden Retriever Rescue, Education, And Training, Inc.)
Yorktown, VA 23693
Serving Richmond, VA to Virginia Beach
|| Delaware Valley Golden Retriever Rescue
|| 610-678-4981 (Philly, PA area)
Norcal Golden Retriever Rescue
This is an answering machine with numbers for foster homes
holding Golden's in Northern California.
Golden Retriever Club of Canada
Cathy Leonard, President
P.O. Box 20073 Beverley Postal Outlet
Edmonton, AB T5W 5E6
Tricia Robson
Mary Jane Shervais
Pat Coats
Golden Retriever Club of Greater Los Angeles
Margo Smith
2112 East Oakdale Street
Pasadena, CA 91107
Golden Retriever Rescue and Placement Program
Laura Culp
Raleigh, NC
919-469-8563 (leave message)
Golden Retriever Club of Greater Toledo
Linda Copti
1023 Keeler St.
Maumee, OH 43537
|| West Central Ohio Golden Retriever Rescue
|| Enon, OH 45323
|| Pam Campbell
Greater Twin Cities Golden Retriever Club
Ardis Brown
1960 Midland Hills Road
Roseville, MN 55113
Long Island Golden Retriever Club
Donna Sievers
Riverhead, NY 11901
Rio Grande Valley Golden Retriever Club
Linda Atwell
6516 Esther, NE
Albuqureque, NM 87109
Triad Golden Retriever Club of Central North Carolina
Lynn Brogan
6709 West Friendly Ave.
Greensboro, NC 27410
(continued next message)
@SUBJECT:rec.pets.dogs: Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 1/2
 (Continued from last message)
Yankee Golden Retriever Rescue, Inc.
North Reading, MA 01864
508-975-4091 (serves New England)
The Golden Retriever Club of Greater Los Angles, Inc.
Nancy Talbott
5050 West Avenue L
Quartz Hills, CA 93563
baylist: Steve Southard
Lisa Blasco
Golden Rescue, serving the Golden Retriever
6021 Yonge St. Box 1015
North York, ON M2M 3W2
Golden Retriever Rescue, Education, and Training, Inc.
Ellicott City, MD 21043
Golden Retriever Rescue Club of Charlotte
(leave message)
Gordon Setter
TarTan Gordon Setter Club
Natalie Haberman
42 Edmunds Rd.
Wellesly, MA 02181
Tartan Gordon Setter Club (again)
Wendy Abelman
The Gordon Setter Club of America Rescue Committee
Crystal Todor, chair
47 Taylor Blair Road
West Jefferson, OH 43162
Sally Walker
Great Dane
Great Dane Rescue of Northern California
Betty and Bill Thomas, Colleen Leahy Spears
15255Clydelle Ave.
San Jose, CA 95124
Heidi Hoover
Pennsylvania
Pat Gorney
Great Dane Club Mid-South
Darcy Quinlan
5363 Franklin Goldmine
Cummings, GA 30130
Janice Tetrault
Albany, NY
Lee Ann Cogdill
Brockton, NY
Great Dane Club of America
Marie A. Fint
442 Country View Lane
Garland, TX 75043
Pookie Kostuk, chairman
Cheshire, Conn. 06410
Great Dane Club of California
Florence Treseder
8660 Telfair
Sun Valley, CA 90352
Great Dane of El Paso
Esther Scoggins
6643 Westside Dr.
El Paso, TX 79932
Great Dane Club of Greater Houston
Georgia Thomas
14123 Panhandle
Sugar Land, TX 77478
Great Dane Club of Greater Kansas City
Glenda Burns
6321 Woodward
Shawnee Mission, KS 66202
Great Dane Club of Maryland
Helen Baker
Baltimore, MD 21228
Great Dane Club of Mid-Florida
Kevin Kavanaugh
8800 Erie Lane
Parrish, FL 34219
Great Dane Club of New England
Arlyne Koopmann
c/o 52 East St.
Hanover, MA 02339
Great Dane Club of San Diego
Milan Bayan
3221 Vista Cielo Lane
Spring Valley, CA 92078
Great Dane Fanciers of Greater Anchorage
Toni Tadolini
3301 Cottle Loop Rd.
Wasilla, AK 99687
Greater Cincinnati Great Dane Club
Donna Wright
18057 Laurel Rd. Connersville, IN 47331
The Great Dane Club of Las Vegas
Mel Covert
6129 Edgewood Cr.
Las Vegas, NV 89107
Willamette Valley Great Dane Club
Rhea Pearsall
5694 Keene Rd. NE
Gervais, OR 97026
Gloria Barrick
11127 Plainview Rd.
Golden, CO 80403
Gisele Sherwood
2652 Frontier Lane
Franktown, CO 80116
Great Dane Rescue Service of New England
Arlyne Koopmann
Jean MacKenzie
Rhode Island
Bob & Christine Glavin
Great Dane Rescue
Mid-Atlantic Region
703-938-9332 (northern VA)
baylist: Colleen Leahy
1087 Hazelwood Ave.
San Jose, CA 95115
Great Pyrenees
Michele Brown
Great Pyrenees Club of Metro Milwaukee
Laura Johnston
300 Upland Ct.
Colgate, WI 53017
Great Pyrenees Club of America
Catherine de la Cruz
4445 B Old Grave, Hwy S.
Sabastopol, CA 95472
Compuserve: 72450, 716
Internet: 72450.716@compuserve.com
-or- jeffg@freya.sunnyvale.ca.us
Alamo Great Pyrenees Club
Jean Cave
Box 493 FM 875 West
Midlothian, TX 76065
Columbia-Cascade Great Pyrenees Club
Lee Trowbridge
Rt. 1, Box 236ff
La Center, WA 98629
Grand Canyon State Great Pyrenees Club
Mickey Chaney
250 Arabian Dr.
Sedona, AZ 86336
GPA of So. California
Dottie Sisco
18122 Rancho Ave.
Raustra Devore, CA 92407
Great Pyrenees Club of California
Jeanne Yturbide
2064 Jackson St.
San Francisco, CA 94109
Great Pyrenees Club of Greater Chicago
Amy Zacher
135 Fairview Lane
Steamwood, IL 60107
708-289-2842 (private phone)
Great Pyrenees Club of Greater Pittsburg
Carolyn Mohr
16473 Rock Creek Rd.
Thompson, OH 44086
Great Pyrenees Club of Iowa
Carol Adamson
1845 175th Ave. N.E.
Foley, MN 56329
Great Pyrenees Club of Metro, Detroit
Michele Brown
19614 Elizabeth
St. Clair Shrs, MI 48080
Great Pyrenees Club of Metro, Milwaukee
Judy Brown
3360 Jackson Dr.
Jackson, WI 53037
Heart of Ohio Great Pyrenees Club
Pat Wallace
301 21st St. N.W.
Canton, OH 44709
Mile High Great Pyrenees Club
Carolyn Ferguson
Fleming, CO 80728
National Capital Area Great Pyrenees Club
Janet Ingram
204 Wild Partridge Lane
Radford, VA 24141
Orange Coast Great Pyrenees Fanciers
Carol Riley
5786 Jeffries Ranch Rd.
Oceanside, CA 92056
Penn-Dutch Great Pyrenees Club
Maureen Maxwell-Simon
7430 Jonestown Rd.
Harrisburg, PA 17112
Puget Sound Great Pyrenees Club
Linda Welsser
3449 Gull Harbor Rd. N.E.
Olympia, WA 98506
Pyrenean Fanciers of the Northeast
Flo Laicher
RD 12, Dixon Rd.
Carmel, NY 10512
Westcoast GPA of Canada
Sharon Armstrong
9400 Beckwith Rd.
Richmond, BC
Canada V6X 1V9
Great Pyrenees Club, Ontario Central Region
Carol Graham or Norma Egginton
Prestonfield Farm RR 5
Rockwood, ON NOB 2KO
519-853-3005 or 519-856-9267 (between 9am - 9pm)
Great Pyrenees Rescue Service
Sue Perkins
Fran Spier
Bo and Margaret Riley
(referral only)
Evelyn Nagle
New Hampshire
-------------This is the end of Part 1 ----------------
*Copyright (c) 1993 by Michael George Buening. Please distribute this
document freely providing you keep this copyright intact. This
document
may not be sold for profit nor incorporated into commercial documents
without the express permission of the author. This document is
provided
@SUBJECT:rec.pets.dogs: Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 2/2
Message-ID:
Newsgroups: rec.pets.dogs,rec.answers,news.answers
Organization: none
Archive-name: dogs-faq/rescue/part2
Version: 2.3
Last-modified: July, 1994
This is the Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 2/2. It will be
posted on a
regular basis and/or you can obtain the file via anonymous ftp at
rtfm.mit.edu
under /pub/usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/rescue/part1. Or send email
mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with
send /usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/rescue/part1
send /usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/rescue/part2
in the body of the message leaving the subject line blank.
Greyhound - see also Italian Greyhound
Greyhound Club of America
Cheryl Reynolds
4280 Carpenteria Avenue
Carpenteria, CA 93013
National Greyhound Network
(will refer to the independent adoption group nearest you)
Greyhound Pets of America (GPA)
1-800-FON-1GPA (toll free, of course)
National referral number. Call and leave a message on the
answering machine, and a member of a local GPA chapter will
contact you.
|| Greyhound Pets of America/Mass
|| Middleboro, MA
|| Greyhound Pets of America/Mass-North Shore
|| Winchester, MA
|| Greyhound Adoption of Western Mass
|| Longmeadow, MA
|| Greyhound Adoption Service
|| Salisbury, MA
USA Dog
Sally Allen, President
Carmel, IN 46032
Friends for Life
Susan Netboy
5 Ranch Road
Woodside, CA 94062
Greyhounds as Pets
Bill Fullerton
Colorado Springs, CO 80934
Fort Myers Greyhound Adoption Center
Donna Forster
11511 Deal Road N.
Fort Myers, FL 33905
Greyhound Rescue, Inc.
Susan Greenwald
118-B Jordan Court, N.E.
Palm Bay, FL 32905
John Davis
6397 Woodburn Rd.
Elk Ridge, MD 21227
Easthaven Animal Hospital
2140 S. Huron Parkway
Ann Arbor, MI 48104
|| RGA, Inc
|| Newcastle, PA 16102
Maryland Chapter of GPA
Betty Rosen
11404 Lhasa Lane
Lutherville, MD 21093
Greyhound Racers Recycled
Jan Huey
Houston, TX 77277-0107
Greyhounds Unlimited
Fort Worth, TX 76101-0362
(Dedicated mostly to greyhounds; do place some sighthounds)
Greyhound Rescue and Adoption
LaDonna Rea
Plainfield, IN 46168-461
Linn Murphy
Columbus, OH 43221-8205
Beverly Thompson
116 Mary Street
Washington, IL 61571
Greyhound Rescue League
Paula Johnson
106 Cayman Lane
Summerland Keys, FL 33042
Cinda Crawford
Tallahassee, FL 32317
Make Peace with Animals, Inc.
Cynthia Branigan
New Hope, PA 18938
Michigan Greyhound Connection
Susan Riegel
797 River Bend Dr.
Rochester Hills, MI 48307
National Greyhound Adoption Program
David Wolfe
8301 Torresdale Ave.
Philadelphia, PA 19136
Northern California Sighthound Rescue
Sandra Wornum
570 Riviera Cir.
Larkspur, CA 94939
Operation Greyhound
Bruna Palmatier
8876 Shaula Way
San Diego, CA 92126
Oregon Greyhound Rescue
Elizabeth Bordeaux
2207 NE 79th Ave.
Portland, OR 97213
Second Chance for Greyhounds
Helen Banks
10826 Dean Street
Bonita Springs, FL 33923
Tampa Greyhound Adoption Center
Kim Wyler
5629 E. Chelsea Street
Tampa, FL 33610
Claire Bertine
1000 Reo St. John Drive
Jacksonville, FL 32211
Shirley Kuzmicz
Indiana
Diane Gamble, Ohio/Kentucky
Sharon Murphy
Nancy Wallace
Richard Benjamin
Beach Island, SC 29842
Nina Bloom-Selling
4335 E. Carol Ann Lane
Phoenix, Arizona 85032
Pat Lewallen
R.R. 4, Box 232W
Paola, KS 66071
Diane Lunthacum
Rt. 2, Box 185 C
Thomasville, GA 31742
Cathy McIntyre
15 Pickering CT #01
Germantowne, MD 20874
301-540-4980 (area code might now be 410)
Vickey Price
Columbia, SC
Candy Schultz
Greyhound Pet Connection
Woodstock, IL 60098
Catherine Settle
Sanford, NC 27330
Ellen Stokal
Villa Park, IL 60181
Cheryly Vincent
3671 Woodhaven Circle
Hamburg, NY 14075
Linda Zent
5779 Boxwood Drive
Boseman, MT 59715
Greyhound Racing Federation Of Canada
Linda M. Reidt
Baltimore, ON K0K 1C0
REM: retired racing greyhounds placement
Susan Nutboy (track rescue)
#5 Ranch Road
Woodside, CA 94062
Sue Riegle
Greyhound Club of Northern California
Marjorie Leider
1091 Batavia Ave.
Livermore, CA 94550
Jane Klorer
Millie Merritt
Susan Gallotti
Greyhound Placement Service
baylist: 415-851-7812
Greyhound Friends, Inc.
Louise Coleman, Director
167 Saddle Hill Road
Hopkinton, MA 01748
GREYHOUND FRIENDS, INC.
Lisa St. Pierre (413) 528-5548
R.D. 3, Box 121A1
Great Barrington, MA 01230
GREYHOUND FRIENDS, INC.
Mary Allen (518) 329-1595
Main Street
Copake, NY 12516
GREYHOUND FRIENDS, INC.
Gayle Blakesley (518) 674-5545
Albany, NY area
Greyhound Life Line
Irene Milbury
228 E. Foxboro Street
Sharon, MA 02067
National Greyhound Adoption Program
Greyhound Pets of America: Canadian Chapter
Jane Longmore
RR 3 Appin, ON NOL 1AO
|| Greyound Rescue Society
|| 5325 Pearl Street
|| L/Oricnd, Ontario
|| The Greyhound Connection
|| Adreinne Reid
|| 49 Plymouth Avenue
|| St. Catharines ON
Havowarts
Beth Lynch (Sec'ty of Havowart Club of America)
2322 Sawdust Road
Vienna, VA 22181
(410) 326-3832 (any day after 1 PM EST)
T. Ulf Westblom
email westbltu@sluvca.slu.edu
(for referral and breed info)
Husky -see Siberian Husky
Ibizan Hound
The Ibizan Hound Club of the United States
|| John O'Malley
also listed:
Rose Bednarski
Milwaukee, WI 53215
Robbie Vanderpool
6566 Ridgeview Circle
Dallas, TX 75240
Karen Mele
Tennessee
Manette Ward
California
baylist: 916-487-9979
Irish Setter
Irish Setter Club of America Rescue
and Irish Setter Club of the Pacific
Marilee Larson
San Leandro, CA
(there are 2 diff. numbers listed)
Irish Setter Club of New England
Nancy Conner
Montague, MA 01351
nconner@ocis.umass.edu (email adress)
413-367-2182 (evenings/wkends )
413-545-1955 (weekdays, 9-5, urgent messages only, please)
President of Irish Setter Club New England 93-94
Anne Looney
(continued next message)
@SUBJECT:rec.pets.dogs: Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 2/2
 (Continued from last message)
Feeding Hills, Mass.
Irish Setter Club of Central Conn.
Darlene Ferris
28 Point Beach Dr.
Milford, CT 06460
203-877-2431 and Nancy Conner (see her info above)
Phyllis Wier and Kate Seymour
Fairfield, CT Brookfield Center, CT
Lorrie Wolk and Kathie Murphy
East Hartford, CT Newington, CT
Jan Ziech
Minooka, IL
815-475-7143, evenings only
Claire Marx
Windham, ME
Irish Setter Club of Michigan
Negen O'Rukenbrod
5188 Winchester Pass
Lapeer, MI 48446
Lee Robinson
Mason, NH
Beth Michaud & Bob Ritchie
Merrimack, New Hampshire 03054
Eastern Irish Setter Association
Evelyn Kearon
RD 2, Box 293A
Branchville, NJ 07826
Irish Setter Club of Western New York
Robin Willey
Walworth, NY
Irish Setter Club of Ohio
Nonda Jones
7578 River Rd.
Olmsted Falls, OH 44138
Sharon Miller
Eastern Irish Setter Association, Inc.
Marge Lippman
(was 1993 Eastern Irish Setter Assoc. pres.)
Fran Sloughfy
Blairstown, NJ
Anna Jones
Berkeley Heights, NJ
Lois Goepfert
Hanson, MA
Lynn Hayes
Putney, Vermont
Susan Watson
Spencer, Mass.
Irish Setter Club of Ontario
Mrs. Constance O'Brien
R.R. #4 2418 South River Road
Kemptville, ON K0G 1J0
baylist: 415-351-2966
Irish Terrier
|| Irish Terrier Club of America
Mary O'Brien
California
Irish Terrier Club of Northern California
Diana Martin
189 San Luis Rd.
Sonoma, CA 95476
Irish Terrier Club of Southern California
Nan Bruner
13431 Winthrope St.
Santa Ana, CA 92705
Peggy Gill
Irish Water Spaniel
Irish Water Spaniel Club of America
Carolyn Lathrop, chairperson
125 Polk Street
Cumberland, MD 21502
Elizabeth B. Peterson
5130 Kerfing Place
Winston-Salem, NC 27106
Norma Heiny
Bridgeton, NJ 08302
Nona and Harlan Noel
1835 Lakeshore Drive
Michigan City, IN 46360
Nancy Wiley
3150 Paradise Drive
Tiburon, CA 94920
Florence Blecher
3310 Adina Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90068
Irish Wolfhound
Sharon Yaskulski
Irish Wolfhound Club of Puget Sound
Beverly Little
16252 Tiger Mountain Rd.
Issaquah, WA 98027
Irish Wolfhound Rescue Trust
Pat Huntley
16513 Napa Street
Sepulveda, CA 91343
Potomac Valley Irish Wolfhound Club
Herb Savage
Rte. 1, Box 711-D
Accokeek, MD 20607
|| I have 2 listings for Marcia Frankel - not sure which is
|| the most current listing:
Irish Wolfhound Association of New England
Marcia Frankel
Western Massachusetts
|| Irish Wolfhound Club of America
|| Marcia Frankel
Irish Wolfhound Association of the Delaware Valley
Mrs. Frances Hall
Low's Hollow Rd.
Stewartsville, NJ 08886
baylist: 818-894-8988
Italian Greyhound
Italian Greyhound Club of America
|| Lynn K. Poston
(and an older listing)
Leslie Parsons
925 Canton St. NW
Palm Bay, FL 32907
June Mastrocola
Menomonee Falls, WI 53051
Ray Filburn
Cathie Wilt
Jack Russel Terrier
JRTCA Russel Rescue
c/o Catherine Brown
4757 Lakeville Road
Geneseo, NY 14454
Jennifer Carr
Japanese Chin (Spaniel)
Japanese Chin Club of America
Lucien Collins, Secretary
|| Gail Hink
Japanese Chin Care
Jean Bebensee
Betty Dickey
Malcolm Barr
Virginia
Japanese Shiba Inu
Northeast Shiba Rescue
Mary Malone
Keeshond
|| Keeshond Club of America
|| Carole Henry
Joan Czarnyszka
Arizona (602) 249-2775
Donna Lundeen
Northern CA (916) 885-0812
Penny Mansur
Northern CA 933-4660
Jane Norton
Northern CA (916) 75303244
Nor-Cal Keeshond Club, Inc.
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Jane Norton
Northern CA (916) 753-3244
Wayne Peters
Northern CA (415) 322-2246
Carol and Dennis Mollberg
Southern CA (909) 780-2514
Peak to Peak Keeshond Rescue
Sue Riegel
1878 Old Highway #52
Erie, CO 80516
baylist: 415-322-2246
Peak to Peak Keeshond Fanciers
Carol Schwenk
220 Cypress Circle
Broomfield, CO 80020
Mike Faass
Georgia (404) 463-0906
Harold and Patti Brizee
JoAnn Gray
Illinois (815) 784-6192
Rodger McDowall (708) 775-9234
Pat Williamson
Indiana (317) 662-3204
Peggy Willoughby
Indiana (812) 858-9545
Pepper Guzman
Maryland (301) 421-4466
Connie Miller
Maryland 301-464-3976
Donna Stekli
Maryellen Grace and Irene Fonseca
John and Joan Malak
Pat Tocalis
|| Nancy and Fred Dietze
|| Connie Davis
|| Pat Westfall
|| Linda Moss
|| Sharon & Darrell Buethner
|| Sandy and Herbie Bell
|| Robbie Montoya
|| Barbara Jean Wilson
Keeshond Club of Greater Oklahoma City
Tommie Howard
4015 S. Dobbs
Harrah, OK 73045
Pacific Crest Keeshond Club
Pat Shuler
Seattle, WA 98125
Kerry Blue Terrier
Empire Kerry Blue Terrier Club Gwen Resk
645 Pine Brook Blvd.
New Rochelle, NY 10804
Greater Boston Kerry Blue Terrier Club
Rhoda Bergman (N.E. Mass)
Off Cross Rd.
Lunenberg, MA 01462
Brian Lowney (S.E. Mass and R.I.)
1307 Gardners Neck Rd.
South Swansea, MA 02777
United States Kerry Blue Terrier Club
Joanne K. Schlindler, chair
12056 Cedar Creek
Cincinnati, OH 45240
King Charles Spaniel -see Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, English Toy
Spaniel
Komondor
|| National Komondor Rescue Network
|| Betty O'Donnell
Komondor Club of America
Sandy Hanson
KCA Secretary
(continued next message)
@SUBJECT:rec.pets.dogs: Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 2/2
 (Continued from last message)
|| 414-594-3374 (or 2505? Have 2 numbers...)
|| Komondor Rescue Committee, Komodor Club of America
|| Region IV (covers OK)
|| Director: Richard Heaney, P.O. Box 849, Magnolia, TX 77355
|| Komondor Rescue
|| Kim Misciagna,
|| 29 Jumping Frog Ct, St. Charles, MO 63303
|| (handles MO and bordering states)
Pat Randall
Middle Atlantic States Komondor Club
Stewart L. Wells
102 North Church
Snow Hill, MD 21863
Joy Levy
New Jersey
Ruth/Ken Todd
New York
Kuvasz
Kuvasz Club of America,Inc.
Dan Wasson
6261 Penrod
Detroit, MI 48228
and (this may be older)
Aino Andres
New York
Mayling Koval
New York
Labrador Retriever
National Labrador Retriever Club
Rescue Coordinator
Virginia Campbell
408-476-0759 (Soquel, CA) (Can help refer you to local groups)
|| Is creating a database of all local Lab Rescue groups.
|| Please send any info on local groups.
Golden Gate Labrador Retriever Club (CA)
415-361-0261 - call for referrals to local groups
Labrador Retriever Rescue Hotline
Central Connecticut
(anybody know the number?)
Labrador Retriever Club of Central Connecticut
Julie Starkweather
|| Labrador Retriever Club of the Potomac
|| Lab Rescue, Inc.
|| President, Give-up
|| Jackie Mischou
|| Adoptions, Maryland
|| Catherine Lewis
|| Adoptions Chair, VA
|| Cathy Klecz
Labrador Retriever Club of the Pioneer Valley
Lois Engel
55 Rural Road
Belchertown, MA 01007
Labrador Retriever Club of Greater Boston
Labrador Retriever Rescue, Inc.
c/o Jill Silverman
504 Essex St.
South Hamilton, MA 01982
Doris Aylward
New Hampshire
Sue Willumsen
New Hampshire
Labrador Retriever Rescue of PA
Pam Heidorn
Chalfont, PA
Mary Pat Meirs
Feasterville, PA
Eileen Melair
Warrington, PA
Pat Henning
215-489-0710 (after 7pm)
Collegeville, PA
Sharon Phelts
baylist: 415-592-8394 (Lizalee says this is Lorrie Bellows)
Winnebago Labrador Retriever Club & Rescue
Covers WI, N. Ill., and N. Ind. and Iowa
Peg Schneumann
(Northen IL)
Sharon Grieves
Rt 3, 6128 Emerson Rd
Beloit WI 53511
Deb Forest
Kent and Deb Hamele
kahamele@facstaff.wisc.edu
Peg Stevens
Ripon, WI
Lab Rescue
301-831-0391 (evenings, before 10:00 pm)
Lakeland Terrier
United States Lakeland Terrier Club
Harold Tatro, III
804 Quail Run
Nassau Bay II
Granbury, TX 76048
|| Sandra Beatson
Lhasa Apso
San Diego County Lhasa Apso Club
Willima and Shirley Benedict
11202 Promesa Drive
San Diego, CA 92124
Lowchen
Gini Denninger
New York
Malamute -see Alaskan Malamute
Maltese
Evergreen Maltese Club
Berverly Passe
6015 Rosedale St. NW
Gig Harbor, WA 98335
Kim Catizone
New Hampshire
baylist: Janie Pack
967 Camellia Way
San Jose, CA 95117
Manchester Terriers
|| American Manchester Terrier Club
|| Patricia Hall
Evergreen Empire Manchester Terrier Fanciers
Mauriel Hankel
4961 NE 193rd St.
Seattle, WA 98155
Mastiff -see also Neapolitan Mastiff, Tibetan Mastiff
Mastiff Club of America Rescue Service
Phyllis Miller
La Jolla, CA 92037
Jim Hoobin
Lucinda
Mastiff Club of America
Mary-Louise Owens
Phelps Street
Gloversville, NY 12078
Miniature Pinscher
|| Minature Pinscher Club of America
|| Joyce K. Somero
Canadian Miniature Pinscher Club
Edris Matulock
Regina, SK S4T 7H3
Namcy Johnson
Joyce Sproule
Miniature Schnauzer -see Schnauzer-Miniature
Neapolitan Mastiff -see also Mastiff, Tibetan Mastiff
Carol Paulsen
New York
Newfoundland
Linda Stierle
Newfoundland Club of America
Mary L. Price
1004 Hwy. 78 South
Mt. Horeb, WI 53572
Newfoundland Dog Club of the Twin Cities
Nancy Robinson
8338 12th Ave. S.
Bloomington, MN 55420
or Lory Cosgrove
410 Lakorta Lane
Chanhassen, MN 55318
Newfoundland Club of New England
Ellen Katz
baylist: 415-364-7637
Norfolk Terrier and Norwich Terrier
|| Norwich and Norfolk Terriers Club of America
|| Susan M. Ely
Norwich and Norfolk Terriers
Martha Seaman
Norwich and Norfolk Terrier Club
Mrs. Lee Donaldson
121 Carolina Forest
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
Mrs. Joseph Mattison
Norwegian Elkhound
|| Norwegian Elkhound Associ. of America
|| Diane Coleman
Norwegian Elkhound Association of Northern California
Karen Allen
Northern California
415-591-8056 (after 7pm)
Norwegian Elkhound Breed Rescue
Southern CA
Judy DeClercq
|| Scot Stockton
|| scot@mamacass.etdesg.trw.com OR
|| scot@iceland.etdesg.trw.com
Norwegian Elkhound Club of Potomac Valley
Geri King
3028 Hewitt Ave., #238
Silver Spring, MD 20906
Barbara Plant
(referrals only)
Marion Szymanski
baylist: 415-591-8056
Old English Sheepdog
Chicagoland Old English Sheepdog Club
Grace Fujikawa
381 Fairview Ave.
Winnetka, IL 60093
Heather
Greater Pittsburg Old English Sheedog Club
Chris Gaburri
457 Orchard Ave.
Pittsburg, PA 15202
Greater Portland Old English Sheepdog Club
Nancy Miller
1850 SW Filmont
Portland, OR 97225
New England Old English Sheepdog Club
Annie Raker
Stonehendge
Lincoln, MA 01773
Old English Sheepdog Fanciers of Central Arizona
Cheryl Kulzer
2112 N. Pennington Dr.
Chandler, AZ 85244
Old English Sheepdog League of Northern California
Pam Henry
2491 Darla Dr.
Santa Rosa, CA 95401
Madeline Ericson
NY (Buffalo area)
Twin Colonies Old English Sheepdog Club of Norther NewJersey
Shelia Kenyon
Morristown, NJ 07960
Jack Wilhelm
" Rescues & places large shaggy dogs, particularly
Old English Sheepdog mixes"
Otter Hound
Otterhound Club of America
Betsy Conway Rd1, Box 134A
Yorktown Heights, NY 10598
Ellen Katz
Russell Von der Linden
New Hampshire
baylist: 415-851-4248
Papillon
Metropolitan Area Papillion Club of Washinton, DC
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Margaret Quarts
3650 Mill Creek Dr.
Haymarket, VA 22069
Papillon Club of America
Diana Fuchs
Quincy, FL 32351
Patriot Papillon Rescue Committee
Jackie & Ray Potocki
Jan Burger
PBGV -see Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen
Pekingese
|| Pekingese Club of America
|| Louise Harden
Hope Burghardt
607-547-5207 (Cooperstown, NY)
703-456-8395 (Virginia)
* Hope may also be contacted for assistance with Toy
Poodles, Japanese Chins, Boston Pugs, Pomeranians, and
most Toy breeds.
Allison Chase
New Hampshire
Pembroke Welsh Corgi -see Welsh Corgi Pembroke
Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen
|| Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen Club of America
|| Millie Williams
Jennifer King
New Jersey
Barbara Wicklund
New Jersey
Pharoah Hound
|| Pharoah Hound Club of America
|| Donald Delmore
Rita Sacks
Ellen DeWolf
baylist: 916-687-6696
Pointer
Erica Bandes
Connecticut
** NEW ENTRY *** Pomeranian
|| American Pomeranian Club
|| Brenda Segelken, rscue chair
|| Metro Denver Pomeranian Rescue
|| Dave Weinstein (olorin@netcom.com)
|| 303-321-9467 (work and home)
|| Hope Burghardt
|| 607-547-5207 (Cooperstown, NY)
|| 703-456-8395 (Virginia)
* Hope may also be contacted for assistance with Toy
Poodles, Japanese Chins, Boston Pugs, Pekanese, and
most Toy breeds.
Poodle
|| Poodle Club of America
|| Sally Kinne
Greater Pittsburg Poodle Club
|| Janice Gunn
Poodle Club of Southeast Michigan
Nancy Nastasi
41940 Quince Dr.
Novi, MI 48050
Poodle Club of Tulsa
Mary Yeakey
2506 S. Cincinnati
Tulsa, OK 74114
Sherry Wargo
Poodle Rescue Program
Poodle Club of Central California
Patricia Moulthrop, chair
815 Las Trampas Road
Lafayette, CA 94549
voice mail: 510-295-1070
Esther-Mary Farrington
Fraya Katz
Hollis, NH
baylist: Betty Janz (standard poodle)
15870 Turquise Pl.
Grass Valley, CA 95945
|| Toy Poodle Rescue Rescue
|| Sandy Hartle
|| 412-823-6459 (Pittsburgh, PA)
Portuguese Water Dog
|| Portuguese Water Dog Club of America
|| Steven Beder
Jane Harding
20 Driftway Lane
Darien, CT 06820
|| Pug Dog Club of America
|| Ray and Pat Kolesar
Bluebonnet Pug Dog Club
Margaret Dunning
1107 Derbyshire Lane
Carrollton, TX 75007
Central Indiana Pug Club
Donald Foral
Indianapolis, IN 46205
City of Angels Pug Club
Blanche Roberts
22963 Hatteras
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
Columbine Pug Club of Denver, Colorado
Quaylene Frazier
12478 W. Bowler Dr.
Littleton, CO 80127
Great Lakes Pug Club
Geraldine Woodrick
10839 S. Nagle Ave.
Worth, IL 60482
Greater Atlanta Pug Dog Club
Teri Smith
Rt. 1, Box 76-3 Weems Rd.
Molena, GA 30258
Greater Milwaukee Pug Club
Barbara Nook
6820 N. Trenton Rd.
West Bend, WI 53095
Mid Michigan Pug Club
Terry Smith
221 E. Scott St.
Grand Ledge, MI 48837
Missouri Valley Pug Fanciers
Barbara Hull
Denton, NE 68339
Pug Club of South Florida
Pat Antle
208 Farmington Dr.
Plantation, FL 33317
Pug Dog Club of Greater Cincinnati
Maryl Hodapp
1080 Hine Rd.
Hamilton, OH 45013
Pug Dog Club of Greater New York
Ceilia Geary
50 Greenwich Ave., Apt. 5C
New York, NY 10011
or Shirley Thomas
43-64 Bowne St.
Flushing, NY 11355
Pug Dog Club of Greater San Antonio
Marilynn Ellis 4207 N. Halsey
Victoria, TX 77901
Pug Club of Maryland
Billie Hitt
14249 Briarwood Terrace
Rockville, MD 20853
Pug Dog Club of Northern California
Barry Clothier
3339 Irving St.
San Francisco, CA 94122
Pug Rescue of New England
Doris Aldrich
17 Jones Rd.
Pelham, MA 01002
or Fran Stuart
31 Pine St.
Peterborough, NH 03458
Puget Sound Pug Dog Club
Carolyn McDuffie
832 SW 142nd St.
Seattle, WA 98166
Tampa Bay Pug Club
Elizabeth Page
3965 Richy Rd.
Mims, FL 32754
Betty Dickey
Yankee Pug Dog Club
Debora Chamberland
183 Cedar St.
****can't tell the address*****
Pug Club of Canada Rescue Program
Jennifer Threndyle
25 Broadoaks Drive, Apt 206
Downsview, Ontario
Dot Kelly
baylist: 415-592-0732 or 408-252-0598
Puli Club of America
Betty Ostermeier
Colorado
Rat Terrier
Holly Peterson
Rhodesian Ridgeback
Orange Coast Rhodesian Rigdeback Club
Barbara Rupert
19071 Equestrian Lane
Orange, CA 92660
Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of the United States
Natalie Carlton
5630 N. Abington Rd.
Tucson, AZ 85743
|| Frank DePaulo
Trinity Valley Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of Texas
Sandra Morehart (East of I-135)
6122 Blackberry Lane
Dallas, TX 75248
or Bobbie Gould (West of I-135)
5927 Inks Lake Dr.
Arlington, TX 76018
Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of the U.S.
Rescue/Adoption
Ulla-Britt Ekengren
Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of Eastern Canada
Jo Dunn, President
Walkerton, ON N0G 2V0
Greater Valley Forge Rodesian Ridgeback Club
Dana Jefferson, Rescue Chair
115 Cleveland Ave, Westview
Wilmington, DE 19804
Mary MacKinnon
Vermont
Ross Zoll & Natalie Bandeian
Connecticut
Rottweiler
American Rottweiler Club
Doreen LePage
Rhode Island (should be able to give more local referrals)
Jennifer Beban
Aloha State Rottweiler Club
Claire Inouye
608 Hunapaa St.
Honolulu, HI 96816
Rottweiler Club of Maine Rescue League (Maine only)
Jonathan Petry
Augusta, Maine
Debra Cone & Larry Hamilton
Rottweiler Rescue League
Bonnie Buckley (also other breeds and mixed breeds)
3 Colgan Rd.
Merrimac, MA 01860
Karen Billings
617-449-2452 (eastern Mass. only)
Greater New York Rottweiler Club
John Gianninoto
310 Brook Avenue
Bayshore, NY 11706 (try - may not have rescue groups
set up, but may be able to help w/ referrals.)
The following are all in Florida:
In Jacksonville area:
Ray Gunderson 904-778-8524
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Pat Stout 904-268-0207
Patricia Gilliard 904-384-5857
Marja McGinnis 904-262-4103 Home weekdays
In West Palm Beach Area:
Jackie Humphries 407-684-1112
Pat Swindle 407-471-5756
Carla Hopper 305-435-3985
Chip Dore 407-798-5153
In Havana, FL area:
Bonnie & Al Wimberly 904-539-9663
Alicia DeCelle
baylist: 818-765-5997
Saint Bernard
|| St. Bernard Club of America
Cathy Babins
D'Aosta Kennels, Rte. 1
Waldorf, MD 20601
|| or 301-645-4865 (second listing)
Greater Milwaukee St. Bernard Club
Jan Much
924 E. Michigan
Oak Creek, WI 53154
North Texas St. Bernard Club
Kathy Bishop
c/o 1423 Hampton Rd.
Grapevine, TX 76051
Northern Colorado St. Bernard Club
Patty Neumayer
913 S. Rifle St.
Aurora, CO 80017
St. Bernard Club of Puget Sound
Carole Dvorak
P.O. Box 343 Maple Valley, WA 98038
Southern Maryland St. Bernard Fanciers
Dawn Camp
St. Bernard Club of the Pacific Coast
Penny Mahon
15244 Arnold Dr.
Glen Ellen, CA 95442
Judy Sage
New England St. Bernard Club
Janice Myers
Cindy Stark
Liz Gaudet
Connecticut
Saluki
|| Saluki Club of America
|| Cloris Costigan
Kathleen Banks
San Angeles Saluki Club
Len Lundgren
Sylmar, CA 44157
Celeste Johnson Frasher
Connecticut
Lorraine Tremholm
baylist: 415-924-7020
Samoyed
|| Samoyed Club of America
|| Kathie Lensen
Northern California Samoyed Fanciers
Gail Spieker
San Francisco, CA
Potomac Valley Samoyed Club
Jim Lamott
14908 Chestnut Ridge Ct.
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
baylist: Wilna Coulter
211 Lynton Ave.
San Carlos, CA 94070
Samoyed Club of Washington
Sandra Goodspeed
11718 - 193rd Ave E
Sumner, WA 98380
Shar Pei -see Chinese Shar Pei
Schipperke
|| Schipperke Club of America
|| Mary Cox
Lone Star Schipperke Club
Beverly Henry
2025 Sam Houston Cr.
Carrollton, TX 75006
Colonial Schipperke Club
Mary Nielsen
700 Forest Park Rd.
Great Falls, VA 22066
Marie Hills
Schnauzer-Giant
Jody Kay Berg
New Jersey
Doris Redmann
baylist: 415-262-0597
Schnauzer-Miniature
|| American Miniature Schnauzer Club
|| Peggie Blakley
Garden Grove, CA 92644
Miniature Schnauzer Rescue
Jonnie Hart
3085 SW 107th Avenue
Portland, OR 97225
Hannah Whitman
Rick Vaughn
Miniature Schnauzer Club of Northern California
Milly Robertson
172 Kelton Ave.
San Carlos, CA 94070
Miniature Schnauzer Club of Southern California
Ruth Ziegler
1018 Montego Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90049
Mt. Vernon Miniature Schnauzer Club
Carol Patterson
800 N. York Rd.
Sterling, VA 22170
Paul Revere Miniature Schnauzer Club
Cathy Stone
9 Forest Dr.
Auburn, MA 01501
Paul Revere Miniature Schnauzer Rescue
Janet Loreck
baylist: 415-591-9918
Schnauzer-Standard
|| Standard Schnauzer Club of America
|| Kathy A. Donovan
Potomac Valley Standard Schnauzer
Mrs. Jerry Spellman
2722 Berryland Dr.
Oakton, VA 22124
Standard Schnauzer Club of Northern California
Mary Lou Just
3758 Hatchers Circle
Stockton, CA 95209
209-473-0323 or Ernest Roche
655 Barneson Ave.
San Mateo, CA 94402
Mary Richards
Scottish Deerhound
Scottish Deerhound Club of America
Deborah Day Hughes
Michigan
Elin Phinizy
New Hampshire
Scottish Terrier
San Francisco Bay Scottish Terrier Club
Peggy Burge
2593 Mt. Pleasant Rd.
San Jose, CA 95122
Scottish Terrier Club of America
Mrs. Jackie Seelbach
17 Pine Tree Rd.
Ramsey, NJ 07446
Caryl Alten & Dennis Milewski
4601 Woodward Ave
Donwners Grove, IL 60515
Scottish Terrier Club of California
Sally McElvain
1649 Ninth St.
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266
Scottish Terrier Club of Greater Atlanta
Greg Bobbs
831 Derrydown Way
Decatur, GA 30030
Scottish Terrier Club of Greater New York
William Berry
3 Sagamore Rd.
Parsippany, NJ 07054 201-227-1871
Scottish Terrier Club of Michigan
Paul DeBene
5757 Belle River Rd.
Imlay City, MI 48444
Scottish Terrier Emergency Protection Service (STEPS)
Barbara Dominski (coordinator)
61 Cathedral Bluffs Drive
Scarborough, ON M1M 2T6
Area Rep: Western Canada: Violet Morphet
8603 Kalivista Dr.
Vernon, BC V1B 1K4
Bill Mark
Barbara Albright
New Hampshire
baylist: Deborah Knous
3090 Los Prados
San Mateo, CA 94403
Sealyham Terrier
|| American Sealyham Terrier Club
Daryl Pakkala
California
Pat Miller
American Sealyham Terrier Club
M. Thelma Miller
c/o Lindley Rd.
Canonsburg, PA 15317
Patsy Wood
Pennsylvania
Shepherd -see German Shepherd Dog
Shetland Sheepdog
No. Cal. Shetland Sheepdog Club
Diane Bassett
Colonial Shetland Sheepdog Club
Madelyn Cirinna
74 Maple St.
West Newberry, MA 01985
Evergreen State Shetland Sheepdog Club
Lynn Erckmann
4761 162nd Ave., NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Interlocking Shetland Sheepdog Club of Monee, Inc.
Jane Naden
417 Arlington
Crete, IL 60417
Shetland Sheepdog Club of Austin
Vonnie Taylor
2206 Galway
Austin, TX 78758
Sherry Lindsey
Seguin, TX 78156
Debbie De Nardo
Connecticut
American Shetland Sheepdog Association
Susan Beachum
Call for referrals to local groups.
Shiba Inu -see Japanese Shiba Inu
Shih Tzu
|| American Shih Tzu Club
|| Sharon Bilicich
Joyce Deval
Bonnie Bean
Siberian Husky
Siberian Husky Club of America Rescue Network
Gerry Dalakian, Chairman
83 Oak Grove Rd.
Flemington, NJ 08822
Ruth Henningsen
Rosemary Laubach
Michele Thie
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Pat Stout 904-268-0207
Patricia Gilliard 904-384-5857
Marja McGinnis 904-262-4103 Home weekdays
In West Palm Beach Area:
Jackie Humphries 407-684-1112
Pat Swindle 407-471-5756
Carla Hopper 305-435-3985
Chip Dore 407-798-5153
In Havana, FL area:
Bonnie & Al Wimberly 904-539-9663
Alicia DeCelle
baylist: 818-765-5997
Saint Bernard
|| St. Bernard Club of America
Cathy Babins
D'Aosta Kennels, Rte. 1
Waldorf, MD 20601
|| or 301-645-4865 (second listing)
Greater Milwaukee St. Bernard Club
Jan Much
924 E. Michigan
Oak Creek, WI 53154
North Texas St. Bernard Club
Kathy Bishop
c/o 1423 Hampton Rd.
Grapevine, TX 76051
Northern Colorado St. Bernard Club
Patty Neumayer
913 S. Rifle St.
Aurora, CO 80017
St. Bernard Club of Puget Sound
Carole Dvorak
P.O. Box 343 Maple Valley, WA 98038
Southern Maryland St. Bernard Fanciers
Dawn Camp
St. Bernard Club of the Pacific Coast
Penny Mahon
15244 Arnold Dr.
Glen Ellen, CA 95442
Judy Sage
New England St. Bernard Club
Janice Myers
Cindy Stark
Liz Gaudet
Connecticut
Saluki
|| Saluki Club of America
|| Cloris Costigan
Kathleen Banks
San Angeles Saluki Club
Len Lundgren
Sylmar, CA 44157
Celeste Johnson Frasher
Connecticut
Lorraine Tremholm
baylist: 415-924-7020
Samoyed
|| Samoyed Club of America
|| Kathie Lensen
Northern California Samoyed Fanciers
Gail Spieker
San Francisco, CA
Potomac Valley Samoyed Club
Jim Lamott
14908 Chestnut Ridge Ct.
Gaithersburg, MD 20878
baylist: Wilna Coulter
211 Lynton Ave.
San Carlos, CA 94070
Samoyed Club of Washington
Sandra Goodspeed
11718 - 193rd Ave E
Sumner, WA 98380
Shar Pei -see Chinese Shar Pei
Schipperke
|| Schipperke Club of America
|| Mary Cox
Lone Star Schipperke Club
Beverly Henry
2025 Sam Houston Cr.
Carrollton, TX 75006
Colonial Schipperke Club
Mary Nielsen
700 Forest Park Rd.
Great Falls, VA 22066
Marie Hills
Schnauzer-Giant
Jody Kay Berg
New Jersey
Doris Redmann
baylist: 415-262-0597
Schnauzer-Miniature
|| American Miniature Schnauzer Club
|| Peggie Blakley
Garden Grove, CA 92644
Miniature Schnauzer Rescue
Jonnie Hart
3085 SW 107th Avenue
Portland, OR 97225
Hannah Whitman
Rick Vaughn
Miniature Schnauzer Club of Northern California
Milly Robertson
172 Kelton Ave.
San Carlos, CA 94070
Miniature Schnauzer Club of Southern California
Ruth Ziegler
1018 Montego Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90049
Mt. Vernon Miniature Schnauzer Club
Carol Patterson
800 N. York Rd.
Sterling, VA 22170
Paul Revere Miniature Schnauzer Club
Cathy Stone
9 Forest Dr.
Auburn, MA 01501
Paul Revere Miniature Schnauzer Rescue
Janet Loreck
baylist: 415-591-9918
Schnauzer-Standard
|| Standard Schnauzer Club of America
|| Kathy A. Donovan
Potomac Valley Standard Schnauzer
Mrs. Jerry Spellman
2722 Berryland Dr.
Oakton, VA 22124
Standard Schnauzer Club of Northern California
Mary Lou Just
3758 Hatchers Circle
Stockton, CA 95209
209-473-0323 or Ernest Roche
655 Barneson Ave.
San Mateo, CA 94402
Mary Richards
Scottish Deerhound
Scottish Deerhound Club of America
Deborah Day Hughes
Michigan
Elin Phinizy
New Hampshire
Scottish Terrier
San Francisco Bay Scottish Terrier Club
Peggy Burge
2593 Mt. Pleasant Rd.
San Jose, CA 95122
Scottish Terrier Club of America
Mrs. Jackie Seelbach
17 Pine Tree Rd.
Ramsey, NJ 07446
Caryl Alten & Dennis Milewski
4601 Woodward Ave
Donwners Grove, IL 60515
Scottish Terrier Club of California
Sally McElvain
1649 Ninth St.
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266
Scottish Terrier Club of Greater Atlanta
Greg Bobbs
831 Derrydown Way
Decatur, GA 30030
Scottish Terrier Club of Greater New York
William Berry
3 Sagamore Rd.
Parsippany, NJ 07054 201-227-1871
Scottish Terrier Club of Michigan
Paul DeBene
5757 Belle River Rd.
Imlay City, MI 48444
Scottish Terrier Emergency Protection Service (STEPS)
Barbara Dominski (coordinator)
61 Cathedral Bluffs Drive
Scarborough, ON M1M 2T6
Area Rep: Western Canada: Violet Morphet
8603 Kalivista Dr.
Vernon, BC V1B 1K4
Bill Mark
Barbara Albright
New Hampshire
baylist: Deborah Knous
3090 Los Prados
San Mateo, CA 94403
Sealyham Terrier
|| American Sealyham Terrier Club
Daryl Pakkala
California
Pat Miller
American Sealyham Terrier Club
M. Thelma Miller
c/o Lindley Rd.
Canonsburg, PA 15317
Patsy Wood
Pennsylvania
Shepherd -see German Shepherd Dog
Shetland Sheepdog
No. Cal. Shetland Sheepdog Club
Diane Bassett
Colonial Shetland Sheepdog Club
Madelyn Cirinna
74 Maple St.
West Newberry, MA 01985
Evergreen State Shetland Sheepdog Club
Lynn Erckmann
4761 162nd Ave., NE
Redmond, WA 98052
Interlocking Shetland Sheepdog Club of Monee, Inc.
Jane Naden
417 Arlington
Crete, IL 60417
Shetland Sheepdog Club of Austin
Vonnie Taylor
2206 Galway
Austin, TX 78758
Sherry Lindsey
Seguin, TX 78156
Debbie De Nardo
Connecticut
American Shetland Sheepdog Association
Susan Beachum
Call for referrals to local groups.
Shiba Inu -see Japanese Shiba Inu
Shih Tzu
|| American Shih Tzu Club
|| Sharon Bilicich
Joyce Deval
Bonnie Bean
Siberian Husky
Siberian Husky Club of America Rescue Network
Gerry Dalakian, Chairman
83 Oak Grove Rd.
Flemington, NJ 08822
Ruth Henningsen
Rosemary Laubach
Michele Thie
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Siberian Husky Club of Hawaii
Cheryl Chang
47-685 Hui Alala St.
Kaneohe, HI 96744
Susan Herlihy
(referrals only)
Yankee Siberian Husky Rescue Service
Sheila Blanker
Western Massachusetts
Bay Area Siberian Husky Club Rescue (BASH)
Marilyn Lasagne
baylist: Andy Gach
1621 Christina Dr.
Las Altos, CA 94022
Silky Terrier
Richard Hammond Silky Terrier Rescue
Mrs. Lee Easton
18801 NE Willimason Road
Newberg, OR 97132
Ivy Rogers
656 Santa Maria Road
El Sobrante, CA 94803
Silky Terrier Club of America
Ms. I.D. Rogers
California
Skye Terrier
Skye Terrier Club of Southern California
Dolly Stofer
2095 W. Acacia Rd.
Palm Springs, CA 92262
Skye Terrier Club of America
John D. Bower
HC60 Box 75A
Granville, Mass. 01034
Smooth Fox Terrier -see Fox Terrier
Soft-coated Wheaten Terrier
Christan Peterson
Delaware Valley Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier Club
Richard Tomlinson
4428 Province Line Rd.
Princeton, NJ 08540
The Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier Club of Northern California
Sonya Urquhart
775 Wesley Drive
Vacaville, CA 95688
Robyn Alexander
1819 Rose Street
Berkeley, CA 94703
Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier Club of Metro, N.Y.
Sally and Ray Murtha
149 Berry Hill Rd.
Syosset, NY 11791
baylist: 415-526-7048
Springer Spaniel -see English Springer, Welsh Springer
Staffordshire Bull Terrier
Staffordshire Bull Terrier Club
Linda Barker
1119 N. Naomi St.
Burbank, CA 91505
Standard Schnauzer -see Schnauzer-standard
Tibetan Mastiff
Kathy Miller
Toy Fox Terrier
Holly Peterson
Vizsla
Connecticut Valley Vizsla Club
John Morris
2 Promontory Dr.
Cheshire, CT 06410
Tampa Bay Vizsla Club
Judy Heiser
3541 NW 14th Ave.
Pompano Beach, FL 33064
Vizsla Club of Northern California
Steve Shlyen
Vizsla Club of Greater New York
Elaine Panebianco
33 Whistler Hill Lane
Huntington, NY 11743
Vizsla Club of America
Rick Davis, chairperson
150 Stilla Har Drive
Westminster, SC 29693
Sue Gray
baylist: 415-566-9289
Weimaraner
Delaware Valley Weimaraner Club
Kathy Manser
2040 Kerr Rd.
Harleysville, PA 19438
Greater Charleston Weimaraner Club
Linda Weick
103 Eagle Dr.
Summerville, SC 29483
Weimaraner Club of America and the
Weimaraner Club of Greater St. Louis
Rebecca Weimer
324 Sundew Drive
Belleville, IL 62221
Weimaraner Club of South Florida
Susan Warner
6630 West 13th Court
Hialeah, FL 33012
Western Washington Weimaraner Club
Debra Follensbee
3021 87th Ave., Ct. E.
Puyallup, WA 98371
John and Chris McLaughlin
Yankee Weimeraner Club
Kathleen Lallemand
10 Timberlee Land
Westford, MA 01886
Ellen O'Leske
Sacramento Valley Weimaraner Club
Kathy Dunn
13560 Skyline Blvd.
Oakland, CA 94619
Sylvia Ashton
Karen Mayo
North Texas Weimeraner Club
Becky Wallendal or Suzanne Fourmigue
Welsh Corgi Cardigan
Cardigan Welsh Corgi Club of America Rescue
H. Pamela Allen, chairperson
406 E. Alexandria Avenue
Alexandria, VA 22301
Joyce Sproule
(referral only)
Welsh Corgi Pembroke
Pembroke Welsh Corgi Club of America
Ellen Childs
Pembroke Welsh Corgi Club of Florida
(central and north Florida)
Jean Bates
3707 Edgewater Drive
Orlando, FL 32804
(west Florida)
Bonnie Hansen
10993 124th Avenue N
Largo, FL 34648
(east Florida)
Deborah Shindle
3906 Indian River Drive
Vero Beach, FL 32963
Pembroke Welsh Corgi Rescue League
Hilda W. Towery
91 Willard Drive
Marietta, GA 30066
Deanna B. Kuhn, chair
33965 N. Fairfield Rd.
Round Lake, IL 60073
Pembroke Welsh Corgi Club of Potomac
Diane Gaskins
1113 Justa Lane
Cockeysville, MD 21030
Pembroke Welsh Corgi Club of Southern California, Inc.
Meredith Brittain
18393 Buckhorn Rd.
San Bernardino, CA 92407
Terri Swaim
135 Tall Pine Lane
Ortonville, MI 48462
Deb Beal
Pembroke Welsh Corgi Club of America
Ellen Childs
Connecticut
Pembroke Welsh Corgi Association of Canada
Ms. Susan O'Heir, National Secretary
25 Nottingham Dr.
Etobicoke, ON M9A 2W4
PWC Rescue, Serving the Pembroke Welsh Corgi
Marcie Stone
Croeso, RR 2
Rockwood, ON NOB 2KO
Murray Cunningham
Box 183, Vittoria
ON NOE 1WO
Welsh Terrier
Welsh Terrier Club of America
Rob Savage
1624 Des Plaines
Chicago, IL 60616
Welsh Terrier Cares Rescue Service
Ward Morris
485 Overbrook Drive, NW
Atlanta, GA 30318
Bardi McLennan
Connecticut
West Highland White Terrier
|| West Highland White Terrier Club of America
|| Ann Sanders
|| 1-700-4-Westie (that may be a misprint - maybe it's 1-800?)
West Highland White Terrier Club of Greater Baltimore
Joe and Naomi Engers
807 Prospect Mill Rd.
Bel Air, MD 21014
West Highland White Terrier Club of California
Susan Porter
328 N. Windsor Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90004
West Highland White Terrier Club of SE Texas
Linda Wedgeworth
23210 Bright Star
Spring, TX 77373
William Penn West Highland White Terrier Club
Patricia Marks
501 E. Moreland Ave.
Willow Grove, PA 19090
West Highland White Terrier Club of New England
Beverly Kilinsky
Wakefield Ave.
Webster, MA 01570
|| West Highland White Terrier Resuce
|| Charles Gibson and Nancy Wagner
|| Marietta, GA 30061-1668
Wheaten Terrier -see Soft-coated Wheaten Terrier
Wire Fox Terrier -see Fox Terrier
Whippet
Kathleen Banks
Southern California Whippet Association
Tom and Ellen Hammatt
24062 Castilla Lane
Mission Viejo, CA 92691
Western Washington Whippet Association
Leslie Griffith and Paul Winden
Kirkland, WA 98034
New England Whippet Society
Iva Kimmelman
413-733-0444 Western Massachusetts
203-264-7990 Connecticut
Whippet Club of Eastern Canada
Lynn Cleary, Rescue Coordinator
Glen Robertson, ON K0B 1H0
Whippet Rescue
Carol Gregory
4053 Eagle Nest Lane
Danville, CA 94506
baylist: 408-247-1749
Xoloitzcuintli
Amy Fernandez
New York
Carol Fernandez
New York
Yorkshire Terrier
Yorkshire Terrier Club of America
Breed Rescue Coordinators
Marcia Knudsen
State: MN
Bluebonnet Yorkshire Terrier Club
Susan Griffin
(continued next message)
@SUBJECT:rec.pets.dogs: Breed Rescue Organizations FAQ Part 2/2
 (Continued from last message)
2712 Dorrington
Dallas, TX 75228
Yorkshire Terrier Club of Greater Houston
Karen Murnane 4149 Milton St.
Houston, TX 77005-2737
Joyce Shiro
(referrals only) (MA)
baylist: Janie Pack
967 Camellia Way
San Jose, CA 95117
All breed and associated organizations
|| Best Friends Animal Sanctuary
|| P.O. Box G
|| Kanab, UT 84741
Argentine Dogo Club of America
Gabriel Moyette, rescue chairperson
Blueberry Hill Rd.
West Shokan, NY 12494
notes: "...offers a nationwide rescue for unwanted and
abandoned DOGOS. Note that these dogs are turned in under
a variety of names including Dog Argentino, Argentine
Mastiff, Argentine Bulldog and even occasionally as a large
white 'Pit Bull'. The Club has kennel space in most areas
of the country. If there is no one in the area, we will
air ship to a volunteer facility. Rescued Dogos are
neutered, temperament tested and placed in loving homes."
Purebred Rescue Association of Michigan
5188 Winchester Pass
Lapeer, MI 48446
(list of Michigan rescue organization available upon request)
Megen Veen, President
313-664-2548 (after 8:30 p.m.)
SF Bay Area Canine Rescue 415-851-7812 or 415-591-9918 (CA)
CARE Companion Animal Rescue Effort 408-227-CARE (CA)
East Bay Animal Refferal 415-841-PAWS (CA)
Friends of the Fairmont Animal Shelter 415-357-2487 (CA)
Friends of Strays
2911 47th Ave. North
St. Petersburg, FL 33714
Nike Animal Rescue Foundation 408-224-6273 (CA)
Pet Finders 415-566-1045 (CA)
Pets & Pals 415-775-5881 (CA)
Pets in Need 415-367-1405 (CA)
Pets Unlimited 415-563-6700 (CA)
Sighthound Rescue 415-851-7812 or 415-924-7020 (CA)
Kathy Theisen 313-261-4712
Toy Breed Rescue Referrals 415-952-6520 (CA)
All Breed Rescue Association (ABRA) 713-342-3078 Houston, TX
Seattle Purebred Dog Rescue
Redmond, WA 98073
Cascade Animal Protection Society
Arlou Hunter
31849 Pacific Hwy S #112
Federal Way, WA 98003
Muttmatchers Messenger/Humane Animal Rescue Team
Suzanne Kane
Enumclaw, WA 98022
Humane Animal Rescue Team
national office
Fillmore, CA 93016
Concern for Animals
Tenino, WA
Paws & Claws
Gloria 206-845-1424 (WA)
Equal Rights Animal Society
Puyallup, WA 98371
Whidbey Animal Improvement Foundation
1254 W. Pioneer Way #238
Oak Harbor, WA 98277
Hooterville Pets
Woodinville, WA
" Rescues & places large shaggy dogs, particularly
Old English Sheepdog mixes"
Jack Wilhelm
Save-A-Pet, Inc.
2019 Rand Rd.
Palatine IL 60067
Rare Breeds (referral on breeds with no clubs)
Kathy De Wees 609-877-5027 (New Jersey)
Sighthound Connecticut Sighthound Club
Kathy Budney 203-666-0649 Connecticut
Linda Garwacki 413-566-3847 western Massachusetts
Terriers Robert Cowell 203-334-3025 Connecticut
(referral only on all Terrier breeds and Golden Retrievers)
Karen Howell 605-627-5668
Toys Sandy Rinder 212-475-8479 New York
(especially Maltese and Poodles)
Wolf Hybrid North American Wolf/Wolf Hybrid Rescue Network, Inc.
Sandy Williams 609-627-1186 New Jersey
Robert J. Stubbe 301-762-4607 Maryland
Carolyn Edison
9913 Ledgestone Terrace
Austin, TX 78737
Alyeska Canine Trainers
Pat Bouschor
5201 Rabbit Creek Rd.
Anchorage, AK 99516
Atlanta Kennel Club
Dolores Russell
c/o 2441 Old Field Rd., NW
Atlanta, GA 30327
Channel City Kennel Club
Cheryl Reynolds
4280 Carpinteria Ave.
Carpinteria, CA 93013
Conyers Kennel Club of Georgia
Jackie Dilworth
570 Clubhouse Dr.
Conyers, GA 30208
Imperial Valley Kennel Club
D. Michael Burk
Imperial, CA 92251-9768
Jacksonville DFA
Betty Jean Shuman
Jacksonville, FL 32201
Kona Coast Kennel Club
Kathy Miller
Kamuela, HI 96743
Lower Bucks Dog Training Club
Joe Egan
18 Quail Rd.
Levittown, PA 19057
Marion-Alachua Dog Training Association
Janice Rodgers
Citra, FL 32675
Onondaga Kennel Association
Jacqueline Karpinski
Young Rd.
Syracuse, NY 13512
Rhode Island Kennel Club
Claudia Gaulin
120 Mirick Ave.
Cranston, RI 02920
Trap Falls Kennel Club
Lilian Schneider
20 Cheryl Drive
Monroe, CT 06468
Fort Saskatchewan and Area Canine Association
Lori-Ann Rice, Secretary
Fort Saskatchewan, AB T8L 2T2
Grey-Bruce Kennel and Obedience Club Inc.
Ms. Mary Morris, Secretary
Owen Sound, ON N4K 5P7
British Columbia All Terrier Club
Sue Cairns, Corresponding Secretary
Vancouver, BC V6B 2W7
North American Purebred Dog Rescue
Judith A. Tjosvold
Surrey, BC V4N 3T5
Adopt-A-Pet, Inc.
Sharon: (908) 462-5184
Animal Rescue Force, Inc.
Linda Brescia
Canton, CT
*Copyright (c) 1993 by Michael George Buening. Please distribute this
document freely providing you keep this copyright intact. This
document
may not be sold for profit nor incorporated into commercial documents
without the express permission of the author. This document is
provided

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@SUBJECT:sci.skeptic FAQ: The Frequently Questioned Answers
@PACKOUT:10-25-94
 (Continued from last message)
0.11: What national and local skeptics organisations are there?
The following addresses are not guaranteed correct. Please check the
addresses you know, and send in any updates and corrections.
Argentina: CAIRP, Director, Ladislao Enrique Maiquez, Jose Marti, 35
dep C, 1406 Buenos Aires
Australia: Australian Skeptics Inc., P.O.Box E324, St. James NSW 2000,
Australia
Belgium: Committee Para, J. Dommanget, Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels
SKEPP, W. Betz, Laarbeklaan 105, B-1090 Brussels
Canada: James E. Alcock, Chairman, Glendon College, York University,
2275 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario
Finland: Skepsis, Lauri Groehn (o Umlaut!), Ojahaapolku 8 B 17,
SF-01600 Vantaa
France: Comit'e Francais pour l'Etude des Ph'enom`enes Paranormaux,
Dr. Claude Benski, General Secretary, Merlin Gerin, RGE/A2,
F-38050 Grenoble Cedex
Germany: Gesellschaft zur wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung von
Parawissenschaften e.V. (GWUP) Postfach 1222 64374 Rossdorf
Germany. Tel: +49-6154-8946, Fax: +49-6154-81912
Great Britain: British Committee, Michael J. Hutchinson, Secretary, 10
Crescent View, Loughton, Essex IG10 4PZ
"The Skeptic", P.O. Box 475, Manchester, M60 2TH, UK.
India: B. Premanand, Chairman, 10 Chettipalayam Road, Podanur, 641-023
Coimbatur, Tamil Nadu
Ireland: Irish Skeptics, Peter O'Hara, Dept. of Psychiatry, Airedale
General Hospital, Steeton, Keighly, West Yorkshire,
UK BD20 6TD
Italy: Comitato Italiano per il Controllo delle Affermazioni sul
Paranormale (CICAP), Lorenzo Montali, Via Ozanam 3, I-20129
Milano
Mexico: SOMIE, Mario Mendez-Acosta, Apartado Postal 19-546, Mexico
New Zealand: Vicki Hyde, Chairperson, NZCSICOP, New Zealand Science
Monthly, PO Box 19-760, Christchurch 5, New Zealand. Tel:
(NZ)-3-384-5137, Fax: (NZ)-3-384-5138,
email: nzsm@spis.equinox.gen.nz
Netherlands: Stichting Skepsis, Rob Nanninga, Westerkade 20, NL-9718
AS Groningen
Norway: K. Stenodegard, NIVFO, P.O.Box 2119, N-7001 Trondheim
Russia: Science & Religion, Ulyanovskaya 43, kor. 4, 109004 Moscow,
Russia
South Africa: Assn. for the Rational Investigation of the Paranormal
(ARIP), Marian Laserson, Secretary, 4 Wales Street,
Sandringham 2192
Spain: Alternativa Racional a las Pseudosciencias (ARP), Mercedes
Quintana, Apartado de Correos 17.026, E-28080 Madrid
Sweden: Vetenskap och folkbildning, Box 185, S-101 23 Stockholm,
Sweden.
USA: Skeptical Inquirer, Box 703, Buffalo, NY 14226-9973. Tel:
Center for Scientific Anomalies Research, P.O. Box 1052, Ann
Arbor, MI 48106
Prometheus Books, 59 John Glenn Drive, Buffalo, NY 14215-9918
Skeptics Society 2761 N. Marengo Ave. Altadena, CA 91001
0.12: Where can I get books on paranormal phenomena?
Skeptics who want to obtain books on paranormal allegations are faced
with a minor ethical dilemma, in that they want the books but do not
want to hand money to the purveyors of flummery and nonsense. One
solution is to buy the books second hand. In addition to your local
second hand bookshop, Richard Trott has
volunteered to provide a free referral service for sellers and seekers
of such second hand books.
A huge annotated bibliography of books on paranormal and skeptical
issues is available by email or FTP.
1. Through mail: Send "get skeptic biblio" to
LISTSERV@JHUVM.HCF.JHU.EDU or @JHUVM.BITNET.
2. Anonymous ftp: connect to "jhuvm.hcf.jhu.edu", log on with
"skeptic" and use any non-blank password, do "get skeptic.biblio".
0.13: Where can I find skeptical information on-line?
Web pages:
CSICOP and "Skeptical Inquirer":
http://iquest.com/~fitz/csicop/
Mailing Lists:
CSICOP:
Barry Karr .
0.14: Where can I find paranormal information on-line?
The Scientific Method
1.1: What is the "scientific method"?
The scientific method is the best way yet discovered for winnowing
the truth from lies and delusion. The simple version looks something
like this:
1: Observe some aspect of the universe.
2: Invent a theory that is consistent with what you have
observed.
3: Use the theory to make predictions.
4: Test those predictions by experiments or further
observations.
5: Modify the theory in the light of your results.
6: Go to step 3.
This leaves out the co-operation between scientists in building
theories, and the fact that it is impossible for every scientist to
independently do every experiment to confirm every theory. Because
life is short, scientists have to trust other scientists. So a
scientist who claims to have done an experiment and obtained certain
results will usually be believed, and most people will not bother to
repeat the experiment.
Experiments do get repeated as part of other experiments. Most
scientific papers contain suggestions for other scientists to follow
up. Usually the first step in doing this is to repeat the earlier
work. So if a theory is the starting point for a significant amount
of work then the initial experiments will get replicated a number of
Some people talk about "Kuhnian paradigm shifts". This refers to the
observed pattern of the slow extension of scientific knowledge with
occasional sudden revolutions. This does happen, but it still follows
the steps above.
Many philosophers of science would argue that there is no such thing
as *the* scientific method.
1.2: What is the difference between a fact, a theory and a hypothesis?
In popular usage, a theory is just a vague and fuzzy sort of fact.
But to a scientist a theory is a conceptual framework that *explains*
existing facts and predicts new ones. For instance, today I saw the
Sun rise. This is a fact. This fact is explained by the theory that
the Earth is round and spins on its axis while orbiting the sun. This
theory also explains other facts, such as the seasons and the phases
of the moon, and allows me to make predictions about what will happen
tomorrow.
This means that in some ways the words "fact" and "theory" are
interchangeable. The organisation of the solar system, which I used
a simple example of a theory, is normally considered to be a fact that
is explained by Newton's theory of gravity. And so on.
A hypothesis is a tentative theory that has not yet been tested.
Typically, a scientist devises a hypothesis and then sees if it "holds
water" by testing it against available data. If the hypothesis does
hold water, the scientist declares it to be a theory.
1.3: Can science ever really prove anything?
Yes and no. It depends on what you mean by "prove".
For instance, there is little doubt that an object thrown into the air
will come back down (ignoring spacecraft for the moment). One could
make a scientific observation that "Things fall down". I am about to
throw a stone into the air. I use my observation of past events to
predict that the stone will come back down. Wow - it did!
But next time I throw a stone, it might not come down. It might
hover, or go shooting off upwards. So not even this simple fact has
been really proved. But you would have to be very perverse to claim
that the next thrown stone will not come back down. So for ordinary
everyday use, we can say that the theory is true.
You can think of facts and theories (not just scientific ones, but
ordinary everyday ones) as being on a scale of certainty. Up at the
top end we have facts like "things fall down". Down at the bottom we
have "the Earth is flat". In the middle we have "I will die of heart
disease". Some scientific theories are nearer the top than others,
but none of them ever actually reach it. Skepticism is usually
directed at claims that contradict facts and theories that are very
near the top of the scale. If you want to discuss ideas nearer the
middle of the scale (that is, things about which there is real debate
in the scientific community) then you would be better off asking on
the appropriate specialist group.
1.4: If scientific theories keep changing, where is the Truth?
In 1666 Isaac Newton proposed his theory of gravitation. This was one
of the greatest intellectual feats of all time. The theory explained
all the observed facts, and made predictions that were later tested
and found to be correct within the accuracy of the instruments being
used. As far as anyone could see, Newton's theory was the Truth.
During the nineteenth century, more accurate instruments were used to
test Newton's theory, and found some slight discrepancies (for
instance, the orbit of Mercury wasn't quite right). Albert Einstein
proposed his theories of Relativity, which explained the newly
observed facts and made more predictions. Those predictions have now
been tested and found to be correct within the accuracy of the
instruments being used. As far as anyone can see, Einstein's theory
is the Truth.
So how can the Truth change? Well the answer is that it hasn't. The
Universe is still the same as it ever was, and Newton's theory is as
true as it ever was. If you take a course in physics today, you will
be taught Newton's Laws. They can be used to make predictions, and
those predictions are still correct. Only if you are dealing with
things that move close to the speed of light do you need to use
Einstein's theories. If you are working at ordinary speeds outside of
very strong gravitational fields and use Einstein, you will get
(almost) exactly the same answer as you would with Newton. It just
takes longer because using Einstein involves rather more maths.
One other note about truth: science does not make moral judgements.
Anyone who tries to draw moral lessons from the laws of nature is on
very dangerous ground. Evolution in particular seems to suffer from
this. At one time or another it seems to have been used to justify
Nazism, Communism, and every other -ism in between. These
justifications are all completely bogus. Similarly, anyone who says
"evolution theory is evil because it is used to support Communism" (or
any other -ism) has also strayed from the path of Logic.
1.5: "Extraordinary evidence is needed for an extraordinary claim"
An extraordinary claim is one that contradicts a fact that is close
to the top of the certainty scale discussed above. So if you are
trying to contradict such a fact, you had better have facts available
that are even higher up the certainty scale.
1.6: What is Occam's Razor?
Ockham's Razor ("Occam" is a Latinised variant) is the principle
proposed by William of Ockham in the fifteenth century that
"Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate", which translates as
"entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily". Various other
rephrasings have been incorrectly attributed to him. In more modern
terms, if you have two theories which both explain the observed facts
then you should use the simplest until more evidence comes along. See
W.M. Thorburn, "The Myth of Occam's Razor," _Mind_ 27:345-353 (1918)
for a detailed study of what Ockham actually wrote and what others
wrote after him.
The reason behind the razor is that for any given set of facts there
are an infinite number of theories that could explain them. For
instance, if you have a graph with four points in a line then the
simplest theory that explains them is a linear relationship, but you
can draw an infinite number of different curves that all pass through
the four points. There is no evidence that the straight line is the
right one, but it is the simplest possible solution. So you might as
well use it until someone comes along with a point off the straight
Also, if you have a few thousand points on the line and someone
suggests that there is a point that is off the line, it's a pretty
fair bet that they are wrong.
The following argument against Occam's Razor is sometime proposed:
This simple hypothesis was shown to be false; the truth was more
complicated. So Occam's Razor doesn't work.
This is a strawman argument. The Razor doesn't tell us anything about
the truth or otherwise of a hypothesis, but rather it tells us which
one to test first. The simpler the hypothesis, the easier it is to
shoot down.
A related rule, which can be used to slice open conspiracy theories,
is Hanlon's Razor: "Never attribute to malice that which can be
adequately explained by stupidity". This definition comes from "The
Jargon File" (edited by Eric Raymond), but one poster attributes it to
Robert Heinlein, in a 1941 story called "Logic of Empire".
1.7: Galileo was persecuted, just like researchers into today.
People putting forward extraordinary claims often refer to Galileo as
an example of a great genius being persecuted by the establishment for
heretical theories. They claim that the scientific establishment is
afraid of being proved wrong, and hence is trying to suppress the
This is a classic conspiracy theory. The Conspirators are all those
scientists who have bothered to point out flaws in the claims put
forward by the researchers.
The usual rejoinder to someone who says "They laughed at Columbus,
they laughed at Galileo" is to say "But they also laughed at Bozo the
Clown". (From Carl Sagan, "Broca's Brain", Coronet 1980, p79).
Incidentally, stories about the persecution of Galileo Galilei and the
ridicule Christopher Columbus had to endure should be taken with a
grain of salt.
During the early days of Galileo's theory church officials were
interested and sometimes supportive, even though they had yet to find
a way to incorporate it into theology. His main adversaries were
established scientists - since he was unable to provide HARD proofs
they didn't accept his model. Galileo became more agitated, declared
them ignorant fools and publicly stated that his model was the correct
one, thus coming in conflict with the church.
When Columbus proposed to take the "Western Route" the spherical
nature of the Earth was common knowledge, even though the diameter was
still debatable. Columbus simply believed that the Earth was a lot
smaller, while his adversaries claimed that the Western Route would be
too long. If America hadn't been in his way, he most likely would have
failed. The myth that "he was laughed at for believing that the Earth
was a globe" stems from an American author who intentionally
adulterated history.
1.8: What is the "Experimenter effect"?
It is unconscious bias introduced into an experiment by the
experimenter. It can occur in one of two ways:
o Scientists doing experiments often have to look for small effects
or differences between the things being experimented on.
o Experiments require many samples to be treated in exactly the same
way in order to get consistent results.
Note that neither of these sources of bias require deliberate fraud.
A classic example of the first kind of bias was the "N-ray",
discovered early this century. Detecting them required the
investigator to look for very faint flashes of light on a
scintillator. Many scientists reported detecting these rays. They
were fooling themselves. For more details, see "The Mutations of
Science" in "Science since Babylon" by Derek Price (Yale Univ. Press).
A classic example of the second kind of bias were the detailed
investigations into the relationship between race and brain capacity
in the last century. Skull capacity was measured by filling the empty
skull with lead shot or mustard seed, and then measuring the volume of
beans. A significant difference in the results could be obtained by
ensuring that the filling in some skulls was better settled than
others. For more details on this story, read Stephen Jay Gould's "The
Mismeasure of Man".
For more detail see:
T.X. Barber, "Pitfalls of Human Research", 1976.
Robert Rosenthal, "Pygmalion in the Classroom".
[These were recommended by a correspondent. Sorry I have no more
information.]
1.9: How much fraud is there in science?
In its simplest form this question is unanswerable, since undetected
fraud is by definition unmeasurable. Of course there are many known
cases of fraud in science. Some use this to argue that all scientific
findings (especially those they dislike) are worthless.
This ignores the replication of results which is routinely undertaken
by scientists. Any important result will be replicated many times by
many different people. So an assertion that (for instance) scientists
are lying about carbon-14 dating requires that a great many scientists
are engaging in a conspiracy. See the previous question.
In fact the existence of known and documented fraud is a good
illustration of the self-correcting nature of science. It does not
matter if a proportion of scientists are fraudsters because any
important work they do will not be taken seriously without independent
(continued next message)
@SUBJECT:sci.skeptic FAQ: The Frequently Questioned Answers
@PACKOUT:10-25-94
 (Continued from last message)
verification. Hence they must confine themselves to pedestrian work
which no-one is much interested in, and obtain only the expected
results. For anyone with the talent and ambition necessary to get a
Ph.D this is not going to be an enjoyable career.
Also, most scientists are idealists. They perceive beauty in
scientific truth and see its discovery as their vocation. Without
this most would have gone into something more lucrative.
These arguments suggest that undetected fraud in science is both rare
and unimportant.
The above arguments are weaker in medical research, where companies
frequently suppress or distort data in order to support their own
products. Tobacco companies regularly produce reports "proving" that
smoking is harmless, and drug companies have both faked and suppressed
data related to the safety or effectiveness or major products.
For more detail on more scientific frauds than you ever knew existed,
see "False Prophets" by Alexander Koln.
The standard textbook used in North America is "Betrayers of the
Truth: Fraud and Deceit in Science" by William Broad and Nicholas Wade
(Oxford 1982).
There is a mailing list SCIFRAUD for the discussion of fraud and
questionable behaviour in science. To subscribe, send
"sub scifraud " to "listserv@uacsc2.albany.edu".
1.9.1: Did Mendel fudge his results?
Gregor Mendel was a 19th Century monk who discovered the laws of
inheritance (dominant and recessive genes etc.). More recent analysis
of his results suggest that they are "too good to be true". Mendelian
inheritance involves the random selection of possible traits from
parents, with particular probabilities of particular traits. It seems
from Mendel's raw data that chance played a smaller part in his
experiments than it should. This does not imply fraud on the part of
Mendel.
First, the experiments were not "blind" (see the questions about
double blind experiments and the experimenter effect). Deciding
whether a particular pea is wrinkled or not needs judgement, and this
could bias Mendel's results towards the expected. This is an example
of the "experimenter effect".
Second, Mendel's Laws are only approximations. In fact it does turn
out that in some cases inheritance is less random than his Laws state.
Third, Mendel might have neglected to publish the results of `failed'
experiments. It is interesting to note that all 7 of the
characteristics measured in his published work are controlled by
single genes. He did not report any experiments with more complicated
characteristics. Mendel later started experiments with a more complex
plant, hawkweed, could not interpret the results, got discouraged and
abandoned plant science.
See "The Human Blueprint" by Robert Shapiro (New York: St. Martin's,
Psychic Powers
2.1: Is Uri Geller for real?
James "The Amazing" Randi has, through various demonstrations, cast
doubt on Geller's claims of psychic powers. Geller has sued Randi.
Skeptics are advised to exercise extreme caution in addressing this
topic, given the pending litigation. Some skeptics organisations have
been threatened with litigation over this matter, which could be
expected to be extremely expensive and time-consuming whatever the
eventual outcome.
2.2: I have had a psychic experience.
That is pretty remarkable. But before you post to the Net, consider:-
* Could it just be coincidence? The human mind is good at
remembering odd things but tends to forget ordinary things, such as
premonitions that didn't happen. If psychic experiences happen to
you on a regular basis then try writing down the premonitions when
you have them and then comparing your record to later events.
* If you think you have a mental link with someone you know, try a
few tests with playing cards.
* If you are receiving messages from elsewhere (e.g. UFOs), ask for
specific information that you can then check. The complete prime
factorisation of 2^1024+1 would be a good start: we don't know it,
but any proposed answer is easy to check.
If you want to make a formal registration of your predictions, send
mail to .
2.3: What is "Sensory Leakage"?
Sensory leakage is something that designers of tests for psi must be
careful to guard against. Tests for psi use powerful statistical
tests to search for faint traces of communication. Unfortunately the
fact that communication has taken place does not prove that it was
done by telepathy. It could have been through some more mundane form
of signal.
For instance one experiment involved a "sender" in one room with a
stack of numbered cards (1-10) and a "receiver" in another room trying
to guess what the next card was. The sender looked at a card and
pressed a button to signal to the receiver. The receiver then tried
to guess the number on the card. There was a definite correlation
between the card numbers and the guesses. However the sender could
signal the receiver by varying the delays between buzzes. When this
channel of communication was removed, the effect disappeared.
2.4: Who are the main psi researchers?
Targ and Puthoff spring to mind, but actually, Puthoff is no longer
doing psi research (I don't have any idea what Targ is up to these
days.) Granted, their SRI work is quite famous, but if we want to
review the historical (rather than currently active) figures, you
probably want to go back at least as far as the Rhines.
Helmut Schmidt, a physicist who has been looking at PK, is still
active at the Mind Science Foundation in Texas. (Sorry, I don't know a
more specific address than that.)
The Foundation for Research into the Nature of Man (FRNM), which is
what Rhine's work at Duke eventually developed into, is still active
near Duke. It is currently headed by K. Ramakrishna Rao.
The Koestler Chair of Parapsychology at the University of Edinburgh
is, as far as I know, still active. The current incumbent is, I think,
named Robert Morris; his main assistant is Deborah Delanoy.
Roger Nelson is active in the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research
center (PEAR) and occasionally posts to the net.
Active workers in the field that I can think of currently include Dean
Radin, who also posts to sci.skeptic as ,
Jessica Utts, and Ed May. The Parapsychological Association has a much
larger roster than that, of course, but I'm not a member myself and
don't have access to their membership roll.
2.5: Does dowsing work?
Dowsing is the art of finding underground water by extra-sensory
perception. Sometimes tools are used. The traditional one is a
forked hazel stick. When held in the correct way this will twitch in
response to small muscle movements in the back and shoulders. Another
tool that has become popular in recent years is a pair of rods mounted
in tubes that are held in each hand just in front of the user.
Rod bent into tube.
|| <- Tube Rod
When water (or something else) is dowsed, the rods turn towards each
other. Like the forked hazel stick it amplifies small movements of
the arm and shoulder muscles.
Unfortunately careful tests of dowsers have revealed absolutely no
ability to find water or anything else by extra-sensory perception.
Dowsing success stories can be explained by noting that wherever you
dig you will find water. You just have to dig deep enough. It has
also been suggested that dowsers may unconsciously use clues in the
environment.
James Randi has tested more than 100 dowsers (I don't know the actual
count). He tells that only 2 tried to cheat. This suggests that
dowsers are basically honest people.
The Skeptical Inquirer has published a number of articles on dowsing.
James Randi's "A Controlled Test of Dowsing" was in vol. 4, no. 1, pp.
16-20. Michael Martin's "A New Controlled Dowsing Experiment" was in
vol. 8, pp. 138-140. Dick Smith's "Two Tests of Divining in
Australia" was in vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 34-37. Randi's book Flim-Flam!
has a section on dowsing. The main skeptical book about dowsing is
Vogt, E.Z. and Hyman R. (1959, 2nd edition 1979) "Water witching USA".
The University of Chicago Press. 260 pages. Available as a paperback.
2.6: Could psi be inhibited by the presence of skeptics?
Psychic researchers have noted something they call the "shyness
effect" (or more grandly "psi-mediated experimenter effects"). This
is invoked to explain the way in which many subjects' psychic powers
seem to fade when exposed to careful scrutiny and proper controls.
Often it is alleged that having a skeptic in the audience can prevent
the delicate operation of psi.
In its most extreme form this hypothesis becomes a "catch-22" that
makes any results consistent with a psi hypothesis. This renders the
hypothesis unfalsifiable and therefore unscientific. Less extreme
forms might be testable.
2.7: Why don't the skeptics test the *real* psychics?
A claim is sometimes made that the Skeptics movement only tests those
psychics which it knows to be frauds. The real psychics are
supposedly
being ignored by skeptics who are afraid to be proved wrong.
There are three problems with this claim.
Firstly, it assumes that all the skeptics are engaged in a conspiracy
to persuade the world that psychic powers do not exist. This is only
a Petty Conspiracy theory (see section 0), since it only requires the
involvement of a few dozen of the most prominent skeptics, but it is
still difficult to see any motive for such a deception. "Fear of
being proved wrong" implies that they already know they are wrong,
which makes their continued activity rather puzzling.
Secondly, most skeptics are always ready to take part in any
reasonable test. The "real" psychics are perfectly at liberty to
challenge the skeptics.
Thirdly, there are always more alleged psychics. Hence this
argument presents the skeptics with an ever-receding target. The
dialogue goes something like this:
Paranormalist: Yes, I concede that Mr. Adams is a fake, but what about
Mr. Brown. The things that he does could never be
[Some months later]
Skeptic: Here is how Brown did it....
P: OK, I concede that Adams and Brown are fakes, but Mrs Carver is the
surely the real thing.
[Some months later]
S: Here is how Carver did it...
P: OK, maybe Adams, Brown and Carver were fakes, but what about Digby
and Ender?
S: I give up. There's no convincing some people.
P: [shouting] Digby and Ender are real psychics: the skeptics are
afraid to test them. They only test the fakes!
2.8: What is the ganzfeld?
A state of sensory deprivation which may enhance psychic abilities.
The subject lies on a soft bed, with a "white noise" hissing sound
played through headphones and half of a ping-pong ball placed over
each eye to give an empty field of view. The subject then talks to a
tape recorder, describing any ideas which enter his or her mind.
To test whether psychic communication is occurring, a "sender"
concentrates on some image while the "receiver" is in the ganzfeld.
Then the image is shown to the receiver along with three other images.
The receiver must pick the image that was seen by the sender.
Dean Radin has been conducting some careful
ganzfeld experiments, which he describes as follows:
> ... our unit has recently conducted pilot replications of the
> ganzfeld telepathy studies reported by Bem & Honorton. In 76
> sessions we obtained 25 direct hits, which is quite close to the 33%
> meta-analytic hit rate previously reported by Honorton et al..
> Our methodology was based on Honorton's auto-ganzfeld setup, which
> automated most aspects of the experiment, except we were even more
> obsessive: Our system uses a computer to randomly select the target,
> to automatically present the target clip to the sender, to
> automatically present the judging clips in a random order to the
> receiver, and to store the data. The receiver and sender rooms are
> 25 meters apart, behind 4 doors, and sound-shielded to 100 dB.
> We only use volunteer subjects claiming no special abilities,
> typically for one or two sessions. The methodology and preliminary
> study results will be reported in detail in August at the annual
> Parapsychological Association convention. Some of our other plans
> are reported in the 15 May 93 New Scientist cover article on
> telepathy.
UFOs and Flying Saucers
3.1 What are UFOs?
UFOs are, simply, Unidentified Flying Objects, no more, no less. The
word "object" is used in a very broad way, not to imply a physical
"object" but more an experienced phenomenon, e.g. something seen,
heard, "sensed" etc. This means that if you are out one night and see
a light moving in the sky and cannot immediately identify it as a
certain star, planet or other object, then it is by definition a UFO.
THIS DOES NOT MEAN YOU HAVE SEEN AN ALIEN SPACESHIP.
A better question would be:
3.1.1 Are UFOs alien spacecraft?
Probably not. The vast majority of UFO reports, when investigated by
competent researchers (and that is a problem all by itself), can be
easily explained as natural or manmade objects misidentified for one
reason or another. The actual percentage is around 95%. A very few
reports are provable hoaxes. The remaining few percent (some skeptics
argue that there are no remaining reports) are not explained at this
time. Again, this does not mean that they are observations of alien
spaceships. All we can say is that, given the information presently
available, some cases don't appear to be stars, balloons, airplanes,
aurorae. etc. Given a great deal more time and effort, many more
could likely be identified. It's possible that the witness(es) were
in error, or are very good liars. And the remaining few cases? Well,
the best we can say, as true skeptics, is that we don't know what they
were, but there is NO proof that they were alien spacecraft.
3.1.2 Are UFOs natural phenomena?
Possibly. A number of theories have been proposed, suggesting that
some UFOs are "plasmas" or variations of ball lightning or earthquake
lights. Unfortunately, the theories seem to change to fit observed
data, rather than predict the observations. Also, studies designed to
support the theories have used newspaper articles and raw, unsifted
case lists for data, and therefore the studies do not appear to be
completely unbiased. Perhaps time will tell. Until then it is safe
say that SOME UFOs are probably ball lightning or other rare natural
phenomena.
3.1.3 But isn't it possible that aliens are visiting Earth?
Yes. But it is also possible that there is an invisible snorg reading
this over your shoulder right now.
Basically, some astronomers (e.g. Carl Sagan) are convinced that there
are other habitable planets in our galaxy, and that there may be some
form of life on them. Assuming that parallel evolution occurred on
these other planets, there MIGHT be intelligent life forms there. It
is possible that some of these life forms could have an advanced
civilization, and perhaps have achieved space travel. BUT - there is
no proof that this is so. SETI programs such as the High Resolution
Microwave Search now being conducted by NASA under the direction of
Jill Tartar are "listening" to other stars in the hope of detecting
radio signals that might indicate intelligent life - kind of
listening for the equivalent of "Watson, come here, I need you!", or
"I love Lucy" in the infancy of our early communications. Such
searches have been fruitless, so far.
If there are aliens on distant planets, then it is possible that they
might have found a way to travel between stars in their lifetimes.
According to our present understanding of physics, this is not likely,
given the vast distances between stars. Even travelling at the speed
of light (which cannot be done), a round trip to the nearest star
take about ten years. This does not rule out interstellar ships, but
it does make it seem unlikely that we are being visited.
If *even one* civilization has found a way to travel between stars in
the entire history of the Milky Way Galaxy (about ten billion years),
it ought to fill the entire Galaxy in only a hundred million years or
so. The question, then, is why don't we observe evidence of alien
civilization everywhere? This question is known as the Fermi Paradox,
and there is no really satisfactory answer. If, however, we postulate
alien visits to Earth, we must also accept a Galaxy-wide civilization
and ask why we see no evidence of it.
3.2: Is it true that the US government has a crashed flying saucer (MJ-
The MJ-12 documents purportedly established that the U.S. government
had established a secret organization of 12 people called MJ-12 or
Majestic-12 to deal with UFOs. These 12 people were all conveniently
dead at the time the documents were discovered. Klass proved that the
documents are fakes.
The "Roswell Incident" refers to an alleged UFO crash in Roswell, NM.
Philip Klass has also investigated this one and shown the reports to
be bogus. One of the more notable items of "evidence" was a document
"signed by the president". Klass showed that this signature was a
photocopy of an existing presidential signature. See SI 14:2 (Winter
All such allegations involve a conspiracy theory. Sometimes these
conspiracy theories get very big indeed. One common one involves a
treaty between the government and the saucer people whereby the
government stays in power and the saucer people get to abduct humans
for various gruesome purposes.
3.3: What is "channeling"?
(continued next message)
@SUBJECT:sci.skeptic FAQ: The Frequently Questioned Answers
@PACKOUT:10-25-94
 (Continued from last message)
"Channeling" is remarkably similar to Spiritualism. The main
difference is that the relatives "on the other side" are replaced by a
wide variety of other beings. This means that the channeler does not
have to worry about providing accurate information about people in the
audience. The beings that channelers claim to speak for range from
enlightened aliens to humans who lived thousands of years ago to
discarnate intelligences who have never had bodies.
3.4: How can we test a channeler?
Some channelled entities are alleged to come from the distant past.
They can be asked about events, climate and language in ways that can
be checked.
If the entity is from a technically advanced race, try asking for the
complete factorisation of 2^1024+1.
3.5: I am in telepathic contact with the aliens.
See the earlier section on psychic experiences and then try testing
your aliens to see if you get a specific answer. If you can come up
with new facts that can be tested by scientists then you will be
listened to. Otherwise you would do better on alt.alien.visitors.
3.6: Some bozo has just posted a load of "teachings" from a UFO. What
should I do?
You have several choices:
* Ignore it.
* Ask for evidence (see question 3.4 above).
* Insult or flame the poster. This is a bad idea.
3.7: Are crop circles made by flying saucers?
There is no convincing evidence that crop circles or any other kind of
UGM (Unusual Ground Markings) were made by aliens. There are some
reports of lights being seen in and around crop circle sites, and a
videos showing objects flitting over fields. The lights are hardly
proof, and the objects in the videos seem to be pieces of foil or
being tossed about by the wind.
In a deliberate attempt to test crop circle "experts", a crop circle
was faked under the watchful eyes of the media. When cerealogists
called in, they proclaimed it genuine.
3.7.1: Are crop circles made by "vortices"?
Probably not. There are a number of meteorologists who believe that
crop circle formations are created by rare natural forces such as
"ionised plasma vortices". Basically, winds blowing across rolling
hills sometimes form eddies, which in some circumstances (that have
never been quantified) become strong, downward spiralling drafts that
lay down the crop. Cerealogists claim to have over two dozen
witnesses
to such events. Unfortunately, many more have said they have seen
flying saucers do the same thing.
Scientific articles arguing for the reality of these vortices have
appeared regularly in the Journal of Meteorology. But its editor is
the leading proponent of the theory, Dr. Terence Meaden.
Winds can lay down crop in patches known as lodging. But geometric
patterns in fields can hardly be attributable to natural phenomena.
Meaden has changed his theory to first accommodate complex circles,
ovals and even triangles (!), but now admits that most circles are
hoaxes and the theory can only explain simpler patterns.
3.7.2: Are crop circles made by hoaxers?
Of course. Although most people have heard only of two, Doug Bower
Dave Chorley of England, many others have been caught, not only in
Britain but in other countries such as Canada. Their methods range
from inscribed circles with a pole and a length of rope to more
complex
systems involving chains, rollers, planks and measuring devices.
And as a further note: just because you can't prove a crop circle was
made by a hoaxer, you should not assume aliens were involved.
Remember
Occam's Razor (Section 1.6).
3.7.3: Are crop circles radioactive?
This is a claim that has received wide circulation in UFO/cerealogy
circles (pardon the pun). It is also untrue. Examination of the data
from spectral analyses of soil taken from crop circles has shown that
there were no readings above the normal background levels. The
proponents of this claim are debating this, however.
3.7.4: What about cellular changes in plants within crop circles?
Yes, what about the changes? Although this is another claim that is
widely circulated among ufologists and cerealogists, the evidence is
simply not very good. A few photographs of alleged changes in the
"crystalline structure" of wheat stems were published in some
magazines and UFO publications. The method used was spagyrical
analysis. This is a technique involving crystallization of the
residue of organic material after harsh processing, invented three
centuries ago and popularized by Sir Kenelm Digby. Digby is known for
other wonderful inventions like condensation of sunlight and the
development of sword salve (which you had to put on the weapon rather
than on the wound, in order to cure the wound). The fact that this
technique was tried at all casts serious doubts on the "researchers"
involved.
3.8: Have people been abducted by UFOs?
While the number of people who believe themselves to have been
abducted by flying saucer aliens must number at least many thousands,
not one of them has produced any physical evidence to establish the
reality of their claim. On the contrary, a number of factors clearly
point to a subjective basis for the "UFO abduction" phenomenon.
Probably the strongest factor is that of the cultural dependence of
such claims. Such claims were virtually unknown until the famous
abduction story of Betty and Barney Hill received widespread publicity
in the late 1960s. Also, the appearance and behavior of supposed UFO
occupants varies greatly with location and year. UFO abduction claims
are made much less frequently outside North America, especially in
non-English-speaking countries, although foreign reports have started
to catch up since the publication of Whitley Strieber's "Communion".
Furthermore, the descriptions of supposed UFO aliens contain clear
cultural dependencies; in North America large-headed grey aliens
predominate, while in Britain abducting aliens are mostly tall, blond,
and Nordic. Aliens that are claimed to steal sperm, eggs, and fetuses,
or make scars or body implants on those supposedly abducted, were
practically unknown before the publication of Budd Hopkins's books.
This particularly alarming type of abduction seems to be quite rare
outside North America.
Clear "borrowings" from popular science fiction stories can be traced
in certain major "UFO abductions." Barney Hill's description of his
supposed abductors' "wraparound eyes" (an extreme rarity in science
fiction films), first described and drawn during a hypnosis session on
Feb. 22, 1964, comes just twelve days after the first broadcast of an
episode of "The Outer Limits" featuring an alien of this quite unique
description. Many other elements of the Hill story can be traced to
the 1953 film "Invaders from Mars," including aliens having "Jimmy
Durante" noses, an alien medical examination, something done to her
eyes to relax her, being probed with a needle, a star map hanging on a
wall, a notebook offered as a remembrance, even the imagery of a
needle in the navel. Other "abductees" borrowed other ideas from
"Invaders From Mars," including brain implants, aliens drilling into a
human skull, and aliens seeking to revitalize a dying world.
Originally, stories of UFO abductions were obtainable solely by
hypnotic regression of the claimant, although in recent years the
subject of "UFO abductions" has become so generally known that some
subjects claim to remember their "abduction" without hypnosis.
Hypnosis is a NOT a reliable method for extracting so- called "hidden
memories", and its use in this manner is likely to lead to fabrication
and error. Moreover, if it is suggested to a hypnotized person that
fictitious events have occurred, the subject himself may come to
believe this (See the article "Hypnosis" in the 1974 "Encyclopaedia
Britannica" by Martin Orne, and section 10.1 on False Memory
Syndrome).
3.9: What is causing the strange cattle deaths?
The only information I have on these is a long file that came to me
via Len Bucuvalas from ParaNet. The
gist is that cattle and other animals have been found dead with
strange mutilations. Organs, especially genitals, have been removed
but no blood appears to have been lost. These events are also
sometimes associated with reports of alien encounters and UFOs.
The best source of information on cattle mutilations is the
book Mute Evidence by Ian Summers and Daniel Kagan, a couple
of investigative journalists who started out believing that
something mysterious was happening, but ended up skeptics.
SI has published James Stewart's "Cattle Mutilations: An Episode
of Collective Delusion" (way back in vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 55-66).
Stewart is a sociologist who examined the pattern of reports and
found that new reports were inspired by previous media coverage.
It came in "waves" or "flaps".
3.10: What is the face on Mars?
One of the Mars orbiters took a photograph of a part of Mars (Cydonia)
when the sun was very low on the horizon. The picture shows a "face"
and some nearby pyramids. Both these structures are seen more by
their shadows than their actual shape. The pyramid shadows appear
regular because their size is close to the limit of resolution of the
camera, and the "face" is just a chance arrangement of shadow over a
couple of hills. The human brain is very good at picking out familiar
patterns in random noise, so it is not surprising that a couple of
Martian surface features (out of thousands photographed) vaguely
resemble a face when seen in the right light.
Many people find the "face" more reminiscent of a monkey than a human
Richard Hoagland has championed the idea that the Face is artificial,
intended to resemble a human, and erected by an extraterrestrial
civilization. Most other analysts concede that the resemblance is most
likely accidental. Other Viking images show a smiley-faced crater and
a lava flow resembling Kermit the Frog elsewhere on Mars. There exists
a Mars Anomalies Research Society (sorry, don't know the address) to
study the Face and related features.
The Mars Observer spacecraft had (and for all we know it still has) a
camera that could give 1.5m per pixel resolution. Unfortunately NASA
scientists lost contact with the spacecraft just before it arrived at
Mars. Among the theories proposed to explain this are:
1: The failure of a couple of transistors after spending years in
2: The presence of evil beings on Mars who wish to hide their
existence from humanity (so why did they build the Face and let
Viking see it?).
3: The existence of a conspiracy on the part of NASA and the US
government to hide the existence of aliens from humanity (see
section 0.8 on Conspiracy theories).
Anyone who wants to learn some more about this should look up "Image
Processing", volume 4 issue 3, which includes enhanced images of the
"face". Hoagland has written "The Monuments of Mars: A City on the
Edge of Forever", North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, California, USA,
[Some of this is from the sci.space FAQs]
3.11: Did Ezekiel See a Flying Saucer?
The chapter in question is Ezekiel 1:4-28. This vision is an example
of apocalyptic writing common in the centuries before and after
Christ. (Good examples are chapters 2 and 7-12 of Daniel and the book
of Revelation.) Apocalyptic literature is difficult to interpret
because the language is symbolic and figurative. In some cases the
writer will reveal what is meant by the symbols. Verse 28 identifies
Ezekiel's wheels within wheels vision as, "the appearance of the
likeness of the glory of the LORD." This "glory" is the "Khabod", a
manifestation of brilliant light thought to be present in the temple.
The wheels are described as appearing in a *vision* which is more like
an hallucination than a physical event. The wheels are seen again in
Ezekiel chap 10 leaving the temple in Jerusalem, but Ezekiel sees this
while sitting inside his house which is in Babylon (see Eze. 1:1-2 and
Eze. 8:1). In other words this was a message from God (or a
hallucination) rather than a physical event.
3.12: What happened at Tunguska?
At 7:17 in the morning of June 30th 1908, close to the Stony Tunguska
River, on the Central Siberian Plateau, a huge air explosion occurred.
The explosion was powerful enough to be heard hundreds of miles away.
The area around the Stony Tunguska River is inaccessible and consists
mostly of bogs and pine forests. The seismic shocks from the
explosion were detected around the Earth. The London Times of July
4th, 1908 reported "The remarkable ruddy glows which have been seen on
many nights lately...seen...as far as Berlin."
When an expedition eventually reached the epicentre of the explosion
they found that the pine trees had been pushed over, pointing away
from the centre. The trees directly under the explosion remained
standing. Some small craters *were* observed at the time but have
disappeared over the years due to the boggy land. The pattern is now
recognised as being similar to that produced by an air-burst nuclear
Currently the event is usually explained as a small, unnoticed, comet
hitting the upper atmosphere somewhere over China and finally
exploding a few seconds later above Tunguska. A number of other
explanations have been offered...
* an atomic explosion. Some reports collected some time after the
event describe a typical mushroom cloud. The problem here is
that such clouds are typical of large explosions due to any cause
- they are not peculiar to atomic explosions. There is also the
difficulty in explaining how the Russians first developed and
then forgot the technology when it would have been very useful in
two major wars!
* a small black hole weighing a few million tons passed through the
Earth. The other entry/exit point was unnoticed as it was in the
ocean. Steven Hawking has now shown that black holes of such a
size have very short lives in cosmic terms due to an
`evaporation' effect.
* a small anti-matter meteor. This now seems very unlikely with
the recent discovery of large amounts of inter-stellar matter in
which, although still close to a vacuum, is quite sufficient to
erode any small amount of anti-matter quite rapidly. In addition,
the very existence of anti-matter in any sizable amounts in our
universe is now thought to be very unlikely.
* an alien spaceship, damaged and out of control, exploded during
an emergency landing. There is no supporting evidence for this
apart from eye witness reports of the vapour trail caused during
the objects passage through the atmosphere showing a distinct
`bend', which is supposed to be due to a course change. Such
bends can also be found in the vapour trails of aircraft which
can be seen to be flying straight and are caused by winds in the
upper atmosphere.
The event is not such a mystery as some suppose. In 1969 a Soviet
periodical published a bibliography of more than 1000 entries. Though
these are mostly in Russian it is not difficult to find references in
western scientific publications. `Nature' has published a number of
papers covering most of the above explanations.
References
John Baxter and Thomas Atkins, "The Fire Came By", Futura
Publications Ltd, 1977, ISBN 0 86000 7540 0
Oliver, Charles P. "The Great Siberian Meteorite," Scientific
American, Vol. 139, No. 1(1928), 42-44
Growther, J.G. "More About the Great Siberian Meteorite,"
Scientific American, Vol. 144, No. 5 (1931), 314-317
Zigel, Felix. "Nuclear Explosion over the Taiga: Study of the
Tunguska Meteorite," Znaniye-Sila, No. 12 (1961), 24-27 [English
translation available from Joint Publications Research Service,
Washington, DC., JPRS-13480 (April 1962)
Parry, Albert. "Russia's Rockets and Missiles" Macmillan 1962,
Cowan,C.,C.R. Atluri and W.F. Libby. "Possible Anti-Matter
Content of the Tunguska Meteor of 1908," Nature, Vol. 206, No.
Jackson, A.A., and M.P. Ryan, "Was the Tungus Event Due to a
Black Hole?", Nature, Vol. 245, No. 5420 (1973), 88-89
3.13: How did the Dogon know about Sirius?
The story goes that when they were first contacted by Europeans, a
small stone-age tribe in Africa called the Dogon knew about a string
of astronomical phenomena, including Jovian satellites, the rings of
Saturn and the invisible companion star of Sirius ("The Pup"). Some
UFO enthusiasts have taken this as proof of visits to the Dogon by
aliens.
In "Broca's Brain", Carl Sagan writes:
The most striking aspects of Dogon astronomy have been recounted
by Marcel Griaule, a French anthropologist working in the 1930s
and 1940s. While there is no reason to doubt Griaule's account,
it is important to note that there is no earlier Western record of
these remarkable Dogon folk beliefs [...]
The facts known to the Dogon were mostly discovered over a century
before Griaule discovered them. It is most likely that the Dogon got
this knowledge from human visitors rather than extra-terrestrial ones.
In addition their astronomy included a number of facts which were
widely accepted in the 1920s but which are now known to be false. It
seems odd that visiting aliens would have made the same mistakes.
Apparently a debunking of Dogon astronomy can be found in an
article by W. Van Beck in _Current Anthropology_, vol. 32, pp.
Faith Healing and Alternative Therapies
Disclaimer: I am not medically qualified. If you have a medical
problem then I strongly recommend that you go to a
qualified medical practitioner. Asking the Net for
specific medical advice is always a bad idea.
4.1: Isn't western medicine reductionistic and alternatives holistic?
Practitioners of alternative therapies often put forward the idea that
modern scientific medicine is reductionistic: it concentrates on those
parts of the body that are not working properly, and in so doing it
reduces the patient to a collection of organs. Alternative therapies
try to consider the patient as a whole (a holistic approach).
This is a fine piece of rhetoric, but it's wrong. It is true that
modern medicine looks at the details of diseases, trying to find out
exactly what is going wrong and what is causing it. But it also looks
at the life of the patient, and tries to understand how the patient
interacts with his/her environment and how this interaction can be
improved. For instance, smoking is known to cause a wide variety of
medical problems. Hence doctors advise patients to give up smoking as
well as treating the individual illnesses that it causes. When a
patient presents with an illness then the doctor will not only treat
the illness but also try to understand how this illness was caused in
order to avoid a recurrence.
4.2: What is a double-blind trial? What is a placebo?
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A double-blind trial is the standard method for deciding whether or
not a treatment has any "real" effect.
A placebo is a "treatment" that has no effect except through the mind
of the patient. The usual form is a pill containing a little lactose
(milk-sugar), although a bitter-tasting liquid or injections of 1cc
saline can be used instead.
The "placebo effect" is the observed tendency for patients to display
the symptoms they are told to expect.
The problem is that the state of mind of a patient is often a
significant factor in the effect of a course of treatment. All
doctors know this; it is why "bedside manner" is considered so
important. In statistical tests of new treatments it is even more
important, since even a small effect from the state of mind of a small
fraction of the patients in the trial can have a significant effect
on the results. Hence new medicines are tested against a placebo.
The patients in the trial are randomly divided into two groups. One
of these groups is given the real medicine, the other is given the
placebo. Neither group knows which they have been given. Hence the
state of mind for both groups will be similar, and any difference
between the two groups must be due to the drug. This is a blind
It has been found that patients can be unconsciously affected by the
attitude and expectations of the doctor supplying the drug, even if
the doctor does not explicitly tell them what to expect. Hence it is
usual for the doctor to be equally unaware which group is which. This
is a "double blind" trial. The job of remembering which group is
which is given to some administrative person who does not normally
come into contact with patients.
This causes problems for many alternative therapies because they do
something to the patient which is difficult to do in a placebo-like
manner. For instance, a treatment involving the laying-on of hands
cannot be done in such a way that both patient and practitioner are
unaware as to whether a "real" laying on of hands has taken place.
There are partial solutions to this. For instance one study employed
a three-way test of drug placebo, counseling and alternative therapy.
4.3: Why should scientific criteria apply to alternative therapies?
So that we can tell if they work or not. If you take a patient
and give them treatment then one of three things will happen: the
patient will get better, will get worse, or will not change. And this
is true whether the treatment is a course of drugs chosen by a doctor,
an alternative therapy, or just counting to ten.
Many alternative therapies depend on "anecdotal evidence" where
particular cases got better after the therapy was applied. Almost any
therapy will have some such cases, even if it actually harms the
patients. And so anecdotal evidence of Mrs. X who was cured of cancer
by this wonderful new treatment is not useful in deciding whether the
treatment is any good.
The only way to tell for sure whether or not an alternative treatment
works is to use a double-blind trial, or as near to it as you can get.
See the previous question.
4.4: What is homeopathy?
Homeopathy is sometimes confused with herbalism. A herbalist
prescribes herbs with known medicinal effects. Two well known
examples are foxglove flowers (which contain digitalin) and willow
bark (which contains aspirin). Folk remedies are now being studied
extensively in order to winnow the wheat from the chaff.
Homeopathists believe that if a drug produces symptoms similar to
certain disease then a highly diluted form of the same drug will cure
the disease. The greater the dilution, the stronger this curative
effect will be (this is known as the law of Arndt-Schulz). Great
importance is also attached to the way in which the diluted solution
is shaken during the dilution.
People are skeptical about homeopathy because:
1: There is no known mechanism by which it can work. Many homeopathic
treatments are so diluted that not one molecule of the original
substance is contained in the final dose.
2: The indicator symptoms are highly subjective. Some substances have
hundreds of trivial indicators.
3: Almost no clinical tests have been done.
4: It is not clear why trace impurities in the dilutants are not also
fortified by the dilution mechanism.
Although homeopathy involves little more than doing nothing, it was
invented in the days when doing nothing was usually better for the
patient than conventional treatment. It therefore represented a
significant advance in medical practice. Since then conventional
medicine has improved beyond recognition, while homeopathy is still
equivalent to doing nothing.
Reports of one scientific trial that seemed to provide evidence for
homeopathy until a double-blind trial was set up can be found in
Nature vol 333, p.816 and further, and the few issues of Nature
following that, about until November of that year (1988).
SI ran a good article on the origins and claims of homeopathy:
Stephen Barrett, M.D., "Homeopathy: Is It Medicine?", SI,
vol. 12, no. 1, Fall 1987, pp. 56-62.
4.5: What is aromatherapy?
A belief that the essential oils of various flowers have therapeutic
effects. These effects are psychological rather than physical, and so
its a bit difficult to define what we mean by a statement that "it
works". After all, if people do it and feel better then that is a
real effect, whether it occurred because of suggestion or because the
flowers contain a powerful psychoactive drug.
4.6: What is reflexology? What is iridology?
Reflexology is an alternative therapy based on massage of the feet.
The idea is that parts of the body can be mapped onto areas of the
feet. There is no known mechanism by which massaging the feet can
affect other parts of the body (other than the simple soothing and
relaxing effect that any massage gives) and no evidence that it
actually works.
Iridology is a remarkably similar notion. Diseases are detected and
diagnosed by examining the iris of the eye. A good critique of
iridology: Russell S. Worrall, "Iridology: Diagnosis or Delusion?",
SI, vol. 7 no. 3, pp. 23-35.
4.7: Does acupuncture work?
There is evidence that acupuncture treatment has an analgesic ("pain
killing") effect. The mechanism seems to involve the endogenous
opiate system (at least in part), but the exact mechanism by which
endogenous opiates are released by acupuncture skin stimulation is not
yet known. It does not appear that the effect can be explained simply
by pain caused by the needles. However it is possible to achieve
similar effects by suggestion alone, suggesting that acupuncture is no
more than a placebo.
There have been reports of measurable physiological effects,
apparently via local changes in the activity of the sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous systems. While much more detail remains to be
elucidated, this is at least a testable hypothesis which brings
acupuncture within the realm of science.
This suggests that acupuncture might be a useful tool in pain
management, but that it is unlikely to be of value in curing the
underlying cause of the pain.
The traditional theory of acupuncture involves balancing the yin and
yang (male and female principles) which flow in pathways through the
body. Nothing bearing any resemblance to this has been found by
medical researchers.
References:
Skrabanek, Petr: Acupuncture: Past, Present and Future. In: Examining
Holistic Medicine by Stalker D & Glymour G (eds), Prometheus Books, NY
Skrabanek, Petr: Acupuncture and Endorphins. Lancet 1984;i:220
Skrabanek, Petr: Acupuncture and the Age of Unreason. Lancet
Skrabanek, Petr: Acupuncture-Needless Needles. Irish Medical
Journal1986;79:334-335
A 1977 study, Stern, Brown, Ulett, and Sletten, 'A comparison of
hypnosis, acupuncture, morphine, Valium, aspirin, and placebo in the
management of experimentally induced pain,' Annals_of_the_New_York_
Academy_of_Sciences, 296, 175-193, found that acupuncture,
morphine, and hypnostic analgesia all produced significantly reduced
pain ratings for cold pressor and ischemic pain.
Mayer,Price, Raffi, 1977,
"Antagonism of acupuncture analgesia in man by the narcotic
antagonist naloxone," _Brain_Research_, 121, 368-372.
Sjolund, Terenius, Erikson, 1977,
"Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of endorphins after
electroacupuncture,"
Acta_Physiologica_Scandinavica, 100, 382-384.
"Practical application of acupuncture analgesia" and it's by Cheng,
SB (1973 Apr 27), _Nature 242(5400)_: 559-60.
"Electrophysiological measures during acupuncture-induced surgical
analgesia" by Starr A (1989 Sep) _Arch Neurol 46(9)_: 1010-12.
4.8: What about psychic surgery?
Psychic surgeons have claimed to be able to make magical incisions,
remove cancers and perform other miracles. To date, no investigation
of a psychic surgeon has ever found real paranormal ability. Instead
they have found one of two things:
1: Simple conjuring tricks. The "surgeons" in these cases are
confidence tricksters who prey on the desperate and the foolish.
2: Delusions of grandeur. These people are even more dangerous than
the first category, as their treatments may actually cause harm in
addition to whatever was wrong with the patient in the first
4.9: What is Crystal Healing?
The belief that carrying a small quartz crystal will make you a
healthier person. People selling these crystals use phrases like "the
body's natural energy fields" and "tuning into the right vibrational
frequencies". All this sounds vaguely scientific but means absolutely
nothing. Crystal Healing is mostly a New Age idea. See the section
on the New Age below for more information.
4.10: Does religious healing work?
Miraculous healing is often put forward as a proof of the existence
and approval of God. The Catholic and Christian Scientist churches in
particular often claim that believers have been healed, but none of
these healings have stood up to careful scrutiny. However it should
be noted that the Catholic church does investigate alleged miracles.
One famous "healing" which has been carefully investigated is the case
of Mrs. Jean Neil. Many people have seen the video of her getting out
of a wheel-chair and running around the stadium at meeting led by the
German evangelist Reinhard Bonnke. This was investigated by Dr. Peter
May, a GP and member of the General Synod of the Church of England.
His findings were reported in the Skeptic (organ of the UK Skeptics).
Here is a summary of the report. [Any errors are mine. PAJ].
May found that Mrs. Neil was helpful and enthusiastic when he
contacted her, and there is little doubt that her quality of life has
improved greatly since the "healing". However May was unable to find
any physical changes. His report lists each of the illnesses claimed
by Mrs. Neil, and he found that they were either not recorded by
doctors previous to the healing or that no physical change had taken
place. It seems that the only change in Mrs. Neil was in her mental
state. Before the healing she was depressed and introverted.
Afterwards she became happy and outgoing.
A more sinister aspect of the story is the presentation of the Neil
case in a video promoted by CfaN Productions. This represented Mrs.
Neil before the healing as a "hopeless case", implied that she had a
single serious illness rather than a series of less major ones, and
included the false statement that she had been confined to a
wheelchair for 25 years (in fact Mrs. Neil had used a wheelchair for
about 15 months and could still walk, although with great difficulty).
A report on her spine was carefully edited to include statements about
her new pain-free movement but to exclude the statement that there was
no evidence of physical changes.
For the full report, see "The Skeptic" p9, vol. 5, no. 5, Sept. 91.
issues are available from "The Skeptic (Dept. B), P.O. Box 475,
Manchester, M60 2TH, U.K. Price UKL 2.10 for UK, UKL 2.70 elsewhere.
The video is entitled "Something to Shout About --- The Documentation
of a Miracle". Presumably "CfaN Productions" is part of Bonke's
organisation "Church for all Nations" [does anyone have an address?]
Of course, this does not disprove the existence of miraculous healing.
Even Mrs. Neil's improvement could have been due to divine
intervention rather than a sub-conscious decision to get better (as
most skeptics would conclude, although the May report carefully
refrains from doing so). I include this summary here because the Neil
case is often cited by evangelical Christians as an undeniable
miracle. In fact the case demonstrates that even such dramatic events
as a cripple getting up and running may not be so very inexplicable.
For more general coverage of this topic, see James Randi's book "The
Faith Healers". Free Inquiry magazine has also run exposes on
fraudulent faith healers like Peter Popoff and W.V. Grant.
4.11: What harm does it do anyway?
People have died when alternative practitioners told them to stop
taking conventional treatment. Children have died when their parents
refused to give them conventional treatment. These issues matter.
Most alternative treatments are harmless, so the "complementary
medicine" approach where conventional and alternative therapies
proceed in parallel will not hurt anyone physically (although it is a
waste of time and money).
Creation versus Evolution
5.1: Is the Bible evidence of anything?
Apart from the beliefs of those who wrote it, no. It is true that
most Christians take the truth of at least some parts of the bible as
an article of faith, but non-Christians are not so constrained.
Quoting the bible to such a person as "evidence" will simply cause
them to question the accuracy of the bible. See the alt.atheism FAQ
lists for more details.
Some things in the bible are demonstrably true, but this does not make
the bible evidence, since there are also things in the bible that are
demonstrably false.
5.2: Could the Universe have been created old?
An argument is sometimes put forward along the following lines:
We know from biblical evidence (see above) that the Universe
is about 6,000 years old. Therefore God created it 6,000
years ago with fossils in the ground and light on its way from
distant stars, so that there is no way of telling the real age
of the Universe simply by looking at it.
This is the "Omphalos" (Navel) theory of Edmund Gosse. Adam had no
mother so did not need a navel, but was created by God with one, i.e.
physical proof of connection with a nonexistent mother. Similarly, at
the moment of Creation the world was chock-full of things that must
have happened yesterday, when yesterday did not exist.
The hypothesis is unfalsifiable, and therefore not a scientific one
(see the section on the scientific method). It could also be made for
any date in the past (like last Tuesday). Finally it requires that
God, who is alleged to speak to us through His Works, should be lying
to us by setting up a misleading Creation. This seems to be rather
inconsistent with Biblical claims of God being the source of all
One might also argue that in creating the universe "old", God also
created the past of the universe. This "fake" past must be a perfect
match with the "real" past (otherwise we could spot the join). Hence
the events from before the moment of "creation" are just as real as
the events which have happened since. Since God is supposed to exist
independently of time and space, this makes the whole idea
meaningless.
Note that this argument is not put forward by creation scientists.
They hold that modern science has misinterpreted the evidence about
the age of the universe.
5.3: What about Carbon-14 dating?
Isotope dating takes advantage of the fact that radioactive materials
break down at a rate independent of their environment. Any solid
object that formed containing radioactive materials therefore steadily
loses them to decay. If it is possible to compare the amount of
radioactive material currently present with the amount originally
present, one can deduce how long ago the object was formed. The amount
originally present cannot, of course, be observed directly, but can be
determined by indirect means, such as identifying the decay products.
C-14 dating uses an unstable isotope of carbon that is constantly
being produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays. This process is
assumed to be in equilibrium with the decay of C-14 throughout the
biosphere, so the proportion of carbon that is C-14 as opposed to the
stable C-12 and C-13 isotopes is essentially constant in any living
organism. When an organism dies, it stops taking up new carbon from
its environment, but the C-14 in its body continues to decay. By
measuring the amount of C-14 left in organic remains, one can
establish how long ago the organism they came from died. Because C-14
has a half-life of only a few thousand years, C-14 dating can only be
used for remains less than a few tens of thousands of years old--
after that, the C-14 is entirely gone, to all practical purposes.
Other isotopic dating techniques, such as potassium-argon dating, use
much longer-lived radionuclides and can reliably measure dates
billions of years in the past.
Actually the production rate isn't all that constant, so the amount of
C-14 in the biosphere varies somewhat with time. You also need to be
sure that the only source of carbon for the organism was atmospheric
carbon (via plants). The nominal date from a C-14 reading, based on
the present concentration, therefore has to be corrected to get the
real date --- but once the correction has been calculated using an
independent dating tool like dendrochronology (see below), it can be
applied to almost any sample.
There are some known anomalies in C14 dating, such as molluscs that
get their carbon from water. Creationists seem to make a habit of
taking samples that are known to be useless for C14 dating, presenting
them to scientists for examination, representing them as other than
they are, and then claiming the anomalous dates they get for them as
evidence that C14 dating is all a sham.
While it is true that there *may* be unknown errors in some dating
methods (see the note in section 0 about science "proving" things)
this assertion cannot be used to write off isotope dating as evidence
of an ancient Earth. This is because:
o There are several independent ways of dating objects, including
radio-isotopes, dendrochronology, position in rock strata etc.
These all give a consistent picture.
o Dating methods all point to an *old* Earth, about *half a million*
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times older than the Creationists claim. This requires dating
methods which are accurate up to 6,000 years ago and then suddenly
start to give completely wrong (but still consistent) answers. Even
if our dating methods are out by a factor of 10 or 100, the earth is
still thousands of times older than Creationists claim.
5.4: What is dendrochronology?
The science of dating wood by a study of annual rings.
[These figures and references come from a longer summary e-mailed to
by . Any mistakes are mine. PAJ]
Everyone knows that when you cut down a tree the cut surface shows a
series of concentric rings, and that one of these rings is added each
year as the tree grows. The lighter part of the ring is the summer
growth and the darker part is the winter growth. Hence you can date a
tree by counting the rings.
But the rings are not evenly spaced. Some rings are wider than
others. These correspond to good and poor growing seasons. So if you
have a piece of wood cut down a few thousand years ago, you can date
it by comparing the pattern of rings in your sample to known patterns
in recently cut trees (Bristlecone pines exist which are over 4600
years old, and core samples allow ring counting without killing the
Now for the clever bit. The tree from which your sample came may have
been old before any trees now alive were even saplings. So you can
extend the known pattern of rings back even further, and hence date
samples of wood which are even older. By lining up samples of wood in
this way, dendrochronologists have been able to produce a continuous
pattern of rings going back around 9,900 years. This easily refutes
the chronology of Bishop Usher, who calculated from dates and ages
given in the Bible that the Earth was created in 4004 BC.
Dendrochronology is also valuable in providing calibration data for
C14 and other isotope dating methods. See the previous question for
more details.
References:
"Dendrochronology of the Bristlecone Pine....."
by C. W. Ferguson, 1970. Published in a book called
"Radiocarbon Variations and Absolute Chronology"
This takes the record back 7484 years. I am told that more recent
work published in Nature in 1991 [exact reference anyone?] has pushed
this back to the 9,900 years I mentioned above.
5.5: What is evolution? Where can I find out more?
Many creationist "refutations" of evolution are based on a straw-man
argument. The technique is to misrepresent the theory of evolution,
putting forward an absurd theory as "what scientists claim". The
absurdity of this pseudo-evolution theory is then ridiculed.
* Debunking all these refutations would take a lot of space. Instead
suggest that anyone interested should go and read the FAQ lists over
on talk.origins. These contain good explanations of what evolution
(and isn't). The talk.origins Welcome FAQ is posted every 14 days
news.answers and talk.answers. It contains instructions for FTPing
the other FAQs.
* Books and essays on the subject by Stephen Jay Gould are good, and
"The Blind Watchmaker" by Richard Dawkins is the sort of book that
makes you want to find a creationist to argue with.
Also see "Darwinism Defended: a guide to the Evolution
Controversies"
by Michael Ruse (Addison-Wesley, 1982).
* A. Strahler, _Science and Earth History_ (1987, Prometheus Books,
ISBN 0-87975-414-1, 552 pp).
Strahler's book is heavily referenced, thoroughly indexed, and
covers
most of the common creationist arguments. There are only a handful
of books explicitly aimed at addressing creationist claims, and this
one is the best of the lot. NCSE sells Strahler's book for $47.95
($38.55 for members).
* The NCSE is the only national (American) anti-creationism
organization.
NCSE is affiliated with the AAAS (American Association for the
Advancement of Science -- publishers of the journal _Science_) and
NSTA (National Science Teacher's Association). The organization is
mainly aimed at negating creationists' efforts to get into public
school science classes.
There are no membership requirements. Membership costs $25 per year
($32 foreign, $39 foreign air delivery). All members receive the
quarterly newsletter _NCSE Reports_ and the semi-annual _Creation/
Evolution Journal_, as well as discounts from their book ordering
service. NCSE sells a decent selection of books, taped speeches and
debates, and other relevant material.
NCSE (National Center for Science Education)
P.O. Box 9477 / Berkeley, CA 94709
5.6: "The second law of thermodynamics says....
...that entropy is always increasing. Entropy is a measure of the
randomness in a system. So the universe is getting more and more
disordered. But if this is so, how can life happen, since
evolutionists claim essentially that life is a system that becomes
more ordered with time?"
In fact this is a misstatement of the law. What the Law actually says
is that you can't get work except by exploiting a temperature gradient
(at least, not thermodynamically - forms of potential energy other
than heat may be used - but they can also be used to make a heat
gradient).
Notice that this statement of the second law doesn't mention the word
"disorder". In fact, the principle of entropy increase also does not,
since entropy is a thermodynamic state variable whose definition is
independent of such ill-defined terms as "disorder".
So, where does this idea that entropy is a measure of "disorder" come
from - and what does it mean anyway? Well, the idea comes from a
misstatement of the theory of statistical mechanics. And the meaning
is nil - since the term "disorder" has no precise scientific meaning
anyway.
In statistical mechanics, "entropy" is defined in terms of the number
of distinct energy "microstates" that are possible within the system.
This diversity of states was (and sometimes still is) informally
called "disorder" by some statistical mechanics experts when trying to
convey a feel for the subject to lay audiences. It was never a
technical term - and never had any specific meaning in the theory.
The term "disorder" applied in this way is misleading (or, at best,
meaningless). A room which is messy would be informally called
"disordered" by most people - even if they're ignorant (as most are)
of the entropy of the room. The room might actually have a *higher*
entropy after it has been cleaned.
In addition the laws of thermodynamics only apply to closed systems
(which the Earth is not). Small parts of such a closed system can
show a decrease in entropy, but only if some other part has a higher
entropy. Entropy in the system as a whole will always increase.
For instance, when you freeze water the molecules of H2O line up in
beautifully organised crystals. This organisation does not violate
the second law of thermodynamics because the work done by the freezer
in extracting the heat from the water has caused the total entropy of
the *universe* to rise, even though the entropy of the *water* has
decreased.
Similarly the existence of life on earth has not decreased the entropy
of the universe, so the second law has not been violated.
5.7: How could living organisms arise "by chance"?
This is actually a less sophisticated version of the question above.
Consider the freezing water in the example. The wonderful arrangement
in crystals arises from the random movement of water molecules. But
ice crystals do not require divine intervention as an explanation, and
neither does the evolution of life.
Also, consider a casino. An honest casino makes a profit from
roulette wheels. The result of a spin of a particular wheel is purely
random, but casinos make very predictable profits. So in evolutionary
theory, even though the occurrence of a particular mutation is random,
the overall effect of improved adaptation to the environment over time
The actual origin of life is more problematical. If you stick some
ammonia, methane and a few other simple chemicals into a jar and
subject them to ultraviolet light then after a week or two you get a
mixture of organic molecules, including amino acids (the building
blocks of protein). So current theories propose a "primordial soup"
of dilute organic chemicals. Somewhere a molecule happened to form
which could make copies of itself out of other molecules floating
around in the soup, and the rest is history.
Ilya Prigogine's work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics (for which he
received a Nobel prize) shows that thermodynamic systems far out of
equilibrium tend to produce spontaneous order through what he calls
"dissipative structures". Dissipative structures trade a *local*
increase in orderliness for faster overall increase in entropy. Life
can be viewed as a dissipative structure in exactly this sense --- not
a wildly improbable freak of combinations but as a natural, indeed
inevitable result of the laws of thermodynamics.
For more on this, see the relevant chapter in "Paradigms Lost" by John
L. Casti (Avon paperback, 1989).
5.8: But doesn't the human body seem to be well designed?
Not to me. Consider a few pieces of the human body for a moment. The
back for instance. The reason we poor humans suffer so much from back
problems is that the back is actually not well designed. And what
about human reproduction. Can you imagine any engineer being proud of
having designed *that*?
5.9: What about the thousands of scientists who have become
Creationists?
This outrageous claim is frequently made by creationists, but somehow
these mystery scientists are never identified. It is claimed that
these conversions have been caused by "the evidence", but this
evidence never seems to be forthcoming either.
To test this claim, try looking up "creation" and "bible" in any
biology or paleontology journal index.
Even if this claim were true, it would not be a reason to become a
creationist. The only reason for adopting creationism as a scientific
theory would be the production of convincing evidence.
5.10: Is the Speed of Light Decreasing?
The origin of this claim is a paper by Norman & Setterfield which
plots various historical measurements of the speed of light and claims
to show a steady decrease. Extrapolating backwards, they conclude
that the Universe is only about 6,000 years old.
The first point about their paper is that it was originally
distributed in Stanford Research Institute covers, and is sometimes
described as an SRI report. However SRI did not have anything to do
with the report and are tired of answering queries about it.
Norman & Setterfield appear to have selected their data in order to
support their hypothesis: graphs include only those points which are
close to the "theoretical" curve while omitting points which are not
close to the curve. This curve gives an inverse cosecant relationship
between time and the speed of light. There is no justification for
such a curve: the usual curve for a decaying value is exponential and
this would have fitted the plotted data just as well as the inverse
cosecant chosen by Norman and Setterfield.
5.11: What about Velikovsky?
In the 1950s a Russian psychologist named Immanuel Velikovsky wrote
"Worlds in Collision". This book and its successors are remarkable
for the density of scientific, archeological and mythological howlers.
There are far too many to list here, but most are sufficient to cast
serious doubt on his knowledge of any of these fields, and many are so
large that even one is enough to refute the entire theory.
Much of Velilovsky's proof lies in statements of the form "The reason
for is not known. My theory explains it as follows:". Many of
these reasons were in fact known when Velikovsky wrote, and many
others have been discovered since. None of these reasons bear any
relationship to Velikovksy's theory. The predictive value of the
theory appears to be nil.
The books lack any mathematical analysis at all, which is strange
considering that mathematics is the language of science, especially
physics and astronomy.
Some of the more noticeable howlers are:
1: Strange orbits which cannot be explained in terms of Newtonian
mechanics (or indeed anything less than an angel sitting on a
planet and steering it like a starship!).
2: The Earth's spin being altered suddenly by a close encounter with
Venus, and then restored. Where to begin? Planets just don't do
3: A confusion between hydrocarbons (e.g petrol, mineral oil, tar) and
carbohydrates (e.g sugar, starch, glucose).
4: World-shaking events (literally) which Velikovsky assumes were
accurately recorded by the Israelites but not even noticed anywhere
else, even quite close by.
5: Ancient records (e.g Mayan, Sumerian and Chinese astronomical
observations) which contradict Velikovsky's theory.
Velikovsy's supporters often cite a conspiracy theory to explain why
the world of science refuses to take these ideas seriously. See
section 0 of this FAQ.
For more information, see:
Worlds in Collision
Immanuel Velikovsky
Earth in Upheaval
Immanuel Velikovsky
Velikovsky Reconsidered
The Editors of Pensee
(has a lot of his papers in it, along with other papers pro-
Scientists Confront Velikovsky
Donald Goldsmith
Beyond Velikovsky: The History of a Public Controversy
Henry H. Bauer
Broca's Brain
Carl Sagan
Jim Meritt has posted a long article on
talk.origins which systematically demolishes Velikovsky's ideas. I
don't know if it is archived anywhere. This section attempts to
summarise it. Most discussion of Velikovsky occurs on talk.origins.
Fire-walking
WARNING: Whatever the truth about firewalking may be, it is a
potentially dangerous activity. Do not attempt it without
expert guidance.
[Please could one of the firewalkers on the net contribute a paragraph
or two for this section. PAJ]
6.1: Is fire-walking possible?
Yes. It is possible to walk on a bed of burning wood without being
6.2: Can science explain fire-walking?
There are a number of theories which have been put forward to explain
firewalking. Any or all may be the explanation for a particular
o The dry wood coals used by firewalkers conduct heat very poorly.
The coal itself may be very hot but it will not transfer that heat
to something touching it.
o The coals are a very uneven surface, and the actual surface area of
foot touching the coals is very small. Hence the conduction of heat
is even slower.
o Wood coals have a very low heat capacity, so although they are very
hot there is actually not much heat energy to be transferred to the
o Firewalkers do not spend very much time on the coals, and they keep
moving. Jan Willem Nienhuys adds that about 1
second total contact time per foot seems on the safe side.
o Blood is a good conductor of heat. What heat does get through is
quickly conducted away from the soles of the feet.
o The "Leidenfrost" effect may play a part. This occurs when a cold,
wet object (like a foot) touches a hot, dry object (like a burning
coal). The water vaporises, creating a barrier of steam between the
hot and cold objects. Hence the two objects do not actually touch
and evaporation from the cold object is much slower than might
otherwise be expected. Since steam is a relatively poor conductor
of heat the foot does not get burned. Jearl Walker, of Scientific
American's "The Amateur Scientist" column, explains the Leidenfrost
effect in the August 1977 issue; he walked across coals unharmed and
attributes this to the Leidenfrost effect. Other scientists believe
that the Leidenfrost effect is unimportant in firewalking.
Pain perception is not as simple as everyday experience suggests.
Some people experience great pain without any apparent cause.
Others experience little or no pain despite great injury. Cognitive
and emotional factors seem to be important. A belief that one has
control over the pain seems to reduce the level of pain experienced.
Fear seems to increase it.
Firewalking is usually done in a religious or spiritual context. This
would tend to reduce the level of pain experienced by firewalkers
without affecting the amount of physical damage done to the feet.
Some firewalkers put forward mystical explanations of why firewalking
is possible without serious physical harm. A few skeptics have
challenged these firewalkers to stand on hot metal plates instead of
coals. Others have pointed out that making such a challenge in the
belief that the firewalker would be seriously hurt is of dubious
morality.
New Age
7.1: What do New Agers believe?
An awful lot, it would seem. New Age is not a "religion" in the
traditional sense of a defined set of spiritual beliefs. Instead it
seems to be a label applied to a loose collection of religious cults,
organisations and pseudo-sciences. Some of the more common themes
o Belief that conscious thought molds reality to some extent.
o Belief that religions are not necessarily mutually exclusive.
Eastern religions, especially "cult" religions, seem popular.
Mainstream eastern religions such as Hinduism and Sihkism don't seem
to attract New Age believers. Most New Agers are actively against
organised Christianity, but some favour heretical variants such as
Gnosticism. Almost any pre-Christian religious tradition has
followers in the New Age camp.
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@SUBJECT:sci.skeptic FAQ: The Frequently Questioned Answers
@PACKOUT:10-25-94
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o Divination, especially Tarot, I-Ching, and Western and Chinese
Astrology.
o Green politics, especially the more extreme and mystical "deep
green" movements.
o Flying saucers.
o "Alternative" health (see the earlier section).
o Vegetarianism.
o Pacifism.
o Conspiracy theories to explain why the rest of the world does not
follow the same beliefs.
o Rejection of science and logic as tools for understanding the
universe. A reliance on feelings and intuition as guides to action.
o Pseudo-scientific jargon. New Agers talk about "rebalancing energy
fields" and "vibrational frequencies". These sound vaguely
scientific but in fact have no meaning at all.
Bear in mind that not all of these are bad just because New Age people
follow them. And by the same token, a person who follows one strand
of New Age belief may not follow any others.
Many people are of the belief that Satanism and New Age are
synonymous. This is incorrect. First, many (prob